A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Vegetable Crops Department 1253 Fifield Hall* Gainesville,FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134
August 2, 1991
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA |1
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
B. New Publication on Tomato Diseases.
I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Cantaloupe Variety Trial Results.
B. Watermelon Variety Trial Results, Spring 1991.
C. Tomato Institute 1991 Program.
m. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. 4H Horticultural Plant Identification and Judging -
State Contest Results, 1991.
Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible please give credit to the authors. The
purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
constitute a recommendation of the product.
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
September 4, 1991. 1991 Tomato
Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel, Naples.
(Contact Charles Vavrina).
October 25-27, 1991. National
Junior Horticulture Association
Convention. Altamonte Springs. (Contact
Bob Renner, Marion Co. Extension Agent).
March 15-19, 1992. Second
International Symposium on Specialty and
Exotic Vegetable Crops. Miami (contact
B. New Publication on Tomato
A new reference has been published
this summer, "Compendium of Tomato
Diseases." (APS Press. The American
Phytopathological Society. 3340 Pilot Knob
Rd, St. Paul, MN 55121. $25.00.)
This long-awaited work was edited
by J. B. Jones, J. P. Jones, R. E. Stall from
IFAS and T. A. Zitter from Cornell. The
Compendium provides great detail for
diagnosing field and postharvest diseases of
tomatoes and has an excellent set of color
plates. It is divided into Infectious
Diseases, including postharvest disorders,
and Noninfections Diseases. There also is
a Glossary of terminology and some handy
conversion factors. Other references in
this series are Bean Diseases, Pea Diseases,
Peanut Diseases, Potato Diseases,
Raspberry and Blackberry Diseases,
Strawberry Diseases and Sweet Potato
Diseases. Discounts are available for
orders of 3 or more Compendia.
(Sargent, Vegetarian 91-08)
I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Cantaloupe Variety Trial
The correct horticultural name for
Cucumis melo L. Reticulatus group is
muskmelon, however, cantaloupe is the
term commonly used by growers and in the
commercial trade. Cantaloupes are a
relatively minor crop in Florida. It is
estimated that 2000 acres of cantaloupes
are grown in Florida with a yield of 100
cwt/A and a value of almost $4 million.
The principal restraint on expansion
of the cantaloupe industry in Florida is the
lack of dependable, high quality varieties.
The ideal shipping variety for Florida
should combine the following traits:
1) capacity to produce high yields; 2) fruit
that is sutureless or nearly so, round to
slightly oval, fully netted, about 3 lb.
average weight with a thick, deep salmon
interior, a small, tight seed cavity, and high
soluble solids; 3) a pleasant aroma and
taste; and 4) resistance to fruit rots and
foliar diseases, especially downy and
powdery mildew. Even in the absence of
an intensive private and public breeding
effort specifically for Florida, some material
is approaching the qualities outlined above.
The object of this trial was to identify non-
sutured or slightly sutured, heavily netted
cantaloupe varieties for potential
production in west central Florida.
Twenty-four cantaloupe entries
were direct seeded on 27 February at the
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center,
Bradenton in holes 2 ft apart that were
punched in the polyethylene mulch. The
25 ft. long plots had 10 plants, and were
replicated three times in a randomized,
complete block design. Weed control in
row middles was by cultivation and
application of paraquat. Pesticides were
applied as needed for control of
sweetpotato whitefly, aphids, rindworms
and gummy stem blight.
Cantaloupes were harvested seven
times beginning on 6 May and ending on
24 May. Marketable fruit were separated
from culls. Observations were made on
fruit shape, sutures, netting, and internal
flesh color and soluble solids
determinations were made.
Early yields, as represented by the
first three harvests, ranged from 0 cwt/A
for Sunnex 7029 and Sunnex 7007 to 268
cwt/A for 'Primo'. Early yield of HMX
9583 was similar to that of 'Primo' whereas
nine other entries had early yields similar
to those of Sunnex 7029 and Sunnex 7007.
Early average fruit weight ranged from 3.0
lb. for Sunre 7030 to 5.4 lb. for 'Goldmark'.
Twenty other entries had early average
fruit weight similar to 'Goldmark'.
'Goldmark' also had the highest average
fruit weight in the 1990 trial at Bradenton.
Total yields ranged form 123 cwt/A
for SME 8101 to 547 cwt/A for 'Primo'.
Fifteen other entries had total yields that
were statistically similar to 'Primo'.
Average fruit weight for the entire season
ranged from 3.1 lb for Sunre 7030 to 5.3 lb
for 'Goldmark'. 'Argonaut' had an average
fruit weight of 5.1 lb. Soluble solids varied
from 6.9% for 'Hiline' to 11.8% for 'Tasty
Sweet'. Only 'Tasty Sweet' had soluble
solids exceeding 11% which is necessary to
qualify for very good internal quality as
specified for the U.S. Fancy grade in the
U.S. Standards for Grades. It is thought
that overcast weather during the last two
weeks of May, frequent showers, and
gummy stem blight all contributed to the
low soluble solids in 1991.
Entries that had complete netting
and were smooth (sutureless) were
'Pronto', 'Solid Gold', 'Challenger',
'Cruiser', PSR 189, 'Tasty Sweet',
'HyMark', 'Valley Gold', and 'Hiline' in
decreasing yield order. 'Primo' and
'Argonaut' produced exceptionally high
yields and were essentially smooth but had
green suture lines. Based on results of
1990 and 1991 trials, growers interested in
western-type cantaloupes may wish to
consider'Argonaut', 'Challenger', 'Cruiser',
'Hiline', 'HyMark', 'Mission', 'Primo', 'Solid
Gold', or 'Tasty Sweet' for trial plantings.
(Maynard, Vegetarian 91-08)
B. Watermelon Variety Trial
Results, Spring 1991.
Standard watermelons weigh from
18 to 35 lbs., and represent most of the
commercial watermelon crop grown in
Florida. In 1989-90, Florida produced 9
million cwt of watermelons from 45,000
harvested acres which provided an average
yield of 200 cwt/acre. The average price
was $7.15/cwt providing a crop value of
$64,350,000 which accounted for 4.9% of
the gross returns to the state's vegetable
Until recently, the Florida crop was
about equally divided among open
pollinated and hybrids of the Crimson
Sweet, Charleston Gray, and Jubilee types.
A noticeable decline in production of the
Charleston Gray type has been replaced
largely by increased acreage of Allsweet
and blocky Crimson Sweet types.
The purpose of this trial was to
evaluate some of the recently introduced
varieties and hybrids and experimental
lines in the Crimson Sweet, Jubilee, and
Allsweet types for production potential in
West Central Florida.
Sixteen standard watermelon lines
were direct-seeded on 21 February in holes
punched in the polyethylene mulch at 3 ft.
in-row spacing. The 24 ft. long plots had 8
plants and were replicated four times in a
randomized, complete block design.
The watermelons were harvested on
15 and 24 May. Marketable melons (U.S.
No. 1 or better) according to U.S.
Standards for Grades were separated from
culls and counted and weighed individually.
Soluble solids determinations were made
with a hand-held refractometer on 13 to 16
fruit of each entry over two harvests, and
the incidence of hollowheart was recorded
for these fruits.
Early yields represented by the first
of two harvests, ranged from 56 cwt/A for
'Royal Jubilee' to 480 cwt/A for 'Fiesta'.
The early yield of 'Crimson Tide' was
similar to that of 'Fiesta' whereas 'Mirage',
'Jubilation', 'Jubilee II', and S90CW
produced early yields that were similar to
those of 'Royal Jubilee'. Average fruit
weight at first harvest ranged from 11.6 lb
for S90CW to 24.6 lb for 'Jubilee II. 'Royal
Jubilee' and 'Jubilation' also had high
average fruit weight. The average fruit
weight of all other entries was similar to
that of 'Jubilee II. The proportion of fruit
with hollowheart varied from 0 in 'Sangria'
to 100% in 'Royal Jubilee'. The incidence
of hollowheart was relatively high in the
first harvest for most entries. Some of the
cell separations were severe enough to
adversely affect marketability and
Total marketable yields ranged from
316 cwt/A for 'Jubilation' to 559 cwt/A for
'Fiesta'. Seven other entries had total
yields similar to those of 'Fiesta' whereas
14 other entries had total yields similar to
those of 'Jubilation'. Average fruit weight
varied from 10.7 lb for S90CW to 21.8 lb
for 'Jubilee II'. The average fruit weight of
all other entries was intermediate to these
extremes. Soluble solids ranged from 10%
for NVH 4200 to 12% for S90CW. Seven
other entries had soluble solids
concentrations similar to those of S90CW
whereas six other entries were similar to
NVH 4200 in soluble solids concentration.
Soluble solids in all entries met or
exceeded the 10% specified for optional use
in the U.S. Standards for Grades of
Watermelons. The incidence of
hollowheart for the entire crop varied from
0 in 'Sangria' to 63% in 'Royal Majesty'.
Seven other entries had hollowheart
frequency similar to that of 'Sangria'
whereas ten other entries had hollowheart
frequencies similar to those of 'Royal
Average fruit weight and yield were
less than expected and less than the
potential of all entries because of early vine
decline. Higher than normal rainfall and
the frequency of rainfall made disease
management difficult, particularly for
gummy stem blight.
(Maynard, Vegetarian 91-08)
Tomato Institute '91
September 4, 1991
9 AM 4 PM
Dean Jim Davidson Introductory Remarks
Dan Botts Tomato Dumptank Regulations
Jane Polston Insect Transmitted Viruses
of Tomato in Florida.
Bob McGovern Alternate Hosts of Florida
Phil Stansly Management Strategies for
Charles Vavrina Summer Studies in Soap
Lance Osborne Prospects for the
Biological Control of Bemesia tabaci.
Dick Baranowski Thrips palmi A New
Pest in Florida.
Jay Scott A New Decade for the IFAS
Tomato Breeding Program.
Dan Cantliffe The Condition of the
Transplant Affects Tomato Growth and
Jeff Jones Detection and Control of
Bacterial Spot on Tomato.
John Paul Jones Fusarium Crown Rot:
Factors Affecting Disease Development in
Growth Rooms and Field.
Joe Noling Nematode Management and
Crop Loss Prediction in FL Tomato
Jim Gilreath Developments in Tomato
George Hochmuth Plant Analysis for
Tomatoes in Florida.
Steve Sargent Improving Tomato Packing
Efficiency While Reducing Handling Injury
Using a Variable-Speed Packing Line.
John Vansickle North American Free
Trade Agreement, Impact on the Florida
(Vavrina, Vegetarian 91-08)
III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. 4H Horticultural Plant
Identification and Judging State
Contest Results, 1991.
Hall, University of Florida, July 24, 1991,
by Bob Black (EH) and Jim Stephens (VC).
Eight county teams composed of 28 4H'ers
competed for the opportunity to represent
Florida at the national contest in October.
The event was won by the team
from Marion County, coached by 4H agent
Bob Renner. Members of the team were
Amy Williams, Ben Yawn, Tammy
Obermark, and Amanda Clark. They
posted a team score of 2163 points out of a
possible 2700 total. High individual honors
went to Amy Williams, who scored 787
points out of a possible 900.
This Marion County team will
compete with the best 4H teams from
around the country during the National
Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA)
convention, Altamonte Hilton, Altamonte
Springs, FL Oct. 25-28, 1991. Sponsors are
The Florida Fruit & Vegetable Association,
Nye Brands, and others.
The following table gives scores and
placings of all individuals and teams that
The 32nd annual State 4H
horticultural plants identification and
judging contest was conducted at Fifield
Results State 4H Horticulture ID and Judging Contest
Teams (Possible Score: 2700 pts)
Clark, Obermark, Williams, Yawn
Smith, Smith, Barnard
Davis, Gill, Heitmeyer, Parrish
Cannon, Douglas, Graf, Young
Gray, Sellers, Williams, Hutchinson
Via, Viers, Viers, Dominguez
Fowler, Richardson, Thomas
Buchanon, Torres (no complete team)
350 350 200
(Stephens, Vegetarian 91-08)
Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists
Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Dr. S. M. Olson
Mr. J. M. Stephens
Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Dr. S. A. Sargent
Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Dr. D. N. Maynard
Dr. W. M. Stall
Dr. J. M. White