Title: Vegetarian
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 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: July 1990
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00258
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Xbgetable Crops Departlment 1 8255 SD CGainesville, FL 32611 Telcphone 392-2134


Vegetarian 90-07


July 16, 1990


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Calendar
B. 1990 Florida Tomato Institute

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Comparative Yields of Peppers Harvested Immature and
Mature.
B. Organic Support Industries.


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE
#r A. Gramoxone Super Label for Harvest-Aid on Dry Beans.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Record-size Vegetable Update.


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
C _, < ^ trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
f the product.







The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
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I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Calendar.

July 9 August 25, 1990.
CANCELLED Vegetable Crop Production
and Marketing. International USDA
Technical Course TC 130-11. Will be
rescheduled for 1991. (Contact Steve
Sargent).

July 24, 1990. State 4-H Congress
Horticulture Judging Identification and
Demonstration events. Fifield Hall,
University of Florida. (Contact J. M.
Stephens)

August 22-24, 1990. State Master
Gardener Continued Training. J. Wayne
Reitz Union, University of Florida.
(Contact Kathleen Ruppert)

September 5, 1990. Florida
Tomato Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples.

September 6-7, 1990. Tomato
Committee/Exchange Meetings. Ritz
Carlton Hotel, Naples.

October 10, 1990. Florida Pepper
Institute. Palm Beach Extension Office,
North Military Trail.

October, 1991. National Junior
Horticultural Association Convention.
Orlando. (Contact Dick Wooton).


B.
Institute.


1990 Florida Tomato


September 5, 1990
8:30 AM 4:00 PM
Ritz Carlton Hotel
Naples, Florida

Preliminary Program


DACS Regulatory Activities
Tomato Growers, Bill Pace,
Division of Inspection, Florida
Agriculture and Consumer
Tallahassee, FL.


Affecting
Director,
Dept. of
Services,


Report on the 1990 Farm Bill, John M.
Himmelberg, atty, Holland and Knight,
Washington, D.C.

Disposal of Dump Tank Water, Dan Botts,
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Assn.,
Orlando, FL.

Commercial Hybrid Seed Production and
Processing. R. F. Heisey, Assoc. Director,
Solanaceous Crops. Asgrow Seed Co., San
Jaun Bautista, CA.

Public and Private Tomato Breeding in
Florida. Wayne Fowler, Asgrow Seed Co.,
Naples, FL, Jay Scott, GCREC, Bradenton,
FL, Ray Volin, Northrup King Seed Co,
Naples, FL.

Fully Enclosed Subsurface Irrigation
System, G. A. Clark, Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center, Bradenton, FL.

Insecticides for Control of Thrips in
Tomatoes and Implications for
Management of Tomato Spotted Wilt
Virus. J. F. Funderburk, North Florida
Research and Education Center, Quincy,
FL.

Sweet Potato Whitefly Update. P. A.
Stansly, Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center, Immokalee, FL.

Gemini Virus Update. R. J. McGovern,
Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center, Immokalee, FL.

Potential of Biocides to Control Bacterial
and Fungal Diseases in Tomato. K. R.
Narayanan, Tropical Research and
Education Center, Homestead, FL.

Fusarium Grown Rot of Tomato. J. P.
Jones, Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center, Bradenton, FL.

(W. M. Stall, Vegetarian 90-07)









II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Comparative Yields of
Peppers Harvested Immature and Mature.

Most vegetables are marketable at
only one stage of maturity. Peppers, on
the other hand, can be marketed at the
immature (green or purple) or mature
(red or yellow) stage of development. In
recent years, there has been more
consumer interest in colored peppers
because of their aesthetic appeal and
superior nutritional quality.
Although colored peppers usually
command higher prices than green
peppers, growers are aware that costs of
production are higher because of the
longer time required to harvest which
necessitates additional pest control sprays,
irrigation pumping, and crop


Table 1. Comparative yields of pepper
mature (red/yellow).


maintenance. There is also the risk of
lower yields because of fruit rots, insect
damage, and unfavorable weather.
Trials conducted by T. K. Howe
and W. E. Waters in the spring 1987
(GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1988-5) and 1988
(GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1988-21) seasons
at the Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center compared performance of pepper
varieties harvested at the green or colored
stage of maturity. Yields of the top five
varieties for mature harvest are shown in
Table 1. Yield reductions of 23 to 45%
occurred in 1987 when peppers were
harvested at the colored stage as
compared to the same varieties harvested
at the green stage. In 1988, varieties
harvested at the colored stage had yield
reductions of 13 to 43% as compared to
the same varieties harvested at the green
stage of maturity.


varieties harvested immature (green) or


Variety1
Whopper Improved
Lady Bell
Crispy
Green Boy
Mello


Yield (25 Ib cartons/
1000 lbf)2
Immature Mature
155 120
135 100
134 89
113 83
144 79


Yield
Reduction (%)
23
25
44
27
45


1988 Orabell 162 145 13
Lady Bell 166 135 19
Crispy 171 134 22
Mission Belle 162 119 27
Summer Sweet 860 185 106 43

1Varieties are ranked according to highest mature yield.
2(lbf = linear bed feet).


Year
1987





-4-


The principal defects that
contributed to the reduced yield of
colored peppers were sunburned,
misshapened, and undersized fruit.
The average performance of all of
the varieties included in the trials is
shown in Table 2. Average yield
reductions of 57 and 42% occurred when
colored fruit were harvested as compared
to green fruit in 1987 and 1988,
respectively.


Table 2. Performance parameters of
or mature (red/yellow).


These yield reductions were directly
related to a great increase in culls which
reduced the number of marketable fruit
per plant by 63% in 1987 and 54% in
1988. The only positive parameter to
show and increase in the colored harvests
was fruit weight which increased 22% and
26% in 1987 and 1988, respectively. This,
of course, reduced the number of colored
fruit per carton as compared to green
fruit.


peppers harvested immature (green/purple)


19871
Change
Tmmnture Mature (')


19882


Immature


(Change)
Mature (%)


25-lb cartons/
1000 lbf'
Fruit/plant
Percent culls
Oz/fruit
Fruit/carton


1Average of 25 varieties.
2Average of 26 varieties.
3lbf = linear bed feet.


Based on these results, it is
apparent that growers must receive a
substantial price advantage for colored
peppers in order to compensate for the
lower yields obtained and the increased
production costs of their production as
compared to those of green peppers.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 90-07)


B. Organic Support Industries.

As the 16th Annual Summer
Conference of the National Organic
Farmers Association nears (Amherst,
Massachusetts, August 3-5, 508-355-2853)
it is apparent this sector of farming is
alive and well. The support industry to
these organic farmers is growing and


includes consultants, suppliers of
beneficial insects, equipment, resources,
and information storehouses.
An excellent source of information
on organic support industries is the
Organic Farming Directory published by
the Small Farm Center, University of
California, Davis, CA (916-757-8910).
This publication is a soup to nuts
presentation (24 pages) discussing terms,
organic food law (CA only), organizations,
suppliers, consultants, classes and
periodicals. It is a must reference for the
novice and experienced organic grower
alike. Fifty-two very diverse suppliers, 26
consultants, 12 classes, and 20 periodicals
are highlighted.
The 4th edition of the Suppliers of
Beneficial Organisms in North America
available through the California Dept. of
Food and Agriculture, Biological Control


Parameter


143.7
3.8
16.4
5.1
79.3


62.2
1.4
55.0
6.2
66.9


-57
-63
+335
+22
-16


147.2
4.1
15.7
4.9
82.7


85.3
1.9
46.8
6.2
66.2


-42
-54
+298
+26
-20


pm-rmova Immtur




-5-


Services Program, 3288 Meadowview Road,
Sacramento, CA 95832 (c/o Larry Bezark,
916-427-4590), is perhaps the most
complete listing of beneficial purveyors.
Bezark has compiled 60 beneficial
organism supply companies from 17 states
and Canada with California, Texas, and
Illinois companies dominating the market.
The 12 page pamphlet boasts nine
predatory mites, eleven fly parasites, five
parasitic nematodes, and thirty-eight
"other" organisms such as predators on
aphids, whitefly eggs, and Mexican Bean
Beetles or parasites of leafhoppers,
leafminers, and Colorado Potato Beetles.
Some of these organisms may require a
permit to import so a call to the Division
of Plant Industries would be appropriate.
[IFAS researchers have several ongoing
projects in biological control of insects on
vegetables. These projects include
parasites of sweetpotato whitefly (Schuster
& Bennett) and leafminer (Schuster),
fungal attack of sweetpotato whitefly
(Osborne), and biological control of mole
crickets (Frank).]
Two very informative organizations
of particular use to the organic grower are
the Institute for Alternative Agriculture
(IAA), Inc. and Appropriate Technology
Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA). As a
USDA function, ATTRA responds to
written (7777 Walnut Grove Rd., Box 17,
Memphis, TN 38119) or phone (800-346-
9140) requests for information on low-
input agriculture. Specialists tailor
response information, provide referrals
and discuss appropriate alternatives for
each request. IAA (9200 Edmonston Rd.,
Suite 117, Greenbelt, MD 20770 or 301-
441-8777) provides a national
clearinghouse for information on low-cost,
resource conserving and environmentally
sound farming practices.
The increasing pressure to reduce
chemical inputs on fruits and vegetables
may necessitate a move by commercial
horticulture into the more "organic"
realm. These bulletins, organizations, and
suppliers are a good place to start.


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Gramoxone Super Label for
Harvest-Aid on Dry Beans.

Gramoxone Super (paraquat) has
been issued a supplemental label for use
as a harvest aid on dry beans.
Application of 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 pts
(.28 to .47 Ib ai) per acre may be made as
a single application or up to 2 1/2 pts
total may be applied in split applications.
A spreader (non-ionic) at 1 quart per 100
gallons of spray mix should be used.
Do not harvest within 7 days of
last application. May be used on all
Phaseolus spp. (including kidney, lima,
mung, navy, pinto, snap and wax beans),
Vigna spp. (including asparagus beans,
blackeyed peas, cowpeas), Cicer sp. (chick
peas, garbanzo beans,) and Lupines. Do
not use on Faba beans.
The labelling must be in possession
of user at the time of pesticide
application.

(Stall, Vegetarian 90-07)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Record-size Vegetable Update.

Since we started keeping track of
Florida's largest vegetables in February
1989, we have had most of the vegetable
categories filled with at least one entry.
The story that went to over 40 Florida
newspapers in October of 1989 (and was
picked up by the AP for national
circulation) kindled the competitive spirit
in a lot of gardeners around the state.
As a result we have had several
new records set since my last update.
Here is a brief outline of new records set
in 1990.


(Vavrina, Vegetarian 90-07)





-6-


Florida's Record-size vegetables in 1990
Certifying
Vegetable Size Grower Agent County Date


Beet


Broccoli


Cantaloupe


Collard


Cucumber


Jicama


Kohlrabi


Pepper


Potato


Pumpkin

Radish,
summer

Radish,
winter

Squash,
zucchini

Squash,
hubbard

Squash,
scallop

Tomato

Turnip


1 lb
14 oz

1 lb
14 oz

21 lb
8 oz

5 ft
7 in

3 lb
6.5 oz

2 lb
10 oz

8 lb
12 oz

1 lb
1 oz

2 lb
13 oz

242 lbs

3 lb
12 oz

9 lb
10 oz

8 lb
4 oz

19 lb
4 oz

2 lb
1 oz

3 lb

14 lb
4 oz


Dorothy Fritz


Nancy Roe


Eugene Perry


Ray Raczkowski


Ron McClellan


Henry Orth


Sam Eisenberg


Richard Amestoy


Wallace Kight


McDonald Graham

H. Vanderlaan


Tom Yee


Ed Schmidt


Harold Hodges


Vic Heidman


R. Splanger

Dale Hensel


Joyner


Stephens


Tervola


Swanson


MacCubbin


Joyner


Jones


Shuler


Dilbeck


Tervola

Joyner


Shuler


Jones


Jones


Stephens


Phillips

Dilbeck


Palm Beach


Alachua


Suwannee


Lake


Orange


Palm Beach


Duval


Palm Beach


St. Johns


Suwannee

Palm Beach


Palm Beach


Duval


Duval


Alachua


Marion

St. Johns


01-24-90


04-27-90


06-18-90


01-26-90


06-18-90


01-24-90


06-09-90


02-02-90


05-23-90


07-03-90

01-31-90


02-02-90


06-09-90


06-09-90


05-20-90


07-11-90

03-06-90









So, we have had 17 new records
set in 1990, with the year only half over.
I hear there is a 3-pound tomato out
there, and we're waiting for that county
to certify it. also, someone has a big
pumpkin going for the record.
It's interesting to note that the
leading counties so far are as follows:

Palm Beach 6 records
Alachua 6 records
Duval 4 records
St. Johns 3 records

and of the 27 records on file, 19 of the
big vegetables were grown north of 1-4,
while only 8 were grown in South Florida
where vegetables are traditionally grown.
None of the records are out of
reach, so the record book stays open.
Give me a call if your county can top one.

(Stephens Vegetarian 90-07)



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W. M. Stall (Editor)
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S. A. Sargent
Asst. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor




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