Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: August 1990
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00259
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


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VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Depart lcn. 1255 (SPP Gaincville. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 90-08


August 15, 1990


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Calendar
B. Publications
C. Low Input Vegetable Production Demonstration.
D. Florida Pepper Institute.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Blossom-end Rot: Relation of Calcium Nutrition and
Water Management.


Jl' B. The Latest on Controlling Height in the Transplant
House.

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
SA. 1990 State 4-H Horticulture Contest Results.
......"
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Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
I'_ :. Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
Information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.





The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
f"nnOo ATHIC cVTCMiInhtI iAinf/ I Al tPrII'i In

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I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Calendar.

July 9 August 25, 1990.
CANCELLED Vegetable Crop Production
and Marketing. International USDA
Technical Course TC 130-11. Will be
rescheduled for 1991. (Contact Steve
Sargent).

August 22-24, 1990. State Master
Gardener Continued Training. J. Wayne
Reitz Union, University of Florida.
(Contact Kathleen Ruppert)

September 5, 1990. Florida
Tomato Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples.

September 6-7, 1990. Tomato
Committee/Exchange Meetings. Ritz
Carlton Hotel, Naples.

September 10-13, 1990. State
Extension Conference. San Destin Inn,
Destin, FL.

October 10, 1990. Florida Pepper
Institute. Palm Beach Extension Office,
North Military Trail.

October 26-28, 1990. National
Junior Horticultural Association
Convention. Green Bay, Wisconsin.

November 13, 1990. Southwest
Florida Research & Education Center's
Vegetable Field Day and Trade Show.
(Contact Charlie Vavrina).

October, 1991. National Junior
Horticultural Association Convention.
Orlando. (Contact Dick Wooton).

B. Publications.

C. S. Vavrina and K Armbrester.
1990. Pepper Variety Performance,
Immokalee, Fall 1989. SWFREC Research
Report IMM 90-7.


John Paul Jones. History of Plant
Pathology at the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center 1925-1990. Bradenton
GCREC Research Report BRA1990-2.

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters.
Fresh Market Cucumber Variety Trial,
Fall 1989. Bradenton GCREC Research
Report BRA1990-3.

C. D. Stanley. Temperature and
Rainfall Report for 1988. Bradenton
GCREC Research Report BRA1990-04.

C. D. Stanley. Temperature and
Rainfall Report for 1989. Bradenton
GCREC Research Report BRA1990-05.

T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters.
Bell Pepper Variety Trial for Fall 1989.
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA1990-6.

W. E. Waters, Editor. 1989
Publication List for GCREC-Bradenton
and AREC-Dover. GCREC Research
Report BRA1990-7.


C. D. Stanley
Freeze Probabilities
Bradenton GCREC
BRA1990-10.


and D. N. Maynard.
in Manatee County.
Research Report


W. E. Waters, J. P. Jones, G. J.
Wilfret. The History, Development,
Accomplishments and Programs of the
Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center. GCREC Bradenton Research
Report BRA1990-1.


C. Low Input
Production Demonstration.


Vegetable


The Lee County Extension Service,
Collier County Extension Service, and
Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center, working cooperatively,
received a $38,000 grant from the
Governor's Energy Office to fund a
project entitled "Low Input Vegetable
Production Demonstration".
The energy conservation
demonstration is anticipated to show









direct and indirect energy savings by
significantly reducing the application of
fertilizer, pesticide and water while
maintaining adequate production profit
levels.
The project will involve growing a
tomato crop followed by a watermelon
crop utilizing a drip irrigation and
fertigation system. Best management
practices including integrated pest
management will be used to produce the
commercial vegetable crops.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 90-08)

D. Florida Pepper Institute.

FLORIDA PEPPER INSTITUTE
Palm Beach County Cooperative Extension
531 N. Military Trail
West Palm Beach
October 10, 1990


Morning Session:
Moderator


D. N. Maynard,


10:00 Welcome D. J. Cantliffe.

10:15 Performance Of Pepper Varieties.
Southwest Florida C. S. Vavrina
East Coast K. D. Shuler
West Central Fla. T. K. Howe

10:45 Fertility Management For Peppers
Grown With Drip And Seepage
Irrigation. G. J. Hochmuth.


11:05 Row Covers: Principles
Materials. W. M. Stall.


And


11:20 Row Covers: Experience And
Observations. W. E. Dubois And
J. I. Whitworth III.

11:30 Third Party Registrations:
Principles And Use For Pepper
Growers. C. F. Wilson, Jr.

12:00 LUNCH Courtesy Of Ciba Geigy
And Rohm & Haas.


Afternoon Session:
Moderator


K. D. Shuler,


1:00 Thrips and Their Management On
Peppers. D. J. Schuster.

1:30 Bacterial Spot Management. J. B.
Jones.

1:50 Current Status Of EDBC's For Use
On Peppers And Other Vegetables.
T. A. Kucharek.

2:10 Reducing Injury To Bell Peppers
During Handling. S. A. Sargent.

2:30 The National Pepper Conference.
T. W. Winsberg.


2:50 The Pepper Exchange.
Brown.


R. L.


3:00 Adjournment Of The Pepper
Institute. Annual Meeting Of The
Pepper Exchange To Follow.

(D. N. Maynard, Vegetarian 90-08)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Blossom-end Rot: Relation
of Calcium Nutrition and Water
Management.

Many growers have complained this
spring and early summer about blossom-
end rot disorders in peppers and
tomatoes. Blossom-end rot is manifested
by a break down and decay of the
blossom-end area of the tomato or pepper
fruits. The break-down usually involves a
concave shaped necrotic area that will
eventually decay due to infestation by
bacteria or it may simply turn black from
the appearance of a sooty mold fungi
growth on the surface of the lesion.
Blossom-end rot is a calcium
deficiency disorder of these fruits. The
calcium deficiency disorder can be caused
by primary calcium deficiency per se or it
can be caused by an indirect calcium
deficiency brought on by water stress.
The disorder is caused by the breakdown
of the cells in the tissue due to
inadequate calcium supply to the affected
area.





-4-


Calcium nutrition is closely related
to water status in the plant because
calcium travels in the plant via the
transpiration stream. The leaves are the
largest sink for movement of water and
calcium, especially newly expanding and
rapidly growing leaves on the plant.
Fruits, in general, are not transpiring as
the leaves are and therefore are less of a
deposition sink for calcium. In periods of
water stress, the leaves, as large
transpiring organs, will receive the largest
portion of water and calcium. If this
calcium deficiency occurs during rapid
fruit enlargement, blossom-end rot is
likely to occur. This is one reason we
tend to see blossom-end rot on some of
the first clusters of fruits on a plant.
These plants are rapidly growing, have a
large leaf area which is transpiring water,
and are at the same time sizing fruits. If
a temporary water stress occurs during
this early growth, then the fruits are the
last ones to receive adequate calcium
nutrition.
Calcium is not highly remobilized
from the lower leaves to the upper leaves
as would be phosphorus or potassium, for
example. Therefore, during periods of
mild calcium stress, newly developing
fruits can not receive adequate calcium
from the leaves below them. The calcium
must be delivered to the fruits via the
water stream. Because calcium is not
highly remobilized from the leaves to the
fruits, it follows that foliar sprays of
calcium are not likely to correct blossom-
end rot on tomatoes or peppers. The
calcium from these foliar sprays can be
delivered to the leaves but it will not
move from the leaves to the fruits. It is
also unlikely that enough of the foliar
applied calcium will be deposited on the
fruit to do any benefit.
To control blossom-end rot, there
are several avenues growers can use.
Obviously, since calcium disorders such as
blossom-end rot are associated with water
stress, growers should strive to supply
adequate water to the plants especially
during hot, windy periods when water
stress is likely. This was a particular
reason for the severity of blossom-end rot


during the previous hot and dry spring.
If the soil contains on the order of 300
parts per million or above of double-acid
extractable calcium, then there should be
enough calcium available from the soil to
the plant. If the double-acid calcium
index is 300 or above, then additions of
extra calcium from either fertilizer, lime,
or gypsum will be unlikely to result in a
reduction in blossom-end rot severity. If
the soil test calcium index is in an
adequate range and the water
management program is adequate to keep
up with the plant demand, then blossom-
end rot is unlikely.
We have however seen situations
where there was adequate calcium in the
soil and the water management program
was optimum, yet blossom-end rot still
appeared. In these situations, an
additional factor was probably at play in
causing blossom-end rot. This additional
factor is high soluble salt content of the
soils. Under situations of very high
soluble salt content in the soil, plants
have difficulty in extracting water from
the salty soil solution. In addition, there
could be salt burn damage to the root tips
which are responsible for most of the
calcium uptake by the plant. As
mentioned above, water status of the
plant is very important in regulating the
calcium nutrition available to the crop.
Therefore, situations of high soluble salt
content in the soil would be another
condition that would predispose plants to
blossom-end rot. It is possible that
overfertilization, particularly from high
nitrogen and high potassium, could play a
role in the high salt content in the soils
predisposing the plants to blossom-end
rot. Growers that have reduced their
nitrogen and potassium fertilizer rates
have noticed a marked reduction in
problems from blossom-end rot.
Although blossom-end rot can be
a serious problem in tomatoes and
peppers, there are several cultural
practices that growers can combine into
one management scheme to reduce the
likelihood of blossom-end rot problems.
These management schemes basically
revolve around water management as the









main goal of blossom-end rot control.
Maintaining soil calcium in an adequate
range is a factor but in the situations this
past spring, water stress and high soluble
salts were the main predisposing factors
for blossom-end rot in tomatoes and
peppers.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 90-08)


B. The Latest on Controlling
Plant Height in the Transplant House.

With the loss of B-9 daminozidee)
last June vegetable transplant growers
lost one tool they had to control
legginesss" in their transplants.
Controlling height by temperature
manipulation, though highly touted in
several trade magazines this past spring,
is not an option for the Florida grower.
Shaking or brushing plants to reduce
plant height shows promise, but the
implementation of such a system in
Florida's production houses and the
possible disadvantage of spreading disease
has not been investigated. Height control
by moisture stress or nutrient deficiency,
though widely employed, can result in
crop damage.
Some interest has been generated
within Valent U.S.A. and Ciba-Geigy to
"register" Sumagic (uniconizole) and
Tilt/Banner (propiconizole) respectively
for use in vegetable transplants for height
reduction. Based on work in Florida,
Texas, and Pennsylvania, Valent has
submitted a request to IR-4 to review the
use of uniconizole in vegetable
transplants. Uniconizole is commonly
used in the ornamental industry.
Ciba-Geigy is considering pursuing
a 24C, special local needs registration (ie.
a state label) for propiconizole as a growth
retardant for vegetable transplants.
Propiconizole is presently registered as a
fungicide for rice, wheat, barley and rye.
These materials can effectively
replace B-9 daminozidee) when the need
to control plant height is necessary as has
been shown with tomato from tests
conducted in Immokalee transplant


houses. Furthermore, if applied properly,
neither material appears to affect total
yield.
While the particulars are being
worked out, you can voice your support by
contacting either Dr. John Taylor, Ciba-
Geigy, (904-736-1301) or Dr. Jerry
Hulbert, Valent U.S.A., (407-682-3553).

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 90-08)


I. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. 19f
Contest Results.


)0 State 4-H Horticulture


Two vegetable related 4-H events
were conducted recently during State 4-H
Club Congress at the University of
Florida, Gainesville. These were the
Horticulture Plant Identification and
Judging Contest, and the Plant Science
Demonstrations.
The first event, Horticulture ID
and Judging, was held in the Fifield
greenhouse classrooms. Eight counties
and 31 senior 4-H members competed in
the educational event which tests their
knowledge of a wide array of horticultural
plants, including fruits, nuts, vegetables,
and ornamentals. Participants must also
evaluate the quality and grade
characteristics of these products in the
judging segment.
The other event, Plant Science
Demonstrations, was conducted in the
Reitz Union. Ten counties participated.
In this competition the demonstrators,
working in pairs or as individuals, show
and tell the audience about an important
horticultural practice, such as mulching,
grafting, or preparation of a product for
marketing.
The results of the two contests
follow. The winners of each event will
represent our state in the national
contests scheduled for Green Bay,
Wisconsin in late October, as part of the
National Junior Horticultural Association
convention. (Note: Florida will host this
national convention next year, 1991, in
the Orlando area.) We are pleased to









have as our state sponsor for these events
and our entire 4-H horticulture program
the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association (FFVA). This organization
represents most of the growers and
shippers of Florida's bounty of vegetables,
citrus, and other fruit crops. Mr. Reggie
Brown is our liaison with FFVA.

Results 1990 State Plant Science
Demonstrations.

1st. Jeanne Fugate Marion Co.*
2nd Jennie Bartels and Lori Spivey -
Manatee Co.
3rd Kevin Crowell Polk Co.
4th Raney Emmons Volusia Co.
5th Dawn March Broward Co.
6th Angela Heitmeyer Leon Co.
7th Clayton Vanderlaan Palm Beach
Co.
8th Amanda Curry Osceola Co.
9th Janet Jones Gilchrist Co.
10th Allen Barber Hardee Co.
* Represents Florida at NJHA
Convention.


Results 1990 State 4-H Horticulture ID
and Judging.

High Individual Debbie Lane, Marion Co.

1st Place Team Marion Co.*
2nd Place Team St. Johns Co.
3rd Place Team Duval Co.
4th Place Team Sarasota Co.
5th Place Team Volusia Co.
6th Place Team Manatee Co.
7th Place Team Taylor Co.
8th Place Team Lee Co.
*Represents Florida at NJHA convention.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 90-08)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W. M. Stall (Editor)
Professor

* o1, 0 1


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S. A. Sargent
Asst. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor




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