Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: December 1990
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00263
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

\V'clabl~ Crops Department 1255 1SPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 90-12


December 15, 1990


.B.7" Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Suwannee Valley Field and Greenhouse Vegetable
ojg: ; Growers' Shortcourse and Tradeshow.

: ,' B. American Greenhouse Vegetable Growers' Association:
Highlights of Florida Meeting.
C. Geminivirus Subcommittee ... Fall Assessment.

SD. Onions and Day Length.

SIII. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Marion County Wins National 4-H Horticulture Honors.
B. Organic Council Appointed.


S Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The
purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
constitute a recommendation of the product.





The Institute of Food and Agripultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRiltil TIRF ANn HnMPF FCONOMICS STATE OF FLORIDA IFAS UNIVERSITY OF


I


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I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

IFAS 1991 Institute for Water-
melons and Other Cucurbits. Marion
County Extension Auditorium, 2232 N. E.
Jacksonville Rd., Ocala, FL. (Contact
George Hochmuth).

December 17-19, 1990. Florida
State Horticultural Society Convention.
Grosvenor Resort Hotel, Lake Buena Vista,
Orlando.

January 10, 1991. Principles of
Vegetable Crop Production Course (Veg.
Crops 4932). Southwest Florida R.E.C. -
Immokalee. For further information
contact Charlie Vavrina at (813) 657-5221.

January 12, 1991. Greenhouse
Vegetable Shortcourse. (See Section H-A).

February 9, 1991. 4-H/FFA Horti-
culture Contest. Florida State Fair,
Tampa. (Contact Jim Stephens).

March 11-15, 1991. Horticultural
Sciences Course HOS 5330 "Commercial
Harvesting and Postharvest Handling of
Horticultural Crops." Available for 1
graduate credit or 1 Continuing Education
Unit. Contact Dr. Steve Sargent for more
information (904) 392-7911).


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Suwannee Valley Field and
Greenhouse Vegetable Grower's Short-
course and Tradeshow. Agricultural
Coliseum. Highway 135 West, Live
Oak, January 12, 1991.

Greenhouse Vegetable Session-Exhibition
1 Building

AM Moderator: Bill Thomas, Ext. Dir.,
Columbia County


10:15 am WELCOME: Dr John Woeste,
Florida Cooperative Extension
Service, Director

10:25 am A Review and current Status
report of Florida green-
house vegetables, Bill
Thomas, Ext. Dir., Columbia
County.

10:45 am Figuring your costs of pro-
duction and fine tuning for
profit. Emil Belibasis, Green-
house Grower, Wellborn, FL

11:30 am Considerations in designing
floor level heating and ven-
tilation systems, Mark Fales,
American Coolair, Jacksonville,
FL

NOON LUNCH

PMModerator: Mike Sweat, Ext. Dir.,
Baker County

1:30 pm Tomato cultivars for North
Florida greenhouses, Bob
Hochmuth, Multi-County Ext.
Agent, Suwannee Valley AREC.

2:00 pm Sweetpotato whitefly new
and promising biological
control for the future, Dr.
Lance Osborne, Entomologist,
CFREC Apopka.

2:45 pm What is the future outlook
for greenhouse vegetables in
Florida?

Dan Brentlinger Crop King,
Medina, OH
Michael Dowgert Agro
Dynamics, East Brunswick, NJ
Tim Carpenter Hydro-
Gardens, Colorado Springs, CO
Mr. Greg Sciullo Publix
Supermarkets, Jacksonville, FL








Watermelon Session-Extension Conference
Room


3:30 pm Adjourn


Openhouse at Suwannee Valley
AREC Demonstration Green-
house.


Moderator:


Chris Vann, Ext. Agent,
Lafayette County


General Field Vegetable Session-Extension
Conference Room


Moderator:


Jim Fletcher, Ext. Dir.,
Madison County


9:30 am Frost and freeze protection
in vegetables, Dr. George
Hochmuth, Ext. Veg. Spec.,
Gainesville

10:00 am New mulches for vegetable
crops, Keith Williamson,
Sonoco Products Co., Terry
Ochab, Little & Co., and Dennis
Kutney, CDK International
Corp.

10:30 am Crop budgets for mulched
and drip irrigated vegeta-
bles in North Florida, Jim
Fletcher, Ext. Dir., Madison
County

11:00 am Irrigation management -
practical considerations for
drip irrigation managers,
Dr. Gary Clark, Ext. Irrig.
Spec., Gulf Coast AREC

11:30 am Thrips in field vegetables a
situation update, Dr. Steve
Olson, Ext. Veg. Spec., North
Florida AREC

11:50 am Suwannee Valley farmers'
market update, Will Brown,
Agriculture Market Manager,
Florida Dept. of Agriculture
and Consumer Services

NOON LUNCH


1:30 pm Fertilizer and irrigation ma-
nagement for watermelons,
Dr. George Hochmuth, Ext.
Veg. Spec., Gainesville

2:00 pm Cultivar update for stan-
dard, seedless, and icebox
watermelons, Dr. Don
Maynard, Ext. Veg. Spec., Gulf
Coast AREC

2:30 pm Selecting degradable
mulches for watermelons in
North Florida, Bob
Hochmuth, Multi-County Ext.
Agent, Suwannee Valley AREC

3:00 pm Using transplants and
mulch for early watermelon
yields, Dr. Steve Olson, Ext.
Veg. Spec., North Florida
AREC

3:30 pm Watermelon disease control
update, Dr. Tom Kucharek,
Ext. Plant Path., Gainesville

4:00 pm National watermelon pro-
motion board, Karlyn Watson,
Dir. of Industry Relations,
NWPB, Orlando, FL

4:30 pm Adjourn

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 90-12)

B. American Greenhouse Vegetable
Growers Association: Highlights of
Florida Meeting.

The American Greenhouse Vegetable
Growers Association (AGVGA) met in
Jacksonville, Florida on November 1-3,
1990. The program was built around a two-


4:00 -
till dark








day seminar and a one-day tour of commer-
cial greenhouses in the north Florida area.
Florida was chosen for the 1990 meetings
because of the state's large and expanding
greenhouse vegetable industry. Individuals
familiar with the American greenhouse
vegetable industry agreed that Florida is
emerging as a leading greenhouse vegeta-
ble state. Some highlights of the meeting
were:
Representatives from De Ruiter
Seeds (Jim Farley), Asgrow-(Bruinsma)
Seeds (Frank Jonkman), and Canners -
(Nunhems) Seeds (Gary Whiteaker) dis-
cussed some of their new varieties of
greenhouse vegetables. Tomato breeding
efforts are dominated by the need for
Fusarium crown rot resistance. Most new
tomato varieties will be non-greenshoulder.
Bill Staver from the Research Insti-
tute of Ontario, Vineland, presented results
of his research on the use of bumblebees
for tomato pollination. Pollination with
bumblebees was reported to be as effective
as mechanical vibration. Some details on
bee management need to be worked out,
however, results appear promising.
The sweet potato whitefly is becom-
ing a major pest in Florida greenhouses. If
left uncontrolled, tomato fruits ripen non-
uniformly and are unmarketable. Lance
Osborne for the University of Florida
discussed his research on biological control
of whitefly. Recent attempts at control
with the Encarsa parasite, on a commercial
scale, were not successful in reducing
populations of the sweetpotato whitefly to
levels at which irregular ripening is
prevented. Research on other biological
agents, including certain fungi appear
promising.
Bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases
remain serious problems in greenhouses,
especially those operations in humid, sub-
tropical production areas. Gemini and
tomato spotted wilt viruses are a potential
threat to many greenhouse tomato pro-
ducers. Frank Killebrew, from Mississippi
State University gave a very informative
presentation on greenhouse vegetable


diseases. Greenhouse vegetable producers
are feeling an increased pinch in the area
of disease control due to the lack of pesti-
cides and an ever-changing spectrum of in-
sect pests and diseases. Strength of the
industry will be largely dependent on
building resistance into varieties and on
finding effective biological control agents.
Several presentations highlighted the
greenhouse industry in Florida and the
research and extension programs at the
University of Florida dealing with green-
house vegetables. Bob Hochmuth, Mike
Sweat, and Bill Thomas, all from the
University of Florida, discussed the growth
of the industry in Florida and the chal-
lenges the growing industry faces. There
are currently 70 acres of greenhouse vege-
tables in Florida, up from 55 acres in 1988.
Cucumbers and tomatoes account for about
50% of the production in Florida.
Fertilizer management of Florida
tomatoes was the topic of a presentation by
George Hochmuth. High temperatures
and high radiant energy provide challenges
for Florida growers to control plant growth
and produce high-quality fruits. Research
at the University of Florida has produced
several nutrient formulations for use under
Florida conditions.
Several states are experiencing simi-
lar greenhouse production increases as
Florida. Many requests come from inex-
perienced individuals desiring a second
income or diversification of businesses.
Gary Hickman from the University of
California and Bob Hochmuth discussed
key points and considerations that pro-
spective growers must understand prior to
investing in a greenhouse business. If a
greenhouse business can be described, it
would include the descriptors expensive,
time consuming, task specific, and mana-
gerial dependent.
The education program development
session led by Tim Carpenter of Hydro-
gardens in Colorado, provided a breadth of
information for greenhouse vegetable
growers. The greenhouse industry faces
some strong challenges. Land-Grant








Universities are entering a period of
potential down-sizing during which certain
research and extension programs might be
redirected and eliminated. Dr. Waters
suggested that grower groups will need to
become actively involved in supporting
research and extension programs in green-
house vegetable production. Strength of
the industry in the future will depend on
technological and marketing prowess.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 90-12)

C. Geminivirus Subcommittee...
Fall Assessment.

Convening in Bradenton in Novem-
ber, the Geminivirus Subcommittee
assessed the general climate of the fall
geminivirus incidence and research
advancements. The Palmetto/Ruskin area
exhibited the highest incidence of gemini-
virus with some fields having as much as
100% infection. Virus and whitefly inci-
dence was low to nonexistent in southwest
Florida, and on the east coast (specifically
Dade county) as of this date.
Significant progress toward the
identification and characterization of
Florida's geminivirus strain has been made
by Dr. Heibert and his post doctoral asso-
ciate Dr. Ahamed Abouzid. Using the
mechanically transmitted geminivirus pre-
viously isolated by Dr. Purcifull, Abouzid
and Heibert were able to devise 2 probes to
the circular DNA (DNA-A, DNA-B) of the
virus. The virus appears to be different
from any of the other geminivirus
sequenced to date although the DNA-A
probe does exhibit homology to Bean
Golden Mosaic. The DNA-B probe will
prove to be more specific in detecting the
mechanically transmitted virus. Early
testing of the probe on tissue exhibiting
symptoms like those seen in the field
showed a marked response to the DNA-A
probe, but not the DNA-B probe, sug-
gesting that at least two viruses exist. All
scientists agreed that while this gemini-
virus can be mechanically transmitted in


the lab, the likelihood of mechanical trans-
mission in the field is very low. It remains
to be seen whether or not a mixed virus
infection is responsible for the variety of
symptoms seen in the field.
To answer the concerns of the trans-
plant growers, Drs. Brown (DPI) and
Simone, Extension, have begun a survey to
assess the incidence of geminivirus in
transplant houses. Most of the questions
about this phenomenon occurred in the
Palmetto/ Ruskin area, but the low inci-
dence of geminivirus in southern Florida
should dispel these rumors as many of the
transplants in this area were shipped from
the Palmetto/Ruskin area. The concern
was based on the observation that symptom
expression in newly transplanted fields was
occurring in less than 14 days. The 14-day
information was based on Dr. Schuster's
research from his cage studies in the
greenhouse. It was suggested that virus
symptom expression may be more rapid
under full sunlight, therefore the 14-day
scenario might be misleading.
Dr. Scott has noticed that larger
more vigorous Lycopersicon types (eg. L.
pimpinellifolium) seem to resist the virus
more readily. He also stated that an Israeli
line resistant to tomato yellow leaf curl
appears tolerant to our complex and hopes
to be including it in breeding efforts.
Dr. Agrios indicated that all grant
options for funding from the USDA or the
state legislature have proven unfruitful.
However, the Florida Tomato Exchange
funded Drs. Simone and Heibert $12,000
for work on probe development for diag-
nosis and identification of the geminivirus,
and Drs. Schuster, Stansly and others
$33,000 for geminivirus epidemiology and
control. Drs. Heibert and Webb are hoping
for aid from a BARD (Bilateral Agricultural
Research and Development agreement)
request.
Other news in this area includes: the
Proceedings of the Sweetpotato Whitefly
Workshop held in Homestead in February
'89 are available in limited quantity from
Dr. Narayanan (TREC, Homestead); a fact








sheet on Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus is pre-
sently available in limited quantity from
Dr. Tom Kucharek; Dr. Scott says a variety
of tomato called 'Stevens' developed in
South Africa has good spotted wilt virus
resistance and may be valuable in a breed-
ing program for Florida; finally, look for
PEST ALERT under the FAIRS Pesticide
Information database for timely info on
insect/disease epidemics in your area and
adjacent areas (contact Drs. McGovern or
Stansly at SWFREC).

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 90-12)

D. Onions and Day Length.

According to most seed catalogs,
short-day onions represented by the mild
Granex and Grano types are adapted to
Florida and other southern growing loca-
tions. On the other hand, long-day onion
varieties which are more pungent and
suitable for long-term storage are grown in
northern production areas. An interme-
diate class of onions with respect to day
length is also available for areas between
these extremes.
The bulbing response in onions is
controlled by day length, and all onions are
technically long-day with respect to bulbing
response. That is, the bulbing response is
triggered by increasing day length. How-
ever, certain types initiate bulbs when the
day length reaches 12 to 14 hours, and are
popularly called 'short-day onions' and are
generally adapted to areas south of 35"
latitude. 'Intermediate-day onions' initiate
bulbing when the day length is about 14
hours and are adapted to areas between
32* and 38 latitude.
The horticultural classification of
onion types, although the nomenclature is
technically incorrect, is useful in assigning
various onion types to specific production
areas. What would happen if a grower
selected a long-day onion for production in
Florida? The transplants would be set in
the field at the normal time, but would not
begin to initiate bulbs until the day length


exceeded 14 hours. By this time top
growth would be excessive and the bulbs
would not reach marketable size before
summer rains prevented normal matura-
tion. So, until a better classification sys-
tem is developed, we will continue to use
the term short-day onion when considering
types for production here.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 90-12)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Marion County Wins National
4-H Horticulture Honors.

Once again our state winning 4-H
horticulture plant identification team (once
again from Marion County) has gone on to
the national event and won the judging and
identification contest handily. But we ex-
pect nothing less from such a strong horti-
cultural state as Florida and a dedicated
coach as Marion Co. 4-H agent Bob Renner.
To review the accomplishments of
this super group, the 4-H tean composed of
Debbie Lane, Aleesha Freimuth, Kari
Boswick, and Joel Bockoras won the state
contest held at Gainesville back in July
during State 4-H Congress. They defeated
7 other county teams for the privilege of
representing Florida at the national event.
So in late October Renner took his
now well-trained team of hort-nuts to
Green Bay, Wisconsin for the annual con-
vention of the National Junior Horticul-
tural Association. With him he also had
Jeanne Fugate, winner of the State Plant
Science Demonstrations. You guessed it,
Jeanne is also from Marion County.
How well did this group represent
Florida and our sponsor, the Florida Fruit
& Vegetable Association? "Tolerably well",
I'd say! Or some might say, "exceptionally
well"! Not only did the 4-H horticulture
judging team defeat the nation's best, but
they did so in convincing style. The high-
est score in the 4-H contest was posted by
Kari Boswick, who had placed only third at








state. The Florida team also posted the
second and fourth best scores; just about a
white-wash.
Not to be outdone in her event,
Jeanne Fugate was a national winner of the
plant science demonstrations. She also
entered the Honors Division of the Horti-
cultural Identification and Judging Contest,
and placed fourth nationally. We are proud
to have such an achieving 4-Her as Jeanne,
(who scored 1530 out of 1600 in her high
school SAT!) involved in our horticulture
program.
There's more, you say! Yes Siree,
Bob! The Grand National winner in the
Young America Gardening Contest was K.
C. Lorick, a member of Renner's Marion
group of outstanding 4-H super-achievers.
Congratulations to all!
Don't forget that in 1991 Florida
hosts the national convention. It will be
held in late October in Orlando. Will Bob
Renner defend the title successfully? Be
there and see.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 90-12)

B. Organic Council Appointed.

Florida's organic gardeners are not
affected directly by the new Organic Farm
Bill passed recently by the Florida Legisla-
ture. It is only when a grower offers a


product for sale as organic that the rules
apply. However, most organic gardeners
are interested in trying to practice com-
monly accepted and proper organic proce-
dures.
Helping to determine the rules to
follow for organic growers in Florida will be
an Organic Advisory Council, appointed by
Commissioner of Agriculture, Doyle
Conner. The nine members appointed
represent consumers, producers, retailers,
handlers, and brokers, according the
Florida Market Bulletin from FDACS. The
appointees are: Robin Lauriault, Melrose;
Alan Derting, Pineland; Dave Davidson,
Altamonte Springs; Carol Wilkinson,
Tallahassee; Steven Roslow, Ft. Pierce;
Wade Howell, Jennings; Linda Donaldson,
Mulberry; Gil Bowen, Haines City; and
John King, Winter Haven.
For more information about the new
Florida organic certification program,
contact: Richard Gunnels, Division of
Marketing, Room 428 Mayo Bldg., Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0800,
phone: (904) 488-9682.

(Stephens, Vegetarian, 90-12)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


and Editor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S.A. Sargent
Asst. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D.N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor




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