Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1991
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00266
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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VEGE TAIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

V-cl able Crops Deparllent 1255 HSPP Gainesville. f 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 91-3


March 12, 1991


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Changes to Soil Testing Report Form.

B. Chlorinated Water Effects on Plants.

C. A Case for Organic Farming?

D. Diagnostic Tissue Testing.

E. Potential for Calabaza Production in Florida


I. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Third Party Registration for Bolero 8 EC in Celery,
Lettuce, Endive and Escarole.

B. Expansion of Third Party Registration Label for Dual on
Cabbage.

C. Precautionary Statement for Bravo 720 Use on
Watermelons Issued by ISK Biotech.


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The
purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
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FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

March 11-15, 1991. Horticultural
Sciences Course HOS 5330 "Commercial
Harvesting and Postharvest Handling of
Horticultural Crops." Available for 1
graduate credit or 1 Continuing Education
Unit. Contact Dr. Steve Sargent for more
information (904) 392-7911).
May 16, 1991. Gulf Coast REC
Vegetable Field Day, 8:45 am. A box lunch
and three field plot tours featuring (1)
plant improvement, (2) plant protection,
and (3) plant production research are
scheduled throughout the remainder of the
day. Contact Dr. Don Maynard or Dr. John
Paul Jones for information (813-755-1568).

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A. Cl
Report Form.


ranges to Soil Testing


The current format of the IFAS
Extension Soil Testing Laboratory soil-test
report will be changed in the near future.
In addition to reporting the soil pH and the
Adams-Evans Buffer, the target pH of the
client-specified crop will also be reported.
The target pH is that pH which is
identified as an appropriate pH to which to
adjust the soil pH to avoid aluminum
toxicity, improve nutrient availability, and
minimize the adverse effects of possible
overliming. With some crops, the target
pH may also include consideration of soil
pH impact on diseases on pests.
Secondly, fertilizer
recommendations for vegetables and
ornamental commodities will be reported in
two sets of units. Vegetable fertilizer
recommendations will be reported in the
traditional pounds per acre and in pounds
per 100 linear bed feet. The new units are
based upon a typical bed spacing which will
be reported along with the total linear bed
feet in 1 acre. More information on use of
these units can be found in "Notes in Soil


Science" No 32 (SS-SOS-901) "Calculating
fertilizer rates for vegetable crops grown in
raised-bed cultural systems in Florida."
Ornamental fertilizer
recommendations will be reported in both
pounds per acre and in pounds per 1,000
square feet per year. Use of this new scale
will also apply to the lime recommendation
for ornamentals.

(Hanlon, Vegetarian 91-03)

B. Chlorinated Water Effects on
Plants.

Municipal water sources add
Chlorine to the water to prevent microbial
formation. Does this free Chlorine pose a
problem to landscape and household
plants? No. The amount of Chlorine
which is injected is very small, usually on
the order of 1 ppm, and no toxic problems
have been reported from such low levels.
In fact, commercial growers using
microirrigation should be injecting
Chlorine to keep the tubing emitter clean
and free of microbial activity which can
plug emitters.
In household situations, exposing
the water to the air is often enough to
reduce the free Chlorine to extremely low
levels. Sprinkler irrigation of lawns, for
example, will lower the free Chlorine
content and pose no problem to the grass.
If a homeowner is concerned with free
Chlorine in the water, allowing a container
filled with the water to sit for several
hours before using the water on indoor
plants will greatly reduce the free Chlorine
content. However, the added precaution is
really not needed. Proper watering of
household plants should be more of a
concern. All water sources contain salts,
which can build up if pots are not irrigated
correctly. If salts do build up and plant
growth is affected, the homeowner can
leach the container media (allow excess
water to drain out of the pot and remove it
from the catchment pan). If this process
does not appear to be working, the









homeowner can occasionally repot the
plant adding additional container media
around the root ball.

(Hanlon, Vegetarian 91-03)

C. A Case for Organic Farming?

In case you missed a small article in
the February 1, 1991, issue of Science, I
am going to give you a review. According
to David Pimentel, an agricultural scientist
at Cornell University, organic farming is
not some luxury pursued by fuzzy-minded
counterculturists and health-obsessed
yuppies. Rather, it is a matter of
economics. The tonnage of agricultural
chemical pesticides applied to U.S. crop
land has grown 33-fold since the 1940s, and
their toxicity has grown roughly 10-fold.
Yet, crop losses to insects, fungi, and weeds
have actually increased from 31 to 37%.
This is due in part to insects ability to
develop resistance to pesticides. Farmers
have tended also to specialize in single
crops instead of rotating them to keep
down the pest populations.
Pimentel maintains if farmers could
cut their use of chemical pesticides in half
- which could be done by employing such
well-proven alternatives as crop rotation
and biological pest control then food
prices would rise by less than 1%, or about
$1 billion/year. The benefits would be
overwhelming. The nation would save
from $4 to $10 billion/year in terms of
decreased damage to fish and water
supplies, decreased cost of pesticide
regulation, and decreased health care cost
for the 20,000 people a year who are
poisoned by pesticides. The cost-benefit
analysis of pesticide use is published in the
Handbook on Pest Management in
Agriculture, from CRC Press. It is a
synthesis of more than 300 research
reports. I will leave it up to the reader to
punch holes in this type of economics or to
accept it.
(White, Vegetarian 91-03)


D. Diagnostic Tissue Testing.

Plant tissue analysis is a tool for
helping us diagnose suspected nutritional
deficiencies or to help keep us on track in
our fertilizer program. The keys to good
tissue testing are:

1. Collect representative samples.
2. Collect the right diagnostic tissue,
usually most-recently-matured
leaves.
3. Collect "good" and "bad" samples.
4. Refer to tables of calibrated tissue
norms for determining the critical
nutrient levels with which to
compare your lab results.

Soil testing can help diagnose
problems but should only be viewed as an
aid to good tissue testing. Values of
nutrient levels in the soil are of limited
value once fertilizer has been added to the
soil. Soil samples taken after fertilizer has
been applied will reflect those nutrient
additions and thus could confuse the
problem interpretation phase. Once the
crop is growing and fertilization has begun,
it is much better to let the plant tell us
what is happening, i.e. tissue analyses.
There are some individuals using
soil solution access tubes to sample the soil
solution and then analyze the solution for
nutrients. They base fertilizer additions on
their analytical results. This process is
based on hydroponic theory and thus is
faulty. The main problems are:
1. There is large variation among
samples within a field and even
within the bed. It is difficult to
obtain a representative sample.
2. If growers maintain hydroponic
(Hoagland solution) levels of
nutrients in the soil solution, then
overfertilization will result,
especially for N and K.
3. There is no research data with yield
versus soil solution nutrient
concentration for Florida. In other





-4-


words, this technique has not been
calibrated for Florida conditions.

Instead of fertilizing by the
hydroponic theory, we should focus on
using nutrient application schedules
developed for Florida. Then we should
follow the progress of our fertilizer
program by tissue testing, either standard
lab analyses or plant sap quick tests, both
of which have been calibrated for Florida
vegetables. A good reference manual for
tissue testing is the new Univ. of Fla. Coop.
Extension Service publication Special
Series SSVEC-42 "Plant tissue analysis and
interpretation for Vegetable Crops in
Florida". It will soon be available at County
Extension offices.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 91-03)


E. Potential for Calabaza
Production in Florida.

Calabaza (Cucurbita moschata
(Duchesne) Poir. is a subtropical/tropical
pumpkin frequently called Cuban pumpkin.
'La Primera', an improved cultivar, was
introduced in 1979 by Dr. Ray Volin
formerly of the IFAS Tropical Research
and Education Center in Homestead.
Unfortunately, commercial seed has not
been available to growers who continue to
use their own seed saved from season to
season. Unfortunately, fruit shape and
quality on plants from home-grown seed is
not uniform. Recently, however, two seed
suppliers have indicated an interest in
increasing 'La Primera' seed and it may be
available commercially in the near future.
Performance of 'La Primera' in
spring 1987 and of two additional calabazas
in fall 1990 at the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center was evaluated. In 1987,
beds on 9 ft centers were prepared on 18
February including incorporation of 500 lb
0-20-0, fumigation with 50 lb Vorlex, and
application of two surface bands of 1000 lb


18-0-25 per acre on the bed shoulders, and
application of black polyethylene mulch.
The crop was established by direct-seeding
on 5 March using a 4 ft in-row spacing.
The stand was adjusted by thinning to
about 1200 plants per acre. The crop was
seep-irrigated. Approved fungicides were
applied for control of downy mildew and
gummy stem blight.
The pumpkins were harvested on 25
June at which time the vines were
beginning to deteriorate, and the most
mature fruits were yellow-orange colored.
Each fruit was weighed and counted.
In 1990, 'La Primera', 'El Segundo'
(an unreleased selection developed by Dr.
Volin), and a short-vined 'La Primera'
(developed by Dr. G. W. Elmstrom) were
evaluated at the Gulf Coast Research &
Education Center. Beds on 9 ft centers
were prepared on 2 July including
incorporation of 242 lb 0-20-0, fumigation
with 48 lb Vorlex, and application of two
surface bands of 775 lb 15-0-30 per acre on
the bed shoulders, and application of white
polyethylene mulch. The crop was
established by direct seeding on 16 July
using 4 ft in-row spacing for 'La Primera'
and 'El Segunda' and 2 ft in-row spacing
for the short-vined selection. Sweetpotato
whitefly control with approved insecticides
was required in addition to the crop
management practices used in 1987. The
calabazas were harvested and weighed
individually.
Yields and average fruit weight are
shown in Table 1. Average fruit weight of
'La Primera' was less in 1990 than in 1987,
but the number of fruit was greater so that
yields (weight) were not greatly different in
the two years. The average fruit weight of
15.5 lb is similar to the 16.2 lb reported in
Homestead. Fruit weight of 'El Segundo'
was 9.8 lb and that of the short-vined 'La
Primera' was 6.1 lb. However, many more
fruit were produced by the short-vined 'La
Primera' so that the per acre yield of the
two entries was similar.




-5-


Table 1. Calabaza yields and average fruit weight.


Fruit Yield Per Acre' Average
Year Entry Number Weight (cwt) Fruit Weight (lb)

1987 La Primera 2574 550 21.4
1990 La Primera 3146 488 15.5
El Segundo 3025 301 9.8
La Primera SV 4840 292 6.1

14840 linear bed feet.


The distribution of fruit into various size classes is shown in Table 2. In 1987, most fruit of
'La Primera' ranged between 10.1 and 25 lb, however, 27% of the fruit were larger than 25.1
lb whereas only 3% of the fruit were less than 10 lb. The largest fruit weighed 53.2 lb. In
1990, most 'La Primera' fruit ranged from 10.1 to 20 lb and only 7% of the fruit exceeded 25
lb. The bulk of the 'El Segundo' fruit were between 5.1 and 15 lb, whereas most of the short-
vined 'La Primera' fruit were less than 10 lb.

Table 2. Calabaza fruit weight distribution.


Fruit Weight (ib)
<5 5.1-10 10.1-15 15.1-20 20.1-25 25.1-30 >30
Year Entry (% of fruit)

1987 La Primera 0 3 18 29 23 14 13
1990 La Primera 0 16 33 38 6 7 0
El Segundo 8 50 35 5 2 0 0
La Primera SV 41 51 9 0 0 0 0


Calabaza is a high quality, tropical-type pumpkin widely, used by Hispanics. Although it is
virtually unknown to other segments of the population, there is reason to believe that it
would be accepted for culinary use in the same way that butternut or similar type squash is
now used, including use as a pie filling. The large fruit size of 'La Primera' might discourage
some consumers, but retailers could consider selling halves or quarters like watermelon.
Another option would be to sell peeled and cubed calabaza in preweighed polyethylene bags
as a convenience vegetable. When commercially available, the fruit size of the short-vined 'La
Primera' would be suitable for whole fruit sales.

Growers are advised to establish a definite market before planting calabaza.


(Maynard & Elmstrom, Vegetarian 91-03)





-6-


PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Third Party Registration for
Bolero 8 EC in Celery. Lettuce. Endive
and Escarole.

Thiobencarb (Bolero 8 EC) has
received supplemental labelling as a special
local need for control of purslane and
barnyardgrass in celery, lettuce, endive,
and escarole grown on muck soils.
The distribution and use of the
label is limited within Florida to persons
who have signed authorization and waiver
agreements with Third Party Registrations,
Inc (TPR) who is the 24(c) registrant. The
label must be in the possession of the user
at the time of pesticide application.
Celery (muck soils only). Make a
single application of 6-8 pints Bolero 8 EC
per acre after transplanting and prior to a
weed emergence. Apply in 20 to 40 gallons
of water per acre no later than 10 days
after transplanting. Do not apply within 70
days of harvest.

Lettuce, endive, and escarole -
(muck soils only). Make a single
application of 4-6 pints Bolero 8 EC per
acre at seeding or post-transplant prior to
weed emergence. Apply in 20-40 gallons of
water per acre no later than 10 days after
planting. Do not apply within 60 days of
harvest.

For best performance, soil must be
wet at the time of application. Additional
moisture (overhead irrigation) after
application may improve performance, but
may increase phytotoxicity.

(Stall, Vegetarian 91-03)

B. Expansion of Third Party
Registration Label for Dual on
Cabbage.

Metolachlor (Dual) has received an
expanded label for use on transplanted and
direct seeded cabbage. The distribution


and use of the supplemental labelling is
limited within Florida to persons who have
signed authorization and waiver
agreements with Third Party Registrations,
Inc., who is the 24(c) registrant. The label
must be in possession of the user at the
time of pesticide application.

Transplanted Cabbage. Apply Dual
8 E to transplanted tight-headed cabbage
at a broadcast rate of 1.25 3.0 Ibs ai/A
(1.25-3.0 pts). Use the lower rate on soils
relatively course-textured and/or low in
organic matter; use the higher rate on soils
relatively fine textured and/or high in
organic matter. Application should be
made immediately after transplanting to
plants that are at least 5 weeks old or
grown in 1" diameter cells or larger.
Chinese varieties are more sensitive to
Dual injury. Use the lower rates as
determined for soil type.

Direct Seeded Cabbage. Apply Dual
8 E as a broadcast preemergence or
postemergence spray to direct seeded tight-
headed cabbage at rates of 1.25-6.0 lbs ai/A
(1.25-6.0 pts). Preemergence applications
should be made immediately after seeding.
Post emergence applications should be
made at least 20 days after seeding.
Applications should be made in a minimum
of 20 gallons of water per acre. Apply only
once per crop season. Chinese varieties are
more sensitive to Dual injury. Use the
lower rates as determined for soil type.


Soil type
Sandy
Organic


Pints Per Acre
1.25-2.0
3.0-6.0


The use of Dual may result in leaf
crinkling or cupping and twisting. Delayed
maturity can be anticipated at higher rates.
Climatic conditions during the growing
season will affect Dual efficacy and
phytotoxicity.

(Stall, Vegetarian 91-03)




-7-


C. Precautionary Statement for
Bravo 720 Use on Watermelons Issued
by ISK Biotech.

For the past three seasons,
problems have been observed in the
southeastern United States on certain
watermelon varieties which incurred
surface injury on the fruit due to
"sunburn." Injury of this nature was
usually associated with maturing
watermelons which are poorly covered with
foliage, primarily following periods of
intense sunlight and high temperature.
In some isolated cases, enhanced
severity of this naturally occurring sunburn
was reported following applications of
Bravo 720. In some instances, tank mixes
with foliar fertilizer and surfactants,
especially vegetable oils, have been
reported to increase sunburn symptoms.
Field research trials over the past three
years by ISK Biotech and university
personnel to confirm scientific causes of
this condition are inconclusive at this time;


however, most injury symptoms were
reported to occur on fruit close to
maturity. In some tests, applications of
water alone have been shown to enhance
sunburn symptoms. Testing will continue
in 1991 in an effort to document potential
solutions for these effects.
Below are application directions we
believe watermelon growers should follow
until more definitive information becomes
available:

*Do not tank mix Bravo 720 with any other
product on watermelons. This includes all
crop protection products, foliar fertilizers,
surfactants, spreaders, stickers, and oils.

* Do not apply Bravo 720 to watermelon
fruit within 21 days of first harvest if
periods of intense sunlight and high
temperature are expected.

* Do not apply Bravo 720 to watermelon
fruit within 21 days of harvest when vines
do not provide proper shading of fruit, or if
vines are stressed due to drought.


(Maynard, Vegetarian 91-03)



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J.M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. ochmuth Dr. D.N. Maynard
Assoc. Professor & Editor Professor


Dr. S.A. Sargent
Asst. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor




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