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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: January 1990
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Volume ID: VID00252
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Full Text


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HeSPP Gainesville. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 90-01


January 18, 1990


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Calendar.
B. New Publications.

C. Ninth Annual FSGSA-IFAS Seed Seminar 1990.


COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A. Freeze Covers.

B. Geminivirus '89 Tomato Yield Assessment.

C. Whiteflies and Virus: Does the Freeze have a Silver
Lining?

D. Bed Width for Micro-Irrigated Vegetables.

E. Simulated Shipments of Ripening Tomatoes.


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
orerenr ATM!e vvrcsicrifin mAinny l Al-Miaii TI I-r ALMin niAer ce'nhiRnirArC TAT nC CI cloina IFAq I INIVFRSITY OF


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I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Calendar.

Jan. 24, 1990. Florida Sweet Corn
Institute. Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Assn. Conference Room. Orlando. 9:45 -
3:30 pm.

Jan. 30, 1990. Florida Watermelon
Institute. Marion County Extension
Office Auditorium, 2232 NE Jacksonville
Rd., Ocala, FL.

Feb. 10, 1990. 4-H/FFA Horticul-
ture Contest. Florida State Fair, Tampa.

Feb. 14-15, 1990. Ninth Annual
FSGSA-IFAS Seed Seminar 1990. Holiday
Inn West, Gainesville, FL.

B. New Publications.

J. M. Snell and S. M. Olson. 1989.
Cauliflower Cultivar Trial, Spring 1989.
NFREC Res. Rept. 89-10.

S. M. Olson and J. M. Snell. 1989.
Broccoli Cultivar Trial, Spring 1989.
NFREC Res. Rept. 89-11.

J. M. Snell and S. M. Olson. 1989.
Onion Cultivar Trial and Plant Population
Study, Spring 1989. NFREC Res. Rept.
89-12.

S. M. Olson and J. M. Snell. 1989.
Watermelon Direct Seeds vs Trans-
planted, Spring 1989. NFREC Res. Rept.
89-13.

S. M. Olson and J. M. Snell. 1990.
Watermelon Variety Evaluation 1982-1988.
NFREC Res. Rept. 90-3.

C. Ninth Annual FSGSA-IFAS
Seed Seminar 1990.

February 14

11 a.m. 5 p.m. Registration, Conven-
tion Center.


p.m.
1:15


Welcome Bill Weyand, President
Florida Seedsmen and Garden
Supply Association.


Session one: Biotechnology: a new
look for the seed industry.
Moderator: Rick Anderson, Peto
Seed Company, Deltona, Fl.

1:30 Resistance to biotic and abiotic
stresses. Eduardo Vallejos,
Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS,
Gainesville, Fl.

1:50 Biocides, an alternative to
chemicals. Yan Narayanan,
Vegetable Crops Department,
Tropical Research and Education
Center, IFAS, Homestead, Fl.

2:10 Starch endosperm mutants of corn.
Curt Hannah, Vegetable Crops
Department, IFAS, Gainesville, Fl.

2:30 Targeted genetics: Transformation
in corn. Larry Beach, Research
Scientist, Pioneer Seeds, Johnston,
Iowa.

2:50 Seed developmental mutants in
corn. Don McCarty, Vegetable
Crops Department, IFAS, Gaines-
ville, Fl.

3:10 Synthetic seeds, a product of the
future. Dan Cantliffe, Vegetable
Crops Department, IFAS, Gaines-
ville, Fl.

3:30 BREAK

Session two: Seed and Transplant
Production. Moderator: Richard
Wojciak, Sun Seeds Genetics, Inc.,
West Palm Beach, Fl.

3:45 Seed borne pathogens their iden-
tification and control. Ron
Gitaitis, Department of Plant
Pathology, Tifton, Georgia.









4:05 Watermelon and other cucurbit di-
seases What causes them? Where
they come from. Tom Kucharek,
Plant Pathology Department, IFAS,
Gainesville, Fl.

4:20 Growth regulators for transplant
production. Charles Vavrina,
Vegetable Crops Department,
Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center, Immokalee, Fl.

4:40 IFAS cultivar development and
release policy. Jack Oswalt,
Manager, Florida Foundation Seed
Producers, Inc., Greenwood, Fl.

5:00 Adjourn

6:00 Social

7:00 Dinner Biotechnology: It's role in
the seed industry. Speaker: Dr.
John C. Sorenson, Executive
Director, Asgrow Vegetable
Research, Kalamazoo, MI.

February 15


a.m.
8:10


Session three: Branded produce, a
new outlook for the seed industry.
Moderator: Leonard A. Douglass,
Asgrow Florida Company, Lake
City, Fl.


8:15 Branded seed for branded produce.
Art Abbott, President Abbott and
Cobb Seed Co., Feasterville, Pa.

8:45 Brand marketing from a seeds-
man's view point. Jim McConnell,
Product Marketing Coordinator,
Petoseed, Ca.

9:15 What to look for in branded
varieties. Mark Sherman,
Research Scientist, The Pillsbury
Co., Minneapolis, Mn.

Session four: Improving the qua-
lity of seeds. Moderator: Charlie
Dean, Agronomy Department,
IFAS, Gainesville, Fl.


9:45 Solid Matrix Priming how it can
improve seed performance. John
Eastin President, Kamterter, Inc.,
Lincoln, NE.

10:10 BREAK

10:25 Storage and packaging vegetable
seeds. Dick Sayers, Director,
Vegetable Quality and Seed Tech-
nology, Asgrow Seed Co., Twin
Falls, ID.

10:50 Bahiagrass dormancy. Sherlie
West, USDA, Gainesville, Fl.

11:05 Seed production in the Willamette
Valley. Gordon Prine, Agronomy
Department, IFAS, Gainesville, Fl.

11:25 Rising carbon dioxide and global
warming: probable effects on world
seed production. L. Hartwell Allen,
USDA/Agronomy Department,
IFAS, Gainesville, Fl.

11:50 Discussion

12:00 Adjourn


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Freeze Covers.

It's not too late to plan for protec-
tion of vegetables against freezes. Crop
losses to freezing temperatures are still a
potential threat this winter and for win-
ters to come. The December 1989 freeze
proved to several growers that non-woven,
wide row covers can protect vegetables
against some very low temperatures. I
have heard stories from Palm Beach and
Immokalee of successes (on large and
small-scale) in protecting vegetable crops
against freezes.

Our work with strawberries a few
years ago showed that row covers in the
weight range of 1.0 to 1.5 ounces per yard
offer protective capabilities down to 24 to
25 F. Wide row covers can be deployed









easily and quickly. Most covers are avail-
able in widths of at least 40 feet. Covers
currently are expensive, but some growers
have gone to the expense to be able to
benefit from the extremely high prices of
vegetables after the freeze.

Advantages that covers have over
sprinkler irrigation include:

1. Covers are versatile. They can be
moved with the crop rotation.

2. Covers obviate the need for a
sprinkler irrigation system installa-
tion.

3. Covers do away with the problems
of water and ice damage to fruits
and plants. Fruit quality can be
better because of reduced water
damage to fruits.

4. With covers, there is no worry
about power outages or pump
failures.

5. With covers, there is no leaching of
fertilizer or soil erosion from heavy
water applications.

6. With covers, harvesters can work
in the field easier the day following
a freeze since the plants and row
middles are dry.

We know that row cover technology
for freeze protection works. We need
only to provide growers with the informa-
tion. Circular 728 deals with row cover
use both from the growth enhancement
angle and from the freeze protection
angle. In addition, growers might benefit
from small demonstrations of row covers
deployed in their field during a freeze or
frost. It would be a good idea for inter-
ested counties to have on hand a sample
of one or two of these covers to put out
on a grower's field during a freeze. If
anyone is interested, give me a call.

Row cover availability has not been
a problem where growers purchase ahead.


Sometimes, there will be discounts offered
for early purchases. Covers can be pur-
chased from at least two sources here in
Florida, April Corporation in Captiva
Island, and Asgrow Florida.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 90-01)

B. Geminivirus '89 Tomato
Yield Assessment.

Two field studies were conducted
this past fall by the SWFREC around the
Immokalee area to assess the impact of
Geminivirus on fresh market tomato pro-
duction. One study catalogued yield and
fruit size from six farms showing a "high"
incidence of virus. A second study related
earliness of Geminivirus symptom expres-
sion to yield and fruit size. Plants with-
out visual virus symptoms in the same
fields were used to establish a "normal"
population for yield and fruit size
assessment.

Figure 1 shows a "high" incidence
of Geminivirus can reduce overall yield
(two harvests) by as much as 1/3. Yield
reduction is further compounded by the
effect of Geminivirus on tomato fruit size
(Fig. 2). Virus infestation tends to shunt
production toward medium sized fruit (6
x 7) at the expense of the larger grade (6
x 6 large, 5 x 6 extra large) fruit. This
has a definite economic impact, as larger
fruit commands a better price.

When Geminivirus infects the
plant during early growth (approximately
4 weeks after planting) yield reduction is
much greater than if infection occurs
later (10 weeks after planting). Figure 3
indicated that the longer a grower can
keep the virus out of the crop the better
are his chances of getting a "normal"
yield. Similarly (Fig. 4) the ratio of extra
large tomatoes to medium tomatoes was
more acceptable when virus infection was
delayed.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 90-01)








































INFECTED NO SYMPTOMS


S1ST HARVEST M 2ND HARVEST

Fig. 1 The effect of Geminivirus on FL.
tomato yield averaged from harvests of
6 growers fields from fall 1989.


300


2501


200-

150

100-


8X7


B X 5 X 6 CULL
GRADE


I INFECTED M NO SYMPTOMS

Fig. 2 The effect of Geminivirus on FL.
tomato fruit size averaged from harvests
of 6 growers fields from fall 1989.


(Projected from a sample of 250 infected and 250 non-infected plants.)


1200

1000


200

0
9/1


19


9/27 10/4 10/12 10/19 10/25 11/2 CONT.


DATE OF FIRST SYMPTOMS

'---1ST PICK 2ND PICK

Fig. 3 The effect of date of symptom
expression of Geminivirus on FL.
tomato yield in fall 1989.


60


50s- x
x x


P 40 ------ -




10 -

0 ,~-
N 13
T 20-


10-



9/19 9/27 10/4 10/12 10/19 10/25 11/2 CONT.
DATE OF FIRST SYMPTOMS

-E6 X 7 6 X 6 5 X 6

Fig. 4 The effect of date of symptom
expression of Geminivirus on FL.
tomato fruit size in fall 1989.


(Projected from a sample of 10 plants per date.)


c
3+









C. Whiteflies and Virus: Does
the Freeze have a Silver Lininig?

It may seem like small
compensation to tomato growers who saw
their crops literally disappear overnight,
but we are likely to see less whitefly
transmitted geminivirus this spring,
thanks to last month's freeze. What's
more, the freeze may teach us some
valuable lessons that will enable us to lick
the virus problem for good.

It would have taken a real white
Christmas to kill all sweetpotato
whiteflies; a few got through on cold
resistant weeds like sow thistle, and
protected vegetables and ornamentals,
especially to the west and south of
Immokalee where the mercury did not dip
so low. On the other hand, the whitefly
population has been greatly reduced,
commensurate with the loss of tomatoes
and wild hosts such as swamp primrose,
spurge, and hairy indigo.

Geminivirus has fewer host options
than the whitefly in fact we know of
only one to date: tomato. Even if we
eventually find other hosts, their role in
virus propagation is likely to be small by
comparison. While unproven at this
point, I think this is our best working
hypothesis for the time being. Let's
follow it through to its logical conclusion.

How we can equate the almost
total loss of tomato north and east of
Naples with an equal loss of virus
inoculum, at least in the field. If our
transplants go in virus-free in the spring,
we should start out the season with a
clean slate. If they don't, the initial
pattern of virus appearance will be
random throughout the field. Either case
would be convincing evidence that tomato
is the main culprit in keeping the virus
around.

With the hypothesis verified, we
will know how to avoid virus problems
again next fall: eliminate the tomato
reservoir during the summer, this time


without the help of mother nature. We
can do this in the field by cleaning up
crop residues immediately after harvest
and controlling volunteers by periodic
disking or herbicide application. After the
clean-up, greenhouse managers within the
production area should schedule a
minimum month-long break during which
they have no live tomatoes present. This
is because at least a month without a
virus source is required to give all
viruliferous whitefly adults time to die.
Of course there will still be whiteflies
after that, but they would come from
non-infected sources.

Everyone got hurt by the freeze.
Lets make the most of it by cleaning up
on geminivirus!

(Phil Stansly, SWFREC Entomologist
Vegetarian, 90-01)

D. Bed Width for Micro-
Irrigated Vegetables.

Vegetables in West Central Florida
are typically grown on raised
polyethylene-mulched beds that are 30 to
36 in. wide. A wide bed is required for
utilization of the nutrient gradient-
seepage irrigation production system.
Concentrated bands of fertilizer are placed
in shallow grooves near both shoulders of
the bed. The wide bed is necessary to
insure appropriate soluble salts
concentrations in the bed center where
the crop is planted.

When liquid fertilizer is injected
into the micro irrigation system, the need
for a wide bed for fertilizer management
is circumvented. In addition, we have
noted that in sandy soils, only the center
portion of a well-managed, micro-irrigated
wide bed is wetted. Accordingly, growth
is restricted to the wetted zone of the
bed.

With this background, this
experiment was planned with the
objective of determining the response of
several vegetable crops grown on 16, 24,









and 32 in. wide beds with micro irrigation
and N and K fertigation.

The beds were formed,
superphosphate was incorporated,
methylbromide-chloropicrin fumigant
injected, and the beds were pressed. Drip
irrigation tubing was placed 3 in. deep
and 4 in. off the bed center before the
black polyethylene mulch was applied.
Plots to be planted with pepper had the
tube positioned at the center of the bed.

Cucumber, summer squash, and
large-fruited and icebox watermelons were
direct seeded. Eggplant, muskmelon,
pepper, tomato, and cherry tomato were
transplanted on March 2.

Tensiometers were placed 6 in.
deep between the irrigation tube and
plant row in the tomato plots and
irrigation was scheduled to maintain soil
water potential levels at or above 10kPa.
Daily irrigation was divided into multiple
cycles so that each application was
maintained within the top 10 in. of soil.
Fertilization with N and K was by daily
injection of a 4-0-8 solution through the
tube according to a 12 week schedule that
provided a total of 200 lb N and 400 lb
K20 per acre. Vegetables that require
less than 12 weeks to produce a crop
received proportionately less fertilizer.

Summer squash marketable yields
increased with increasing bed width, but
yields of the other vegetables were not
affected by bed width. Average fruit
weight of all vegetables and soluble solids
content of melon fruit were not affected
by bed width.

From the results of this study, it
appears that yields and quality of
vegetables would not be compromised by
reducing the bed width of micro-irrigated
crops, however, additional experiments
must be conducted before final
conclusions can be made. Associated
benefits of narrower beds include less use
of polyethylene mulch and reduced plastic
disposal requirements at the end of the


cropping cycle, reduced energy
requirements for bed preparation, and
lower fumigant requirements. If field
drainage conditions permit, beds can be
spaced closer, thereby increasing bed feet
per acre. A potential disadvantage if bed
spacing is unchanged is the increase in
row middle area that would require weed
management. In addition, equipment
modifications would be required. There
were some crop management problems;
e.g. staking, crops falling over, and lack of
space for melon fruit on the 16 in. wide
bed. It appears that the 24 in. wide bed
provides a good alternative for growers
interested in testing narrower beds for
production of micro-irrigated vegetables.

(Maynard and Clark, Vegetarian 90-01)


E. SimuIa
Ripening Tomatoes.


ited Shipments of


A 1975 study made of consumer
purchases of tomatoes at two Florida
supermarkets has shown that red-ripe
tomatoes were preferred to pink tomatoes.
There is a growing trend by many super-
market chains to include "vine-ripe"
tomatoes in the produce section as a
premium-priced selection. According to
the U.S.D.A, vine-ripe tomatoes are
harvested either in the greenhouse or in
the field after the breaker ripeness stage,
or when at least 10% of the fruit surface
shows a definite color change from green
to tannish yellow, pink or red. However,
as tomatoes ripen and soften after har-
vest, greater care must also be taken to
minimize mechanical damage during
handling and shipping operations. Such
damage is characterized by bruising, cuts,
punctures, abrasions and internal bruising.
Although parasitic disease was the
primary cause of loss for Florida and
California tomatoes at retail and consumer
levels, the predominant decay organisms
present were those which require
mechanical injury to be able to infect the
produce. For these reasons, means of
avoiding or reducing mechanical damage
is of great interest to the Florida tomato
industry.









This report will focus on a study
which measured the performance of two
package types for shipping tomatoes at
three ripeness stages using simulated
truck shipment.

Mature green tomatoes ('Sunny',
6x6 size) were harvested on October 30,
1989 and transported to Gainesville.
After ripening was initiated, the tomatoes
were classified into three ripeness stages:
turning (T), light pink (LP) and pink (P).
Fruits from each color stage were placed
stem end down (tight-pack) in single layer
fiberboard shipping cartons with 1/8 inch
thick foam padding on the bottom. The
cartons measuring 13 3/8 x 20 x 3.5
inches (width, length and height,
respectively), were constructed from single
corrugation and held about 27 tomatoes
each. Tomatoes at the same ripeness
stages were also placed stem end down in
polystyrene cell pack trays described
above, with 24 fruit per tray. The tray
was placed in the above carton and an
inverted tray placed over the fruit.
Tomatoes at LP and P stages were also
placed in 25-pound cartons.

A vibration test stand was con-
structed to simulate a refrigerated trailer
making a transcontinental shipment of
produce. For the treatments, the fre-
quency was set at 550 cycles per minute
for 30 minutes and had a displacement of
0.025 inches. On the same day as the
color sorting, the cartons were secured on
the test stand and shaken; they were
then held at room temperature until the


Prepared by Extension


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor

Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor


Dr. D. I
Assoc. P


tomatoes were red-ripe and slightly soft
for evaluation of incidence and severity of
mechanical damage (bruises, abrasions,
cuts, and punctures).

Results. The cell pack tray significantly
reduced most categories of bruises on the
tomatoes during the simulated shipment.
There were 39.4% bruise-free and 64%
abrasion-free tomatoes in cartons with the
cell tray pack. Only 6.8% and 51%
remained bruise-free and abrasion-free,
respectively, in the cartons with the foam
bottom pad. Ripeness stage generally had
no effect on the incidence or severity of
bruising or abrasion in this test; however,
we have previously shown that breaker
stage tomatoes are more susceptible to
damage during packinghouse operations
than mature green tomatoes (Vegetarian;
July 1989). The incidence of moderate to
severe bruising after simulated truck
shipment and ripening 25-pound cartons
was about 77% for LP and 92% for P fruit
in this test.

A cell tray pack system would
significantly improve appearance quality
compared to the single layer, bottom foam
pad system currently being used for ship-
ping vine ripe tomatoes. Cell tray packs
could be easily adapted to multi-layer
package systems, allowing utilization of
larger containers without compression
damage since the trays are self-support-
ing. The cost of the additional packaging
material may be offset by improved fruit
condition on arrival at retail outlets.

(Sargent, Vegetarian 90-01)

Vegetable Crops Specialks i 44j/

). Gull Dr. G. 5 Hochmuth
professor Assoc. Professor (Editor)


Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. S. A. Sargent
Asst. Professor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor




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