Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: June 1990
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00257
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 IISPP Gdincsvillc. FL 32611 Telephonei 392-2134


Vegetarian 90-06


June 15, 1990


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Calendar
B. New Publications

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Using Up-To-Date Fertilizer Recommendations.
B. Fall Broccoli Variety Selection for North Florida.
C. Maintaining Air Quality in Cold Storage Rooms Part 2 -
Avoiding and Controlling Contaminated Air.
D. Vegetable Crops Library.

m. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 1990 St. Johns County Vegetable Gardening Contest.


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRlrIII TillRF Ain l-lnF FPCNOrMin STATF OF FI nRinA IFAS IINIVFRSITY OF


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I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Calendar.


June 30-July 3,
National Herb Growing
Conference. Baltimore,
Don Maynard).


1990. Fifth
and Marketing
MD. (Contact


July 9 August 25, 1990.
CANCELLED Vegetable Crop Production
and Marketing. International USDA
Technical Course TC 130-11. Will be
rescheduled for 1991. (Contact Steve
Sargent).

July 24, 1990. State 4-H Congress
Horticulture Judging Identification and
Demonstration events. Fifield Hall,
University of Florida.

August 22-24, 1990. State Master
Gardener Continued Training. J. Wayne
Reitz Union, University of Florida.

October, 1990. National Junior
Horticultural Association Convention.
Orlando.


B. New Publications

C. D. Stanley and D. N. Maynard.
1990. Freeze Probabilities in Manatee
County. Gulf Coast Research and
Education Research Report BRA 1990-10.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A. Using
Recommendations.


SUp-To-Date Fertilizer


Recent questions from a couple of
counties have caused some of us to be
concerned about the availability of the
most up-to-date recommendations for
commercial vegetable fertilizer
recommendations. These questions
indicate that some of the "old" literature,
guides, and manuscripts are still floating
around as reference material. Sometimes,
these old numbers conflict with the newer


ones, especially for crops for which there
is new research information.

For vegetable fertilizer
recommendations, the following guides
and fact sheets represent the latest
publications we have on the subject.
Please use these publications and throw
out the old ones.

1. Cir. 225C. Commercial Vegetable
Fertilization Guide.

2. Cir. 806. Commercial Vegetable Crop
Nutrient Requirements.

3. Special Series SS-SOS-901 (Notes in
Soil. Science No. 32). Calculating
Fertilizer Rates for Vegetable Crops
Grown in Raised-Bed Cultural Systems in
Florida.

4. Special Series SS-SOS-907 (Notes in
Soil Science No. 38). IFAS Standardized
Fertilization Recommendations for
Vegetable Crops.

5. Cir. 854. Fertilization Guide for
Vegetables Grown in Full-Bed Mulch
Culture.

(Hochmuth Vegetarian 90-06)


B. Fall Broccoli
Selection for North Florida.


Variety


An earlier article provided infor-
mation on broccoli variety selection for
spring planting in north Florida. Infor-
mation provided here gives a summariza-
tion of results of trials conducted at the
NFREC Quincy in falls of 1986-1989. If
more in-depth information is desired,
Broccoli Variety Evaluation 1981-1989,
NFREC Research Report 90-5 is available.

Transplanting dates were 12 Sept.
1986, 8 Sept. 1987, 14 Sept. 1988 and 22
Sept. 1989. In-row spacing was 9 inches
and between row spacing was 36 inches.
Total nutrients applied 175-108-295 lbs/A
of N-P20-K20. All plants were produced
in expanded polystyrene trays with









dimensions of 1 inch x 1 inch wide x 3
inches deep (100A Speedling tray). The
varieties tested are listed in the following
table along with seed source, number of
years planted, average yield over number
of years planted, and number of days
from transplanting to first harvest. All
varieties listed were planted in the fall of
1989. Planting date was delayed in fall of
1989 due to wet conditions. This late
planting date resulted in several varieties
not maturing all of the heads before a
killing freeze occurred. Some varieties
were not included in all years because of
lack of seed or were new releases.

The highest overall yielding variety
was 'Commodore.' It never placed first in
any year but placed second in 1 year and
third in 2 other years. 'Green Charger'


was second overall with 'Samurai' placing
third overall. 'Samurai' is a very late
variety that did not mature in 1989
before a killing freeze destroyed the crop.
'Greenbelt' placed fourth overall and was
the only variety to place in the top five in
both spring and fall trials. The yield
variation between fall crops was greater
than that which occurred in the spring
crops. The highest yielding early variety
(<60 days) was 'Commodore' but was
followed closely by 'Galaxy.' The highest
yielding mid-season variety (61-66 days)
was 'Green Charger' and the highest
yielding late varieties (>67 days) were
'Samurai' and 'Green Belt.' With this
classification we have 5 early varieties, 9
mid-season and 4 late varieties. Selection
of varieties from each maturity group
could allow an extended season from a
single planting date


Table 1. Fall Broccoli Trials 1986-1989, NFREC Quincy.
Seed Number of Average Yield Days to
Variety Source Years Planted" Crates/Acre First Harvest

Commodore Northrup King 3 586 60
Green Charger Northrup King 3 574 65
Samurai Northrup King 1 566 75
Green Belt Northrup King 3 565 72
Galaxy Asgrow 3 532 56
Green Valiant Northrup King 3 497 70
Packman Petoseed 4 493 54
Pirate Petoseed 3 473 74
Green Duke Northrup King 4 466 57
Mercedes Northrup King 3 454 61
Mariner Petoseed 2 447 65
Commander Northrup King 4 429 64
Emperor Northrup King 4 427 61
Buccaneer Petoseed 3 419 65
Brigadier Petoseed 2 418 63
Ninja Sakata 1 408 60
Premium Crop Petoseed 3 395 61
Chancellor Sakata 2 362 66

"All varieties were planted in fall 1989. Yields for 1989 were not included for 'Green
Valiant,' 'Green Belt,' 'Lancelot,' 'Pirate' or 'Samurai' because a killing freeze severely
reduced yield. Missing years were due to lack of seed or release of new varieties.


(Olson, Vegetarian 90-06)









C. Maintaining Air Quality in
Cold Storage Rooms Part 2 Avoiding
and Controlling Contaminated Air.

In the previous article (Part 1 -
Concerns and Symptoms Vegetarian May
1990), we introduced potential problems of
air quality which can develop in cold
storage areas. A confined space is defined
as an area having limited access and poor
ventilation and is not designed for
continuous human occupancy. Examples
include storage tanks, pipe chases, sewer
lines, utility vaults, etc. Any or all of
these criteria can create a confined space
hazard. Cold rooms meet the criterion of
having poor ventilation and are not
designed for prolonged human occupancy.
The recommended air exchange rates for
cold rooms are based on assumption of
continuous occupancy: 5 cubic feet of air
per minute per person (cfm\person). For
intermittent occupancy it is assumed that
infiltration is sufficient. (Source: ASHRAE
Standard 62-1981)

As indicated in the first article, the
concern in a cold storage room is the poor
ventilation characteristics which are
inherent by design. The potential
hazards created by such include oxygen
deficiency or asphyxiation, the creation of
toxic atmospheres and the creation of
flammable or explosive atmospheres.
The most obvious correction is increased
ventilation. However, this also means
increased cooling and the resultant
increase in operating costs. Therefore the
most effective way to deal with a confined
space hazard is to prevent it from
occurring in the first place. This can be
accomplished by the implementation of
engineering and administrative controls
coupled with air monitoring techniques
serving as an early warning system.

Engineering controls would include
substitution of alternate materials or
equipment. Examples would be using
electric fork lifts to prevent the build up
of carbon monoxide, soot and carbon
dioxide emissions. Other engineering
controls include isolation of heavy traffic


areas from occupied areas or using
mechanized equipment to limit the need
for human contact. If ventilation is
contemplated, limit it to local exhaust
rather than general dilution to reduce the
amount of conditioned air that is lost.

Administrative controls would
include frequent maintenance of fork lifts
to ensure efficient combustion and
minimum emissions. Rotating employee
schedules to limit or control time spent in
the area of concern is another common
administrative control. Training all
employees in the recognition of those
procedures or conditions with the
potential for creating confined space
hazards is a must.

This brings us to our next topic.
What should be done if an atmospheric
hazard exists in a confined space? The
first thing is to identify and quantify the
contaminantss. Air monitoring is
therefore conducted for three parameters
unless specific information is known about
the area to dictate otherwise. These
parameters include oxygen content,
explosive atmospheres and toxic
atmospheres. The order is crucial
because the oxygen content will affect the
potential for explosive concentrations to
be created and should therefore be
monitored first (the higher the oxygen
content the less fuel required for an
explosive mixture to occur).

The oxygen content of ambient air
is about 21%. Oxygen-deficient
atmospheres are defined as those
containing less than 19.5% O,. Oxygen-
enriched atmospheres are those
containing more than 23% 02. If either
of these conditions are met two choices
remain before the area can be occupied.
The first and most preferable method is
purging. This technique involves forcing
ambient air into the area with high
volume blowers to increase the oxygen
content to normal concentration. The key
to purging is that once begun it must be
continued as long as personnel remain in
the area. If purging is interrupted the









condition can reoccur. Air monitoring is
also crucial to ensure the area is not
entered until the oxygen content reaches
19.5-23%. In situations where purging
may not be practical it may be necessary
to stop work and rely on infiltration. Air
monitoring should still be used to
determine when the area is safe to
reoccupy and that the condition does not
return. The second and less preferable
alternative is to issue supplied-air
breathing units to employees within the
space. This is least preferred because the
hazardous condition still exists, personnel
are incumbered by the breathing
apparatus and specialized training is
required.

Although explosive atmospheres
are not usually a concern in cold storage
rooms, similar control measures are used
in alleviating this hazardous condition.
Explosive atmospheres exist when the
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) of an
unknown atmosphere reaches 20% or
more as indicated by an instrument called
a combustible gas detector or
explosimeter. This instrument takes
specialized training to interpret the
readings as the LEL will vary if the
explosive substance is known. The
method for controlling explosive
atmospheres is called inerting. This
involves displacement of the explosive
mixture in the space with a nonreactive
gas such as nitrogen. Following
introduction of the inert gas the area
must undergo a final purge with fresh air
to ensure sufficient oxygen content.
Again for cold rooms it may be necessary
to rely on infiltration and continued air
monitoring before allowing personnel to
return to the area. Air monitoring should
be continuously conducted to determine
the concentration of explosive
atmospheres in the space and ensure the
oxygen content is safe for re-entry.

Finally, toxic atmospheres are
frequently encountered in confined spaces.
This can be particularly dangerous
because of the nature of the space. By
definition there is limited ventilation


which creates a concentrating effect on
the contaminant. In most cases enough
background information is known about
the area and the potential contaminants
to identify the monitoring strategy and
tailor it accordingly.

Potential contaminants include carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia
vapors, chlorine gas, hydrogen sulfide,
pesticide vapors and particulates. Direct
reading instruments are available for each
of these materials to detect and quantify
their concentrations. Levels of concern
are known as permissible exposure limits
(PEL) and are governed by OSHA, the
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration. If the concentration of
any contaminant reaches the PEL, the
area must be either purged, (allowed to
air out) or respiratory protective
equipment must be issued specific to the
contaminant of concern. As always, once
the purging begins it must be continued
as long as personnel remain in the area.
Air monitoring must also be continued to
ensure the effectiveness of these efforts
and that limits on the respiratory
protection are not exceeded.

In the event of a chemical spill or
other emergency, similar actions need to
be taken. The first step in any
emergency is to communicate the hazard,
evacuate the area and become informed
about the substance of concern. The
main source of information about toxic
compounds is the Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS). These should be
maintained in a central location for ease
of access and organization. Refer to the
MSDS to determine the extent of the
emergency. Notify the local fire
department or emergency medical teams
as necessary. Refer to the MSDS again
and identify any individuals experiencing
symptoms of exposure. If so, have
someone take them to the nearest
medical center or obtain assistance from'
the emergency medical team. If internal
response is contemplated, refer to the
MSDS and determine the toxicity of the
material and the proper clean up









procedures. If it is appropriate or if only
a small amount was lost, the spill may be
cleaned up locally provided proper
equipment is available. This includes spill
pillows or clay absorbent and neutralizing
agents. Respirators with the appropriate
cartridges, disposable gloves and safety
glasses/goggles must also be worn as
indicated on the MSDS. Finally,
contaminated materials must be disposed
of properly as hazardous waste and
response personnel should shower as soon
as possible.

The key to the success of any
safety procedure is practice. Emergency
drills or scenarios should be conducted
periodically to ensure that all personnel
understand their responsibilities. This
includes announcement of the emergency,
evacuation routes/procedures and medical
assistance.

While these procedures may seem
involved and extensive, the bottom line is
to remain calm and act responsibly.
Safety training and control measures go a
long way in preventing confined space
hazards. In the event of unsafe air in a
cold room, the basic correction in a cold
room involves evacuation, infiltration/
ventilation and air monitoring to ensure
safe conditions are confirmed before
re-entry. When in doubt refer to the
MSDS or contact local authorities.

(D. Endicott and S. Sargent, Vegetarian 90-06)

(Dan Endicott is Industrial Hygienist, Div. of
Environmental Health and Safety,
University of Florida, Gainesville).


D. Vegetable Crops Library.

From time to time, books on vege-
table production, postharvest handling,
and marketing are noted in this column
as a service to those in Florida interested
in keeping up on vegetable crops litera-
ture.


Manuals prepared by the Organi-
zation for Economic Co-operation and
Development in Paris are available from
OCED Publications and Information
Centre, 2001 L Street N.W., Suite 700,
Washington, D.C. 20036-4095. These
manuals provide grade standards for
international shipment of produce. They
are well illustrated in color to show what
is and what is not permitted in each
grade.

1. Apples and Pears, Tomatoes, Citrus
Fruit, Shelling Peas, Beans, Carrots
(1979) $24.00
2. Strawberries (1979) $7.50
3. Garlic (1979) $12.00
4. Sweet Peppers (1982) $13.00
5. Onions (1984) $14.00
6. Aubergines (1987) $15.00
7. Tomatoes (Revision) (1988) $24.50

These manuals should be very use-
ful to those that are or are considering
export or importation of produce.

A new book of interest is A Color
Atlas of Postharvest Diseases of Fruits
and Vegetables, Volume 1 General Intro-
duction and Fruits by Anna L. Snowdon.
It is available from CRC Press, Inc., 200
Corporate Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL
33431 for $80.08. Most of the book is
devoted to fruit crops but strawberries,
melons and watermelons are included in
this volume. The other vegetables will be
included in Volume 2 to be published
soon.
(Maynard, Vegetarian 90-06)

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 1990 St. Johns County Vegeta-
ble Gardening Contest.

County agent Jim Dilbeck and I
just completed a tour of gardens through-
out St. Johns County. This was the 11th
year for the contest, in which participants
enter their gardens in 1 of 9 categories,
then Jim and I try to find them. The 9
categories included youth (individual);
youth (group); container, organic;









medium, large, and
and recognition were
meeting of all the
featured a critique of
a showing of slides of


Highlights

Gardens were exceptional this
spring due in all likelihood to the early
severe cold snap that froze out some pests
then left us with a fairly long, early frost-
free growing season. Most of the gar-
deners had their tomatoes and other such
vegetables planted in February instead of
the usual month of March.

As usual, the tomato was the
queen vegetable just about every gar-
dener had some beautiful plants standing
shoulder high to show off. Most were
loaded with pretty fruit. The 'Better Boy'
is still the most commonly grown variety,
perhaps in 85 percent of the gardens we
visited. Gardeners like it because plants
are usually available and they have good
luck with it. But other varieties do well
also. We saw some nice 'Bonnie Best',
'Beefsteak', and 'Celebrity'.

Other most common vegetables
were sweet corn (usually 'Silver Queen'),
southern peas, onions, bush snap beans,
pole beans, summer squash, cucumbers,
peppers, and okra. Most of the cool
season vegetables had been harvested
already. Many gardens also contained the
usual assortment of other crops such as
herbs, pumpkin, asparagus, strawberry,
New Zealand spinach, garlic, and dill.

Problems

The most obvious problem encoun-
tered was plant stunting and stress due to
the drought. Watering restrictions had
many gardeners behind on their watering
schedules, and their vegetables showed it.
Even though sufficient fertilizer had been
applied, the low soil moisture prevented
maximum nutrient uptake. In second
place was the general area of soil fertility


landscape, small,
market. Awards
given during a
gardeners which
each garden and
each garden.


-7-


(or lack of it), which again was influenced
by the dry soil conditions.

Weeds probably came in third,
although most gardens were thriving in
spite of them.

Next came the problem of an over-
abundance of vegetative growth and a
reduction in fruit set. Squash, tomato,
beans, and peas were the most common
victims.

Most gardens were relatively free
of any serious disease and insect inva-
sions. Tomato bacterial wilt was evident
in two or three gardens, blossom-end rot
was starting to show up in some fruits
and leaf-miners were noticeable here and
there.

In summary, every gardener we
visited who had taken good care of the
basics of gardening varietal selection,
watering, fertilizing, and pest control were
well satisfied with their efforts. Freezers
were filling up nicely and most gardeners
were bragging rather than complaining.
I was happy to see the amount of leaves,
lawn clippings and other organic waste
the gardeners were trying to recycle
through their gardens. We had only 4 or
5 100% organic gardeners, but most
expressed a desire to cut down on their
dependency of chemicals and to increase
their ability to use alternatives such as
compost and home remedies that work.

Hopefully, the St. Johns happening
was a reflection of the gardening situation
statewide. A conservative estimate is that
we have over 1,000,000 vegetable gardens
in Florida, and with the Gallup Poll
estimate of $300 for the average retail
price value after expenses for each
garden, the "industry" is worth about
$300,000,000 in Florida. And that's not
counting all of the other benefits of
gardening.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 90-06)





-8-


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S. A. Sargent
Asst. Professor (Editor)



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor




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