Title: Vegetarian
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00264
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: January 1991
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00264
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Vegetarian%201991%20Issue%2091-1 ( PDF )


Full Text


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Departmenl 1255 1HSPP Ganesvile. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 91-1


January 11, 1991


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
SkA. Sustainable Vegetable Production.
B. 1991 Institute for Watermelons and other Cucurbits.

C. Strawberry Field Day Program.
D. Broccoli Cultivar Trial Results, Sanford, 1990.
f I' mI. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Poast Labelled on Bulb Vegetables.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
: A. Herbs a Gardening Renaissance.


u- Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The
purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
constitute a recommendation of the product.

., .'.. 'Cpt


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex. or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRIrIl TI IRF AMn wl Fr FrIrelnMrlq STATF nF FI slinA IcAC I IM1IucOrITV nA


A3


A


I


1






-2-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

January 29, 1991. IFAS 1991
Institute for Watermelons and Other
Cucurbits. Marion County Extension
Auditorium, 2232 N. E. Jacksonville Rd.,
Ocala, FL. (Contact George Hochmuth).

January 30-31, 1991. Tenth Annual
Fla. Seedsmen and Garden Supply Assoc. -
IFAS Seed Seminar, Holiday Inn West,
Gainesville, FL.

February 9, 1991. 4-H/FFA Horti-
culture Contest. Florida State Fair,
Tampa. (Contact Jim Stephens).

March 11-15, 1991. Horticultural
Sciences Course HOS 5330 "Commercial
Harvesting and Postharvest Handling of
Horticultural Crops." Available for 1
graduate credit or 1 Continuing Education
Unit. Contact Dr. Steve Sargent for more
information (904) 392-7911).


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A.
Production.


Sustainable Vegetable


There has been much written and
discussed over recent years concerning the
term Sustainable Agriculture. The term
has become somewhat of a debatable
buzzword meaning different things to
different persons. The use of other terms,
such as alternative agriculture,
regenerative agriculture, low-in-put,
renewable, and organic farming,
synonymously for sustainable adds to the
confusion. Many grower organizations and
University program leaders are searching
for a reasonable definition that
accommodates all aspects of sustainability,
including farm profitability. Most experts
agree that the concept of sustainability is
here to stay.


Sustainable agriculture concepts in
the United States have largely grown out
of agronomic programs. Many of the
agronomic tenets apply to intensively
produced horticultural crops, such as
vegetables. However, there are other
technologies that would be included in the
basis -for any sustainable vegetable
production system. The following is a
sampling of some technologies that would
apply to vegetable production. Most of
these might seem straight-forward to many
of us. However, we need to constantly
search for new ideas and for ways to adapt
and refine existing technologies to new
crops and different situations. These
technologies are based on the requirements
of a sustainable agriculture to produce
increasing amounts of food to feed an
increasing population, and to do that in a
profitable manner with concern for
resources and the environment.

Chemical inputs. Learn to rely on
integrated crop management (ICM)
strategies to minimize the use of crop
chemicals including pesticides. The basic
concepts of integrated pest management
(IPM) are important components in ICM.
Other factors involved in crop production
are important here as well. These ideas
are directed at providing the crop with the
competitive edge:

1. Try not to over extend planting
seasons into climatic conditions
unfavorable to the crop.

2. Schedule irrigation and nutrient
applications precisely so excesses
are prevented.

3. Use production systems, such as
plastic mulch or transplants that
speed growth and reduce the time
for exposure of crop to pests.

4. Use barriers, such as row covers, to
insects.





-3-


5. Restrict movement of field workers
and equipment from diseased fields
to non-diseased areas.

6. Use irrigation systems, such as drip
irrigation to reduce wetting of
leaves which can promote disease
development.

7. Use recyclable or degradable plastic
mulches.

8. Improve efficiency of weed control
by judicious use of herbicides,
mechanical cultivation, or planting
methods (mulching).

9. Search for varieties resistant to
stresses from diseases and insects.

Water and nutrient inputs.

1. Adopt the most efficient irrigation
system for your area so that water
can be conserved. Learn to use soil
moisture indicators such as
tensiometers to schedule irrigation.

2. Install water retention facilities to
keep irrigation water on the farm.

3. Rely on calibrated soil-testing to
predict fertilizer, manure, or
compost needs for specific fields,
even for specific spots in fields.

4. Apply nutrients in metered
amounts to reduce the amount of
fertilizer in the soil and subject to
leaching or erosion losses.

5. Use drip irrigation or liquid
fertilizer wheels to split-apply
nutrients to plastic-mulched beds.

6. Use plastic mulch to protect
fertilizer from leaching. Durable
mulches can be multiple-cropped,
thus reducing the cost on a crop
basis.


7. Rely on plant tissue testing to help
guide nutrient applications.

Farm management.

1. Try to avoid farming areas that are
historical trouble-spots such as low
-areas, dry spots, etc. Rely instead
on more intensive management of
the more productive soils.

2. Install water and soil conservation
systems such as those specified by
the Soil Conservation Service. Rely
on windbreaks, grassed water ways,
etc. to minimize soil loss.

3. Rely on constant upkeep of
machinery especially sprayers,
fertilizer applicators, and irrigation
equipment so that inputs are not
wasted.

4. Evaluate harvesting, packing, and
cooling systems for techniques to
optimize use of labor and energy
and to reduce product losses.

5. Obtain as much up-to-date
information as possible by reading
and attending workshops by
university extension and trained
consultant personnel.

6. Incorporate computers in the farm
management to better organize and
coordinate farm operations.

7. Be observant and try to learn as
much as possible about crop
behavior from season to season so
that adjustments in production
practices can be made. Complete
records are required here.

The above lists are not meant to be
all inclusive; there are surely other
components, maybe even better ones.
However, the above suggestions are meant
to illustrate that sustainable vegetable





-4-


production relies on research-based
technologies. Sustainable vegetable
production systems will need to be
developed, refined, and installed even in
times of budgetary constraints for the
users and developers of the technologies.
This will mean the growers will need to
become more involved in supporting the
research that will develop these sustainable
systems.
Finally, we need to do more to
educate our non-farming neighbors about
our efforts to sustain production of high
quality, safe food while protecting the
environment in which we all live. Invite
public officials, TV, radio personalities, etc.
to the farm. Produce a video on your
operation showing off how your operation
is important to your community and to the
nation's safe food supply. These education
techniques might sound time consuming
and expensive, but they just might pay off.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 91-01)



B. 1991 Institute for
Watermelons and other Cucurbits.

January 29, 1991
Marion County Extension Auditorium
2232 N.E. Jacksonville Rd.
Ocala, Florida

Lunch (provided) and Trade Show

8:00 AM Registration (free).

8:45 Introduction and Welcome Dan
Cantliffe, Vegetable Crops Dept.,
Gainesville, FL.


PROGRAM

AM: Melons, cucumbers, squash,
pumpkins. Moderator: George
Hochmuth, Vegetable Crops Dept.,
Gainesville, FL.

9:00- Cantaloupes and Specialty Melons
Adapted to Florida Gary
Elmstrom, Central Florida Research
and Education Center, Leesburg,
FL.

9:20 Pumpkins and Calabasa -
Opportunities for Florida Growers -
Don Maynard, Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center, Bradenton,
FL.

9:40 Analysis of Bed-Width Options for
Drip-Irrigated Cucurbits Don
Maynard, Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center, Bradenton, FL.

10:00 Pollination Considerations for
Cucurbits Keys to Success Dan
Cantliffe, Vegetable Crops Dept.,
Gainesville, FL.

10:20 Management of Drip Irrigation for
Cucurbits Gary Clark, Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, FL.

10:40 Herbicide Situation for Cucurbit
Crops in Florida Bill Stall,
Vegetable Crops Dept., Gainesville,
FL.

11:00 Update on Silver Leaf and White
Fly Control Phil Stansly,
Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center, Immokalee, FL.









11:20 Current and Potential Virus
Diseases Affecting Cucurbits in
Florida Susan Webb, Central
Florida Research and Education
Center, Leesburg, FL.

11:40 Uniform and Unified Boxing of
Cucurbits Steve Sargent,
Vegetable Crops Dept., Gainesville,
FL.

12:00 LUNCH (provided) and Visit Trade
Show.

PM: Watermelons Moderator: Bill
Phillips, Marion County Cooperative
Extension Service, Ocala, FL.

1:30 PM The IFAS Extension Soil
Testing Laboratory Ed Hanlon,
Soil Science Dept., Gainesville, FL.

1:40 Watermelon Varieties What's
Good, What's New? Don Maynard,
Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center, Bradenton, FL.

2:00 Degradable Mulches for
Watermelons Bob Hochmuth,
Suwannee Valley Agricultural
Research and Education Center,
Live Oak, FL.

2:20 Stand Establishment Options for
Watermelons Steve Olson, North
Florida Research and Education
Center, Quincy, FL.

2:40 Effect of Transplant Age on
Watermelon Yield Charlie Vavrina,
Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center, Immokalee, FL.

3:00 Fumigation Options for Drip-
Irrigated Cucurbits Joe Noling,
Citrus Research and Education
Center, Lake Alfred, FL.


3:20 Update on Watermelon Diseases
(Including Fruit Blotch) and the
Bravo Situation Tom Kucharek,
Plant Pathology Dept., Gainesville,
FL.

3:40 Postharvest Handling
Considerations for Seedless
Watermelons Steve Sargent,
Vegetable Crops Dept., Gainesville,
FL.

4:00 The New National Watermelon
Promotion Board Karlyn Watson,
National Watermelon Promotion
Board, Orlando, FL.

4:15 Adjourn Visit Trade Show.

5:00 Close.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 91-01)


C. Strawberry Field Day
Program.

Agricultural Research & Education
Center, 13138 Lewis Gallagher Road,
Dover, Florida 33527-9664. February 13,
1991. Contact Person: Dr. Earl E.
Albregts.

Moderator: Dr. D. N. Maynard, Vegetable
Extension Specialist, GCREC-Bradenton.

Time, PM
1:15 Dr. W. E. Waters Welcome and
Introductory Comments.

1:20 Dr. E. R. Emino, Asst. Dean for
Research Update of IFAS
Research Programs.

1:30 Dr. J. F. Price Insect Management.

1:45 Dr. C. D. Stanley Irrigation
Research.






-6-


1:55 Dr. C. K. Chandler Cultivar
Development.

2:10 Dr. C. M. Howard Strawberry
Diseases.

2:20 Dr. E. E. Albregts Nutrition and
Culture.

2:30 COFFEE/BERRY BREAK

2:40 TOUR OF RESEARCH PLOTS

D. Broccoli Cultivar Trial
Results. Sanford 1990.

Broccoli is a minor crop in central
Florida with an estimated 130 acres in
production. Interest in broccoli has
increased and a limited potential for small
as well as large growers exists. The
following information is a result of
evaluating 24 varieties/breeding lines in
the spring of 1990. Seedbeds were sown on
January 22. Seedlings were transplanted
to a Myakka fine sand on March 1. A
randomized block design was used with a
single-row plot 25' long by 2.5' wide, and 11
inch in-row spacing. Two duplicate trials,
one on black plastic mulch and one on bare
ground, were planted. There were three
replications in each trial.
Due to dry conditions, overhead
irrigation was used to bring the soil
moisture to field capacity before bedding,
applying fertilizer, and laying plastic.


Table 1. Selected varieties from the
199 Q


For the plastic mulched beds,
fertilizer was placed in a band in the center
of the bed at 240 lb/A nitrogen, 40 lb/A
phosphorus (PO25), and 200 lb/A potassium
(KgO). Two rows were planted on each bed.
For the bare beds, 30 lb/A of nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potassium were broadcast
and lightly incorporated. In addition, a
total of 110 lb/A nitrogen, 30 lb/A
phosphorus, and 100 lb/A potassium were
sidedressed in two applications.
Rainfall from March 1-May 7 was
3.62 inches. Overhead irrigation was used
11 times, applying about 1/2 in each time.
Yields ranged from 511 to 0
crates/A in the non-mulched trial and from
363 to 0 crates/A on the black plastic
mulched trial. Plant stands were lower in
the mulched trial due to less survival at
transplanting. Stands were lower in the
mulched trials, even after resetting two
times due to wilting and coming in contact
with the hot plastic. The reduction in
yield was mostly due to a reduction in
plant stand, but there also was a reduction
in the average head weight. Even though
the yields and average head weight were
lower on the plastic mulch, they were
ready for harvest 3 days earlier.
Table 1 is a summary of 8 selected
varieties. A more complete report may be
obtained by requesting Research Report
SAN 91-01, Broccoli Cultivar Trial, 1990.





spring broccoli trials, CFREC-Sanford,


Seed Non-mulched Mulched
Variety source crates/A Head wt (lb) crates/A Head wt (lb)
AMX 15014 Amsa 511 0.93 255 0.63
PSX 50785 Petoseed 479 0.74 190 0.46
Brigadier Abbott & Cobb 372 0.58 260 0.47
Everest Northrup King 369 0.57 128 0.42
FMX 94 Ferry Morse 362 0.68 352 0.65
Brigadier Agway 337 0.61 352 0.67
Commander Northrup King 326 0.56 45 0.38
Green Valiant Northrup King 237 0.74 61 1.00
(White, Vegetarian 91-01)









III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Poast Labelled on Bulb
Vegetables.

Sethoxydim (Poast) has been
labelled for the control of actively growing
grass weeds in bulb vegetables. Bulb
vegetables include all types of onions, both
direct seeded or set including dry bulb,
Spanish, sweet, and green or bunching
types as well as garlic.
A general use rate of 1 pt per acre
of Poast is recommended and up to 1 1/2
pts for certain volunteer cereals. An
additive of a crop oil concentrate at 2
pts/acre is recommended. Up to 4 1/2 pts
per acre may be applied per season with a
pre harvest interval of 30 days to be
observed. Read and follow all directions on
the label.

(Stall, Vegetarian 91-01)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Herbs a Gardening
Renaissance.

While herbs of the culinary type
have been on the gardening scene in
Florida for many years, probably as long as
vegetables have been grown, these "taste-
enhancers" are more popular than ever
with home gardeners. The same might be
said for restaurants and the common
marketplace. I believe the reason is
related to the increased health
consciousness of the American public. In
traditional southern-style cooking, a


popular method of seasoning vegetables
was the liberal use of fatty meats, such as
ham-hocks. The use of herbs allows a cook
to season a meal naturally, without
increasing the foods content of salt,
calories, or the fearsome cholesterol.
I have been sensing this increased
interest in herbs for some time now, but
decided to write this brief article after
reviewing the results of Stephen Brown's
survey of 500 of southern California's top
restaurants, reported in California
Agriculture, Vol 45, No. 18 Jan. 1991.
The survey respondents (94%)
indicated that the main purpose in using
herbs was to enhance flavor. Others (74%)
use herbs for aroma, while 68% garnish
dishes with the herbs. Only 21% actually
listed health benefits as a primary
consideration, although I suspect this is a
main motivator for gardeners to grow
them.
Keep in mind that this survey was
done in California, so the results might be
a little different if done here in Florida.
However, since these are food-dishes
prepared, I suspect a lot of similarities in
the individual herbs most popularly used in
cooking.
Sweet basil was indicated by 79% of
the responding restauranteurs as the most
commonly used herb. I can add that basil
is the most common herb I've observed
growing in Florida gardens. The
restaurant survey showed thyme and
cilantro to be tied for second at 32%. The
following table ranks the herbs in terms of
common usage in the California survey,
and provides some cultural information for
these same herbs grown in Florida gardens.






-8-


Table 1. Most popular herbs for the Florida garden.1,a


(Coriander)


Use
Rank ()
1 (79%)
2 (32%)
3 (32%)
4 (24%)
5 (22%)
6 (21%)
7 (21X)
8 (15%)
9 (14%)
10 (9%)
11 (9%)
12 (5%)


Growth
Cycle
annual
perennial
annual
perennial
biennial
perennial
perennial
annual
perennial
perennial
perennial
annual


D na-nnan-A t .


seed
seed/cuttings
seed
seed/cuttings
seed
cuttings/division
cuttings/division
seed
division
seed/division
seed/cuttings
seed


Part
ITaAc


leaves
leaves/cuttings
seed
leaves
leaves
leaves
leaves
seedheads
leaves
leaves
leaves
leaves


Harvest
as needed
as needed
when ripe
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
as needed
dry leaves
as needed
as needed
as needed


survey of 500 California restaurants, Stephen H. Brown.


p. 5. Feb 1991.
from "Manual of Minor


All of these popular herbs may be
grown seasonally in sufficient quantities for
home use. Several more may be grown
successfully, but are not used as often as
the dozen mentioned.
Gardeners who may wish to expand
their operation to produce for sale to
restaurants or other markets should note
other results of the California survey. The
majority of the responding chefs (90%)
believe that herb usage will continue to


California


Vegetables", IFAS SP-40, June 1988.


grow. A few restaurants (6%) grow their
own herbs, while most (46%) get most of
their herbs from local distributors.
Although only 20% get fresh herbs direct
from the grower now, when asked which
source the restauranteurs prefer, most
chose in favor of the grower, and only 26%
wish to obtain their herbs through a
purveyor. This preference presents a solid
possibility for local growers to produce and
sell to local users.


(Stephens, Vegetarian 91-01)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J.M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth Dr. D.N. Maynard
Asso. Prfesor & Editor Professor


Dr. S.A Sargent Dr. W.M. Stall
Asst. Professor Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina Dr. J.M. White
Asst. Professor Assoc. Professor


Herb
Basil
Thyme
Cilantro
Rosemary
Parsley
Mint
Tarragon
Dill
Oregano
Chives
Sage
Chervil


IPopularity based on
Agriculture, Vol 45:1
2Cultural information


rlu~~uo~rvr uoru




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs