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Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: January 1992
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Volume ID: VID00272
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA VEG TAIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1253 Fifield Hall Cainesville,FL 32611 Telephone 3922134

Vegetarian 92-1 January 15, 1992

Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
(B. New Publications.
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. New Horticulture Journal.
B. Varieties for Spring and Fall Production.
C. Response of Eggplant to Potassium (Yield and Leaf-
Tissue-K).
D. Florida Seedsmen and Garden Supply
Association/IFAS Seed Seminar.
E. Handling and Shipping Vegetable Transplants.
A /II I. VEGETABLE GARDENING

: i "A. Effects of Organic Amendments and Cultivar on
S ( Southern Peas, Fall, 1991, Gainesville.

SNote: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
:. Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
S-The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely
for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.









The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMIRSinMFRR rnCAPRATIrJNA









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
March 5-6, 1992. Postharvest
Horticulture Institute. University Centre
Hotel, Gainesville. (Contact Steve
Sargent).
March 9-12, 1992. Harvest and
Postharvest Handling of Horticultural
Crops. Tour of Central and South Florida.
(Contact Steve Sargent).
April 13-16, 1992. Joint Tomato
Quality Workshop and Tomato Breeders
Roundtable. Sarasota, FL. Contact Dr. J.
W. Scott, Gulf Coast REC for Tomato
Breeders Roundtable and Dr. Brecht,
Vegetable Crops Dept., UF, for Tomato
Quality Workshop.
March 15-19, 1992. Second
International Symposium on Specialty and
Exotic Vegetable Crops. Miami (contact
Don Maynard).
November 16-20, 1992. National
Symposium for Stand Establishment in
Horticultural Crops. Sheraton Harbor
Place, Ft. Myers. (Contact Charles
Vavrina, SWFREC Immokalee).

B. New Publications.
Stand Establishment of Vegetable
Crops Conference. C. S. Vavrina, SWFREC
Research Report IMM-91-14.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. New Horticulture Journal.
The American Society for
Horticultural Science is publishing a new
journal (starting out as a quarterly) dealing
with horticultural research. The new
journal has a goal of supplying timely
discussions of recent research and general
topics of immediate use to horticulturists.
The information will be in a more useable
format than most other scientific journals.
Each issue will have a "theme" such
as 'water management" and will contain
articles from most commodity and
discipline areas. Commercial advertising is
also a part of this new journal. I have a


few copies of the first issue, some of which
already have been mailed to potential
subscribers around the state. If you (or
someone you know) might like to receive a
copy, please call me.
(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 92-01)

B. Varieties for Spring and Fall
Production.
It is generally thought that
vegetable crop yields are higher from a
spring than a fall crop in Florida. To test
this idea, the average yield of the same
tomato entries, that were included in
spring and fall IFAS trials was calculated.
Trials at Bradenton and Ft. Pierce from
1986-90, Quincy from 1988-90, and
Immokalee in 1986, 1989, and 1990 were
included. Overall average yields in the
spring were 2108 cartons/A, whereas fall
yields were 1497 cartons/A.
In like manner, average pepper
yields were calculated from Immokalee
data in 1986 and from Bradenton data in
1989 and 1990. Spring yields averaged
1370 cartons/A, whereas fall yields were
only 742 cartons/A.
For the most part, the difference in
spring and fall tomato and pepper yields
can be attributed to better growing
conditions in the spring and higher disease
pressure, especially bacterial spot, in the
fall season.
'Sunny' tomato has been the
standard variety and was included in all of
the tomato trials. The overall average
yield for 'Sunny' was 2223 cartons/A in the
spring and 1473 cartons/A in the fall.
Likewise, 'Early Calwonder' has been a
standard pepper variety. Overall average
yields in the spring were 1220 cartons/A,
whereas only 598 cartons/A were produced
in the fall.
Were there any exceptions to the
general trend of higher spring than fall
yields? Yes. Average yields of all tomato
varieties included in both spring and fall
trials were higher in the fall trial in 1986
at Immokalee and at Ft. Pierce in 1988,
1989, and 1990.





-2-


Tomato Varieties That Produced High Fall Yields in Some IFAS Trials. 1986-1990.
Yield for Trials
Overall Average When Average Fall
No. of Trials Yields Yields > Spring Yields
Fall yields Spring Fall Spring Fall
Variety Entered > Spring yields --------------------- (cartons/A) ---------------------
Bingo 2 2 2407 2511 2407 2511
Duke 8 4 1876 1470 1442 1860
FTE 12 8 3 1986 1262 1251 1546
Solar Set' 9 2 1956 1721 1618 2632
Sunny 14 3 2223 1473 1446 2219
'Trials were not conducted to take advantage of 'Solar Set' heat setting characteristic which
enhances early, but not necessarily total yields.


Although the general tendency is
for lower yields from fall than from spring
plantings, the forgoing examples illustrate
that there are specific exceptions. Certain
varieties like 'Bingo' and 'Duke' performed
relatively well in fall IFAS trials. This
points to the possibility of identifying
and/or developing varieties especially for
fall plantings in Florida. However, much
more work is required before this can be
done with a high degree of accuracy.
(Maynard, Vegetarian 92-01)

C. Response of Eggplant to
Potassium (Yield and Leaf-Tissue-K).
Over the past few years, we have
been attempting to evaluate responses of
several vegetables to K. Little research has
been done on K with vegetables in Florida.
One such study was done in the spring of
1991 at the Suwannee Valley Agricultural
Research and Education Center near Live
Oak, FL by George and Bob Hochmuth, Ed
Hanlon, and Michael Donley. The soil used
for this study had a prefertilization
Mehlich-I index for K of 21 ppm (on the
lower extreme of "low" on our current
calibration). Therefore, the soil was not
expected to contribute significantly to the
crop requirement for K Our current
recommendation for K in this situation
would be 160 lb KO0 per acre (7260 linear
bed feet) according to circular 806
"Commercial Vegetable Crop Nutrient
Requirements".


We used the cultivar "Classic"
planted on plastic mulched beds on 5 ft
centers (8712 linear bed feet of crop per
acre). Transplants were spaced at 18
inches in the row and were staked like
tomatoes. Beds were 24 inches across the
top. The crop was irrigated by drip
irrigation to maintain a tensiometer
reading of -12 centibars at the 6 to 8 inch
depth in the bed between two plants.
Fertilizer treatments were 0, 50,
100, 150, 200 and 250 lb K20 per acre
calculated based on 8712 linear bed feet in
an acre. For beds on six-ft centers (7260
LBF per acre), these rates would have been
0, 42, 83, 125, 167 and 167 lb K2O per acre.
Fertilizer was broadcast and rototilled into
the bed.
Transplants were set on March 14,
1991 and were harvested 5 times beginning
29 May, 1991. Most recently matured
leaves and petioles were sampled 5 times
and analyzed for N and K in the whole
dried leaf and in the petiole sap.
Marketable yield increased almost
50% as K rate was increased from 0 to 100
lb K20 per acre (Table 1). There was a
significant quadratic response to K. Fitting
a quadratic equation to the yield data
yielded a maximum at 145 lb K20 per acre
(120 lb per acre on 7260 LBF). Fitting a
"linear-plateau" function (a more
biologically realistic approach) yielded a
critical K20 rate of 100 lb K20 per acre
(about 80 lb K20 per 7260 LBF). Total









yields reached 1500 33-lb bushels per acre
(8712 LBF of crop).
Leaf-K analyses showed that plants
at the 0 lb treatment were below the 3.5%
K critical level for plants at early fruiting
(30 Apr.). Since yields leveled off at 100 lb
KAO per acre (8712 LBF), whole-leaf K
values for this treatment through the
season in Table 1 could be taken as near
critical values for seasonal monitoring.
Normally producing eggplants start out at
4.6% K and decrease to 2.7 to 3.0% after
the last of five harvests. Petiole sap K
concentrations (Table 1) were highly
correlated with whole-leaf K.



Table 1. Effects of K rate on K concentration
eoalant scrino 1991 Ti.vt Ofllr FT.


Based on this data, it appears that
our current recommendations of K for
eggplant are more than enough for a five-
harvest season or perhaps other multiple
harvest seasons yielding up to 1500
bushels. The data indicates that even
reducing K20 rates to 120 lb per acre (7260
LBF) would not result in yield sacrifices.
This is because yield leveled off at 100 lb
K20 per acre (80 lb KO per acre = 7260
LBF) by the linear plateau statistical
method.
For those interested, 120 Ibs
nitrogen per acre (= 8712 LBF) were
applied. The whole-leaf-N and petiole sap
Nitrate-N values for the 100 and 150 KO2
rates are presented in Table 2.

of most-recently-matured leaves and petiole sap of


Kg0 rate Yield Whole-leaf K (%) Petiole sap K (ppm)
(Ib/A) (33-lb 30 Apr 23 May 7 Jun 18 Jun 2 Jul 30 Apr 23 May 7 Jun 18 Jun 2 Jul
bu/A)
0 935 3.7 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.7 3800 1400 900 1700 3000
50 1140 4.3 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 4300 3400 3500 3000 4100
100 1390 4.6 3.8 3.2 2.9 2.7 4800 4000 3900 3800 4400
150 1500 4.6 4.1 3.8 3.2 3.1 4800 4200 4600 4000 4800
200 1360 4.8 4.4 4.1 3.4 3.4 4900 4900 4600 4600 5100
250 1300 4.9 4.4 4.3 3.6 3.3 4900 4800 4900 4600 4800
Signif. L**Q**
Planted 14 Mar. Critical K at 30 Apr. = 3.5%
Mehlich-I-K = 21 ppm (low).


Table 2. Leaf and sap nitrogen values for the 100 and 150 lb
K.0 per acre treatments, eggplant. spring 1991, Live Oak, FL.
Date
K.,0 rate 30 Apr 23 May 7 June 18 June 2 July
-------------------- Leaf-N (%) ---------------------
100 5.4 5.0 4.4 4.1 3.4
150 5.4 5.1 4.7 3.9 3.2
-------------------- Sap N03-N (ppm) ---------------
100 1560 1370 1000 400 150
150 1510 1170 1110 300 100

Critical % N in whole leaf on 30 Apr. = 4.2 to 5.0%.


(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 92-01)




-4-


D. Florida Seedsmen and
Garden Supply Association/IFAS Seed
Seminar.
Holiday Inn West Gainesville
Registration Fee: $10.00

February 12
Moderator: C. S. Vavrina, SWFREC,
Immokalee.
1:20 Opening Remarks: Rick Anderson,
FSGSA President.
1:30 Seed Enhancements, Priming, &
Coating Technology: Zeb James,
East Coast Sales Rep., Incotec,
Arapahoe, NC.
2:00 Seed Production The Industry
Viewpoint: Bob Heisey, Associate
Director, Solanaceous Crops,
Asgrow, San Juan Bautista, CA.
2:30 Seed Production The Breeders
Viewpoint: Bryant Long, V.P.
Product Development, Abbott &
Cobb, West Palm Beach.

COFFEE BREAK

3:15 What Does the Transplant
Producer Want from the Seed
Company? Hugh Poole, Vegetable
Division Manager, Speedling, Sun
City.
3:45 Greenhouse Vegetable Growers -
Industry Assessment: Bob
Hochmuth, Multi-county Extension
Agent, Live Oak.
4:15 Transplants vs. Direct Seeding:
Ken Shuler, Palm Beach County
Extension, Delray Beach.
6:00 Hospitality Hour
7:00 Banquet
"Business, Not as Usual" Jacob Vos,
Executive Director, Worldwide
Vegetables Asgrow, A perspective
on industry challenges of the '90s.
February 13
Moderator: C. S. Vavrina, SWFREC,
Immokalee.
8:00 Plant Genetic Engineering &
Legislative Concerns: Stephen


Muench, Manager, Government
Affairs, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO.
8:30 Cover Crops for South Florida:
C. Chambliss, Agronomy Dept.,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
9:00 Future Studies in Bahiagrasses:
S. West, USDA, Plant Physiologist,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

COFFEE BREAK

9:45 Are University Variety Trials
Valuable? Panel Discussion:
Terry Howe-GCREC, Bradenton
Don Maynard-GCREC, Bradenton
Ted Winsberg-Green Cay Farms,
Boynton Beach
D. C. McClure-West Coast Tomato,
Inc. Palmetto
Tom Williams, Rogers NK, Naples
10:45 Should Variety Trials Be
Funded? Panel Discussion
Terry Howe-GCREC, Bradenton
Don Maynard-GCREC, Bradenton
Leonard Douglas-Asgrow, Lake City
Rick Anderson-Peto Seed, Deltona
Jonathan Stevenson-Rogers N-K,
Naples
(Vavrina, Vegetarian 92-01)

E. Handling and Shipping
Vegetable Transplants.
Vegetable transplants grown in
Florida can be successfully shipped over
long distances when handled properly.
Yields have been positively correlated with
seedling vigor at time of transplanting, and
vigor begins with healthy plants at the
greenhouse which are handled and shipped
at the optimal age for the particular crop.
The primary factors which reduce
transplant vigor during handling and
shipping are mechanical injury,
environmental conditions, and length of
storage prior to transplanting.
Mechanical injury occurs during
removal of the plants from the tray.
Traditionally, groups of 50 plants were
bundled for shipping. About 20 years ago,





-5-


this practice was discontinued since
excessive breakage of plant stems and
leaves occurred. Currently, plants which
are to be shipped over any distance are
pulled from the tray and packed loosely in
containers (wooden, wirebound cratesor
waxed, corrugated cartons); plants shipped
within Florida are often directly shipped in
trays. Injury can also occur when
transplants are over-packed in the
container. Containerized transplants left
in trays under simulated handling
conditions had better shoot and root
development than those which were pulled
and packed in cartons.
Environmental conditions during
shipping can also reduce transplant vigor.
Plants should be cooled to the lowest safe
temperature prior to shipping and
subsequently handled under refrigeration.
Tests have determined that tomato
transplants ('Walter') grown in cell trays
could be stored up to 10 days at 10 to 13C
(50 to 55F) and for 5 days or less at 5C
(40F) with normal yields. Recent studies
indicated that 'Sunny' transplants could be
stored more than 2 days at 8 to 9C (46 to
48F) to delay shoot growth and premature
flower initiation. Bare-rooted strawberry
plants can be stored for 8 to 10 months in
polyethylene bags at -1 to OC (30 to 32F).
Packing plants too densely in the
carton can reduce subsequent yields.
Increasing the tomato transplant count
from 1000 to 1250 per carton resulted in
lower plant survival after shipping and 13%
lower yields. The lower yields were
attributed to poor air circulation within the
plants the densely packed plants were 4C
(39F) warmer after transit than those
packed at 1000 plants/carton. They also
found increased decay on plants which
were packed wet. As with any leafy organ,
transplants can be injured by exposure to
ethylene gas during storage and handling.
Symptoms of exposure to ethylene include
leaf abscision and senescence, and loss of
chlorophyll (yellowing). Sources of
ethylene contamination include exhaust
from propane-powered forklifts during


loading and unloading operations and
shipping/storage with ethylene-producing
crops such as tomato fruits.
When transplants are handled,
ambient temperatures are often
significantly higher than optimal shipping
temperatures. This field heat must be
removed prior to shipping, since
refrigerated trailers do not have the
refrigeration capacity to remove excess
heat the refrigeration units are designed
to maintain a preset temperature. The
potential exists to use high velocity,
refrigerated air to rapidly precool
containerized transplants in trays prior to
shipping or packing in crates or cartons.
Pulled transplants could also be forced-air
precooled on pallets if loosely packed in
cartons designed with adequate ventilation.
Forced-air precooling could also reduce
decay during shipping by drying the plants.
Contact me for references relating to
handling and shipping transplants.
(Sargent, Vegetarian 92-01)

IH. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Effects of Organic
Amendments and Cultivar on
Southern Peas, Fall, 1991, Gainesville
In 1991, the second year of The
Organic Gardening Research and
Education Park at Gainesville, our
Extension Demonstrations were devoted to
Southern peas planted in the "grow-boxes".
This article will summarize the resulting
effects of the various treatments.
Each of the twelve boxes, measuring
5 feet by 10 feet, was divided in half, with
one half receiving a high rate and the
other half a low rate of soil amendment
Two cultivars, 'California Black-eye #5' and
'Pink-eye Purple-hull', were planted Sept.
6, 1991, and harvested Nov. 25, 1991.
Plants were pulled Dec. 4 and the roots
were rated for severity of root-knot
nematode galling.
Treatments in Gro-Box Demonstrations
A. Oak leaves
1. Unshredded









2. Shredded
B. Multiple Organics
(sheep, chicken, oak, rooster)
C. Chicken (fresh manure)
1. Low (l#/s.f.)
2. High (2#/s.f.)
D. Surtane (turkey manure)
1. Low (5#/100 s.f.)
2. High (13#/100 s.f.)
E. Yard Waste Compost
1. Low (2#/s.f.)
2. High (4#/s.f.)
F. Yard Waste & Fertrell
1. Low (200#YWC & 4#F/100 s.f.)
2. High (400#YWC & 4#F/100 s.f.)
G. Fertrell 3-2-3
1. Low (8#/100 s.f.)
2. High (16#/100 s.f.)
H. Check, Fallow
(1st crop)
I. Check (previously cropped)
J. Red Rooster (Chicken manure)
1. Low (12.5q/100 s.f.)
2. High (l#/s.f.)
K. Crab Waste Compost
1. Low (l#s.f.)
2. High (2#/s.f.)
L. Agraferm (dairy compost)
1. Low (l#/s.f.)
2. High (2#/s.f.)
Conditional Remarks
1. Since this was an observational trial
(non-replicated, non-randomized) the data
are subject to much error and must be
interpreted cautiously. However, they do
point to some interesting conclusions.
2. This crop of peas represents the 4th
crop grown in the boxes since
establishment in Spring, 1990. Treatments
also were increased during the two-year
period.
3. Harvest was once-over (all pods,
green and dry, were picked Nov. 25, 1991).
4. Root-Knot (RK) damage was
evaluated by pulling roots after harvest and
rating the number of galls (range: severely
infested 5; no galls 0).
5. Yield index was determined by
giving the highest yield possible a rating of


5.0, and all other yields per plot a
corresponding lower value.
6. Growth, vigor, and condition of the
plants were visually assessed during mid-
season and a value index determined
(range: excellent 5.0 to dead 0).

Rootknot nematodes
As has been reported earlier,
'California Black-eye #5' appears to be
moderately resistant to rootknot
nematodes. Out of the 24 plots planted to
Cal, only 3 plots (12%) showed any galls on
'California Black-eye #5'. Conversely,
rootknot was prevalent in 16 of 24 (67%)
plots of 'Pinkeye Purple-hull' peas.
As expected, the nematodes
decreased yields. Both varieties were
about equal in yield, except in boxes where
nematodes (RK) were prevalent. In these
instances, Cal out yielded PEPH, and
PEPH gave biggest yields where the
nematodes were not a factor (7 of the top
8 plots were PEPH).
Interestingly enough, there was no
particular pattern to the kinds of soil
treatments in relation to rootknot severity.
The check boxes (2), which contained no
organic, were heavily infested on the
PEPH roots. However, the infestation was
also great in the boxes (2) with large
amounts of organic matter oak leaves and
multiple layers of organic (including oak
leaves).
It was also noted that the six plots
along the periphery of the garden were
infested, while the six on the interior
section were nematode-free.
Yield Boxes which contained the
commercial 3-2-3 organic fertilizer sold as
Fertrell had the greatest yields. Box B
(Fertrell alone) and Box F (Fertrell plus
yard waste compost), yielded about 10
ounces of peas more per box than the next
highest treatment (crab waste compost).
Of the 10 highest yielding plots, 6 (60%)
contained Fertrell as a component of the
treatment.
Three plots yielded the largest
amount of peas: Fertrell (low rate); Red





-7-


Rooster Chicken (high rate); and Fertrell
plus yard waste compost (high rate).
Overall when considering all three
attributes, eg. yield, growth and rootknot
resistance, the best plots in the trial were:
Fertrell (low rate); Fertrell + yard waste
compost (low rate); Red Rooster (high
rate); Fertrell plus YWC (high rate);
Fertrell (high); crab waste compost (low);
and yard waste compost (low).
Poor results Oak leaves, which had given
good results with tomatoes in the spring,
were associated with the worst
performance rating with Southern peas.
This was related to rootknot nematodes, a
poor stand, and low nutrition (deficient,
stunted plants). Likewise, the application
of excessively large amounts of organic, as
in the multiple layers box, resulted in a
poor performance by both varieties of peas
(23% of the best boxes and half as much as
the checks).


On the other hand, the peas in the
check boxes containing no fertilizer or
amendments grew and yielded a fair crop
(60% of the best boxes).
Conclusions 'Pinkeye Purple-hull'
Southern peas remain an excellent choice
for a fall crop grown the organic way.
However, this variety is susceptible to
rootknot nematodes. Where this nematode
is prevalent, one might consider "California
Blackeye #5' instead, for this variety is
more resistant. One should be careful not
to over-apply organic manures when
growing this nitrogen fixing crop.
Fortunately, several organic materials are
readily available for a successful pea-patch.
(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-01)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth Apr. D. N. Maynard
Assoc. Professor professor
& Editor

Dr. S. A. Sargent Dr. W. M. Stall
Assst. Professor Professor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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