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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: July 1992
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00278
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1253 Fifield Hall CainesvilleL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 92-7


July 20, 1992


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. New Publications.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Tomatillo.

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Weed Control in the Off Season.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida's Largest Vegetables July 1992 Update.





Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely
for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
II InPPARTMFNT nP AArRI1r IITIIRF ANn RFAniRn ; nP l PIMl PnMAui Cnflhme arrtcoOATlut/


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIOA


l UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA j


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


I I I









I NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

August 26-28, 1992. State Master
Gardener Continued Training Conference.
Reitz Union, University of Florida.
(Contact Kathleen Ruppert).

September 9, 1992. Tomato
Institute. Ritz-Carlton Hotel. Contact
Charles Vavrina, SWFREC, Immokalee.


B. Publications.

4-H Horticulture slides are now
available for loan and return through Ann
Hanson's office in IFAS Educational Media
and Services (904) 392-2411. The slides
are available by commodity area and are
listed as follows: Fruits and Nuts (ST209) -
80 slides; Vegetables (ST210) 128 slides;
Flowers and Foliage (ST350) 117 slides;
and Ornamentals (ST349) 131 slides.
They will be sent to you, upon request to
Ann Hanson, in semi-rigid transparent
vinyl sheets. If questions, other than
ordering, please contact Kathleen Ruppert
of the Environmental Horticulture Dept.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-07)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Tomatillo

A small trial was established in the
spring 1992 season at GCREC to determine
the feasibility of commercial tomatillo
(Physalis ixocarpa) production following a
request for information from a local
wholesaler. Tomatillo, also know as husk
tomato, is a principle ingredient in salsa
verde, and is used in numerous other ways
in Mexican cuisine.
Since time was short, seed were
extracted from fruit purchased in a local


supermarket. Seeds were planted on 10
February and the transplants grown by a
commercial plant grower. The transplants
were set in the field on 16 March at the
ends of beds in a tomato experiment. The
beds were on 5 ft centers and in-row
spacing was 2.5 ft.
The plants were very vigorous and
required frequent tying. Even though the
adjacent tomatoes were some weeks ahead,
the tomatilloes soon outgrew them. Fruit
was harvested on 27 May, 4 and 16 June.
The total marketable yield was equivalent
to 17,131 lb/acre and there were 12.78
fruit/lb. At the time the seeds were
obtained, I was not aware that hybrid
tomatilloes were available. From the
variation in plant and fruit types that were
produced, it was apparent that seeds were
obtained from fruit from hybrid plants.
This may have resulted in yields that were
lower than those that could have been
obtained from plants of a pure line or
hybrid.
How did the yield obtained at
GCREC compare with yields obtained
elsewhere? In eight times of transplanting
trials and two fertilizer trials with three
hybrids in each trial in Louisiana (1), yields
above 15,000 lb/acre occurred in only three
trials. The highest yield of 23,000 lb/acre
was produced by 'Rendidor' in a trial that
was transplanted on 1 Sept. 1990. It was
reported that 'Rendidor" produces about
25,000 lb/acre in Mexico.
What about quality? A sample of
fruit was sent to the wholesaler who made
the original inquiry. He indicated that
fruit size and condition was generally
superior to what was received from his
usual out-of-state sources.
From this very preliminary trial, it
appears that additional trials are
warranted. Available varieties, spacing, and
fertilization are among the factors that
should be evaluated.









References:

1. Can, F., M.C. Rush, R.A. Valverde,
J.L. Griffin, R.N. Storey, WA.
Young, W.J. Blackman and P.W.
Wilson. 1991-92. Tomatillo: a
potential new vegetable crop for
Louisiana. Louisiana Agriculture
35(2):21-24.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 92-07)


MI. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Weed Control in the off
Season.

Weed control in vegetable crops
during the coming seasons can be improved
and made a lot easier with some attention
to the weed growth in the fields during the
off season.
This is the time to concentrate on
any hard-to-control weeds, especially
perennial weeds such as sedges.
Allowing fields to grow up in weeds
during the summer or off season will allow
these weeds to seed and proliferate.
Increasing the weed seed bank in the soil
can cause problems for many years.
Weed growth in the field can also
increase the insects and diseases that feed
and breed on these plants and that can
move or infect the vegetable crop during
the season.
There are several ways to minimize
the weed growth and spread during the off
season.

Fallowing.
Fallowing is one method of reducing
the weeds in a field. This is particularly
effective for the hard-to-control perennials.
Fallowing can be accomplished either
mechanically by plowing or disking, by
chemically fallowing or by a combination of
both.
Cutting annual and biennial weeds
under before they seed can reduce the


population of these weeds. This will have
to be done several times during the off
season since seeds in the soil will
germinate, reducing the weed seed bank.
Perennial weeds that reproduce
from vegetative parts (such as rhizomes,
stolons, bulbs or tubers) can be spread,
however, through mechanical fallow.
Several herbicides are labeled for
use in a fallowing system. The burndown
and systemic types, such as paraquat and
glyphosate, leave no residue. In a great
majority of situations these can be used
very effectively alone as broadcast or spot
treatments, or in combination with
mechanical fallowing.
Several residual herbicides are also
labeled for certain cropping patterns. Use
of these types is restricted to the labeling
and by the crop that will be following their
usage.

Cover Crops.
A second method of reducing weed
growth during the off season is by the use
of cover crops. Cover cropping can reduce
weeds by simply having the cover crop out
compete the weeds.
Care should be taken in selecting a
cover crop that will not increase insect and
disease pressure to the following crops.
The use of sorghum-sudan grass
mixes, and certain legumes in selected
cases have worked well in holding weed
pressures to a minimum. Long-term
rotations with pasture grasses have also
been successful.
A little thought and work can save
money and maintain yields if off season
weed control is accomplished correctly.

(Stall, Vegetarian 92-07)





-3-


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida's largest vegetables July 1992 update.

Each year I summarize the current list of Florida's largest vegetables in the official
record. This spring has been a bumper season for growing big vegetables, with records being
set and broken faster than I have been able to document them. In fact, there may be a new
one on the way as I write this article, so be sure to check with me before doing any paper
work based on the following list.


Florida Record-size Vegetables July 6, 1992 update
J. M. Stephens Vegetable Crops Specialist, University of Florida 392-7916


Vegetable


Size


County


Grower


Date


Beet
Boniato
Broccoli
Cabbage
Calabaza
Cantaloupe
Carrot
Cassava
Cauliflower
Chicory
Collard
Corn, sweet
Cucumber
Cucumber
Eggplant
Jicama
Kohlrabi
Okra
Onion
Pepper
Potato, irish
Potato, sweet
Pumpkin
Radish, S.
Radish, W.
Radish, Daikon
Rutabaga
Squash, hub.
Squash, banana
Squash, scal.
Squash, spaghetti
Squash, zucc.
Taro


5 lb. 0 oz.
12 lb. 10 oz.
1 lb. 14 oz.
19 lb. 7 oz.
36 lb. 8 oz.
29 lb. 8 oz.
1 lb. 10 oz.
8 lb. 14 oz.
15 lb. 6 oz.
1 lb. 3 oz.
8 ft. 5 in.
1 lb. 6 oz.
4 lb. 7 oz.
27 inches
4 lb. 8 oz.
9 lb.
9 lb. 2 oz.
17 ft. 6 in.
3 lb. 11 oz.
1 lb. 1 oz.
2 lb. 13 oz.
20 lb.
242 lb.
3 lb. 12 oz.
25 lb.
23 lb. 5 oz.
8 lb. 11 oz.
88 lb. 12 oz.
39 lb.
2 lb. 1 oz.
25 lb. 14 oz.
10 lb. 8.16 oz.
8 oz.


Duval
Seminole
Alachua
Suwannee
Seminole
Levy
Alachua
Highlands
Alachua
Alachua
Lake
Suwannee
Suwannee
Suwannee
Palm Beach
Palm Beach
Hernando
Hernando
Manatee
Palm Beach
St. Johns
Duval
Suwannee
Palm Beach
Hillsborough
Alachua
Nassau
Columbia
Lake
Alachua
St. Johns
Gilchrist
Palm Beach


Brinson
Phillips
Roe
Graham
Chitty
Bumgardner
Lazin
Albonetti
Severino
Lazin
Raczkowski
Graham
Graham
Graham
Laluppa
Oppe
Farrell
Crosby
Geraldson
Amestoy
Kight
Mullins
McDonald
Vanderlaan
Breslow
Neilson
Johnson
Byers
Blehar
Heidman
Jones
Agee
Oppe


06/06/92
03/05/91
04/27/90
06/29/92
08/16/91
07/09/91
02/13/86
04/03/92
02/19/92
02/13/86
12/05/90
06/28/92
06/29/92
06/29/92
01/17/92
01/17/92
07/19/90
12/10/86
08/07/90
02/02/90
05/23/89
01/15/87
07/03/90
01/31/90
1977
03/28/92
06/28/92
07/26/90
09/26/91
05/20/90
06/19/92
06/22/92
01/17/92




-4-


Vegetable

Tomato
Turnip
Watermelon
Yam (True)


Size


3 lb.
14 lb. 4 oz.
170 lb.
9 lb. 11 oz.


County


Marion
St. Johns Co.
Levy
Palm Beach


Grower


Spangler
Hensel
Bumgardner
Oppe


County summary (37 total current records):


Alachua
Palm Beach
Suwannee
St. Johns
Duval
Hernando
Lake
Levy


Seminole 2
Columbia 1
Gilchrist 1
Highlands 1
Hillsborough 1
Manatee 1
Marion 1
Nassau 1


(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-07)




Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


Mr. J.M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor


Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor Editor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D.N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor


Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor


Date


07/11/90
03/06/90
07/09/91
01/17/92




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