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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00274
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1992
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00274
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


=UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA VEGETARIAN

h- A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication


w


Vegetable Crops Department 1253 Fifield Hall Gainesville,FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 92-3


March 12, 1992


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
B. New Publications

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Nitrogen in Vegetable Production.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

';.: A. Command Label on Peppers.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida's Record-size Veggies 1991.




Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
/ ; .Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely
: for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.










The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,


I









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

April 13-16, 1992. Joint Tomato
Quality Workshop and Tomato Breeders
Roundtable. Sarasota, FL. Contact Dr. J.
W. Scott, Gulf Coast REC for Tomato
Breeders Roundtable and Dr. Brecht,
Vegetable Crops Dept., UF, for Tomato
Quality Workshop.
May 28, 1992. Organic vegetable
gardening demonstration and tour day.
Organic Gardens Research and Education
Park, Fifield Hall, UF. (Contact Jim
Stephens).
November 16-20, 1992. National
Symposium for Stand Establishment in
Horticultural Crops. Sheraton Harbor
Place, Ft. Myers. (Contact Charles
Vavrina, SWFREC Immokalee).

B. New Publications.

SP 103 Vegetable Gardening Guide
is now available as a for-sale item. Price is
$1.25, plus $.08 per copy sales tax, ($1.33
per copy). The Vegetable Gardening Guide
(formerly Cir 104) has a new format in
larger type. The 4 page gardening guide
opens to 19x25 inch planting guide poster
on reverse side.
Agents needing large amounts for
walk-in clientele must make arrangements
for bulk orders through IFAS Publications.
Refer individuals to purchase copies by
check or money order. No cash. Send to:
Vegetable Gardening Guide, P.O. Box
110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011 (IFAS
Publications).

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Nitrogen in Vegetable
Production.

Nitrate and ammonium are the
major inorganic nitrogen (N) sources taken
up by plants. The ultimate source of this
N is the atmosphere which contains almost


80% N gas. To be used by plants, N gas
must be converted to forms of N that
plants can take up. The atmospheric N is
made available to plants by several
mechanisms including fixation in the
nodules of legumes, and by fixation
through the manufacture of fertilizers.
This plant-N can be deposited in the soil as
a component of organic matter when the
plant decays or via manure from animals
that eat plants. The N thus enters a
complex set of interconnecting reactions
that make up what is known as the N
cycle.
N is used in plants in the formation
of various molecules such as amino acids
which are the building blocks for proteins.
N is found in chlorophyll, the green
pigment in plants and plants deficient in N
are light green due to reduced chlorophyll.
Normal plants will have from 2.0 to 5.0% N
in dried, most-recently-matured leaves.
Young plants may have concentrations
higher than this and deficiency symptoms
may not appear for some plants until the N
concentration drops to less than 2.0%.
Sometimes yield may have already been
sacrificed. Plant tissue analysis is
therefore a good tool for following the N
status of the plant and projecting
deficiencies. Laboratory "total N" analyses
usually account for the ammoniacal portion
of the N in the plant since that is usually
the largest pool. However lately, some
workers have been calibrating plant sap
test kits that can test for nitrate-N. This
test is a "snap-shot" of the N status and if
properly calibrated can be a quick and
accurate method for determining needs for
sidedress N.
N fertilizers can be broadly grouped
as either natural organic, which includes
materials of animal or plant origin, and the
chemical fertilizers which are usually
synthetic. Natural organic materials
supply N in addition to other nutrients
(such as phosphorus) and can be thought of
as mixed fertilizers. Usually the N content
is variable and low so that large amounts of
these materials need to be applied to









satisfy the plant's N requirement. The
associated nutrients may or may not be
needed. N in some of these materials can
be made available to plants quickly,
especially with warm moist soils, so there
is an environmental concern when the N
mineralization rate exceeds the plant's N
uptake capacity. Systems such as plastic
mulch can be used to reduce leaching of
this N. Natural organic materials are a
good source of nutrients for vegetable
crops. However, growers need to consider
costs, nutrient content, and mineralization
rates so that these materials can be used in
an economical and nonpolluting fashion.
Urea, ammonium nitrate,ammonium
sulfate, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate,
sodium nitrate, and various urea and
ammonium nitrate solutions are among the
most commonly used chemical N materials
for vegetables. In most cases the N form,
nitrate or ammoniacal, has little effect on
crop performance. In warm moist soils,
ammoniacal N is rapidly nitrified to nitrate
and most vegetables, especially young
plants, can take up ammoniacal N. Most
research shows little differences among the
N forms or sources for vegetable yield or
quality as long as the fertilizer is used at
proper rates with careful placement.
Rates of N fertilizer to use for
vegetables are determined by field research
on soils known to give good responses to
added N fertilizers. N rates in the range of
80 to 150 pounds N per acre should be
satisfactory for most vegetable crops. Even
on our sandy soils in Florida, we rarely see
responses above 150 pounds N per acre.
Sometimes excess rainfall or irrigation will
drive the N requirement higher. Proper
water management is a prerequisite for
optimum N management.
N management efficiency is
increased by covering the fertilizer with
plastic mulch, by split applications by side-
dressing, or by timely injections through an
irrigation system. Some research has
shown benefits from some of the
controlled-release materials such as sulfur-
coated urea. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate


analyses or plant tissue testing can help
schedule split-applications of N and is
being used in some states for agronomic
crops.
Poorly managed N programs can
reduce yields and quality and could result
in pollution of groundwater. Already,
government regulations are creeping into
our farming operations regarding fertilizer
use. These regulations will probably be
based largely on university research.
Growers using more than 20% more
fertilizer than that recommended by
universities might want to investigate the
situation with your Extension staff. I am
not assuming the Universities are correct,
but large discrepancies in actual fertilizer
use and recommendations should be
resolved by the agriculturists, not by the
regulators.
Excess fertilization with N can
reduce fruit quality and yields. Excess N,
can increase gray wall, cat-facing, and
blossom-end rot in tomato. Excess N can
reduce fruiting in many vegetables
especially if the excess fertilization
happens early in the season. Excess N
leads to thick foliage which can reduce
effectiveness of pesticide programs by
limiting spray coverage.
N fertilizer is responsible for some
of the most dramatic responses we see in
vegetable crops. Sometimes these
responses are good, but in poorly managed
programs, the responses can be
undesirable. With the regulators starting
to peer over our shoulders, perhaps we
need to examine our management of N for
our vegetable crops.
(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 92-03)

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Command Label on Peppers.

Clomozone (Command 4EC) has a
label for use on peppers (all varieties
including bell, hot, pimento, and sweet,
except banana) as a preemergent soil









applied treatment for the control of annual
grasses and broadleaf weeds.
A single application may be made at
the maximum rate of 2 pints (1 lb. ai) per
acre to the soil surface prior to seeding or
transplanting the pepper. Incorporate the
herbicide to the depth of 1 inch or less and
place the seed or transplant below the
chemical barrier when planting.
The applicator must be aware of and
follow the special application precautions
on the label. Do not apply within 1500 ft.
of sensitive crops or plants. Do not apply
when wind conditions favor drift.
Reports of sensitivity of some
varieties of pepper have been reported in
northern states.
A variety screening trial will be held
in Florida this spring season. Until this
trial is completed, the use of Command on
peppers cannot be recommended in this
state by the University of Florida.

(Stall, Vegetarian 92-03)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida's Record-size
Veggies 1991.

Each year I give an update of the
most current weights for Florida's largest
vegetable specimens submitted to me for
the official record book.
Note that there have been no
entries for several of the more common
vegetables, so if you want to get your
county in the record book, check out
Beans, Celery, Corn (sweet), Endive,
Lettuce, Mustard, English pea, Southern
Pea, Spinach, and Okra pod-length.
Keep in mind that all records must
be verified and submitted through the
County Extension Agent, and all the rules
must be followed. Each County should
have the rules on file. For those who do
not, I can send the official rules and form
for submitting an entry.
The following is the list of the
records as of March 1, 1992.


Florida Record-size Vegetables
(through March 1, 1992)


Vegetable
Bean, bush
Bean, lima
Bean, pole
Beet
Boniata
Broccoli
Cabbage
Calabaza
Cantaloupe
Carrot
Cassava
Cauliflower
Celery
Chicory
Collard
Corn, sweet
Cucumber
Eggplant
Endive


Size County
None submitted as of this date.
None submitted as of this date.
None submitted as of this date.
1 lb. 14 oz. Palm Beach
12 lb. 10 oz. Seminole
1 lb. 14 oz. Alachua
13 lb. Palm Beach
36 lb. 8 oz. Seminole
29 lb. 8 oz. Levy
1 lb. 10 oz. Alachua
7 lb. 13 oz. Palm Beach
15 lb. 6 oz. Alachua
None submitted as of this date.
1 lb. 3 oz. Alachua
8 ft. 5 in. Lake
None submitted as of this date.
3 lb. 6 oz.- 21.5 in. Orange
4 lb. 8 oz. Palm Beach
None submitted as of this date.


Grower


Fritz
Phillips
Roe
Boynton
Chitty
Bumgardner
Lazin
Ozaki
Severino

Lazin
Raczkowski

McClellan
Laluppa


Date


01/24/90
03/05/91
04/27/90
01/18/88
08/16/91
07/09/91
02/13/86
01/17/92
02/19/92

02/13/86
12/05/90

06/18/90
01/17/92









Vegetable
Jicama
Kohlrabi
Lettuce
Mustard
Okra
Onion
Pea, English
Pea, Southern
Pepper
Potato, irish
Potato, sweet
Pumpkin
Radish, S.
Radish, W.
Radish, Daikon
Rutabaga
Spinach
Squash, hub.
Squash, banana
Squash, seal.
Squash, zucc.
Taro
Tomato
Turnip
Watermelon
Yam


Size County
9 lb. Palm Beach
9 lb. 2 oz. Hernando
None submitted as of this date.
None submitted as of this date.
17 ft. 6 in. Hernando
3 lb. 11 oz. Manatee
None submitted as of this date.
None submitted as of this date.
1 lb. 1 oz. Palm Beach
2 lb. 13 oz. St. Johns
20 lb. Duval
242 lb. Suwannee
3 lb. 12 oz. Palm Beach
25 lb. Hillsborough
9 lb. 10 oz. Palm Beach
6 lb. 10 oz. Orange
None submitted as of this date.
88 lb. 12 oz. Columbia
39 lb. Lake
2 lb. 1 oz. Alachua
8 lb. 4 oz. Duval
8 oz. Palm Beach
3 lb. Marion
14 lb. 4 oz. St. Johns Co.
170 lb. Levy
9 lb. 11 oz. Palm Beach


Grower
Oppe
Farrell


Crosby
Geraldson


Amestoy
Kight
Mullins
McDonald
Vanderlaan
Breslow
Yee
Mickle

Byers
Blehar
Heidman
Schmidt
Oppe
Spangler
Hensel
Bumgardner
Oppe


There have been 18 new records set since I last reported in July, 1990. Here is a breakdown
by county of records held:


County
Palm Beach
Alachua
Duval
Hernando
Lake
Levy
Orange


No. Records
10
5
2
2
2
2
2


County
Seminole
St. Johns
Columbia
Hillsborough
Marion
Manatee
Suwannee


No. Records
2
2
1
1
1
1
1


(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-03)


Date
01/17/92
07/19/90


12/10/86
08/07/90


02/02/90
05/23/89
01/15/87
07/03/90
01/31/90
1977
02/02/90
04/08/91

07/26/90
09/26/91
05/20/90
06/09/90
01/17/92
07/11/90
03/06/90
07/09/91
01/17/92





-5-



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor & Editor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth Dr. D. N. Maynard
As oc. Professor Professor


Dr. A. Sargent Dr. W. M. Stall
Assst. Professor Professor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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