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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: December 1989
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00251
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Full Text
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

\Vglabki Crops Dcparlmcnt 1255 HIDDP Gainewilc, FL 32611 Tclcplhoii 392-213,
Ill ll Il I ll1


Vegetarian 89-12


December 13, 1989


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Calendar.

B. New Publications.

C. Suwannee Valley Field and Greenhouse Vegetable
Grower's Shortcourse and Trade Show.

D. 1990 Sweet Corn Institute.

E. 1990 IFAS Watermelon Institute.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Spring Broccoli Variety Selection for North Florida.

B. Comparative Yields of Watermelon Fruit Types.

C. Reducing Internal Bruising During Tomato Handling.

m. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Limited Use Label for Dual on Cabbage.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. New Record Set for Jicama.


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


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I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Calendar.

Jan. 13, 1990. Suwannee Valley
Vegetable Growers Shortcourse. Suwan-
nee Co. Agric. Center, Live Oak. (see
program below).

Jan. 24, 1990. Florida Sweet Corn
Institute. Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Assn. Conference Room. Orlando. 9:45 -
3:30 pm. (see program below).

Jan. 30, 1990. Florida Watermelon
Institute. Marion County Extension
Office Auditorium, 2232 NE Jacksonville
Rd., Ocala, FL. (see below).

Feb. 10, 1990. 4-H/FFA Horticul-
ture Contest. Florida State Fair, Tampa.

Feb. 14-15, 1990. Ninth Annual
FSGSA-IFAS Seed Seminar 1990. Holiday
Inn West, Gainesville, FL.

B. New Publications.

D. N. Maynard and G. A. Clark.
1989. Bed width effects on performance
of micro-irrigated vegetables. GCREC
Res. Dept. BRA1989-19.


C. Suwannee Valley Field and
Greenhouse Vegetable Grower's Short-
course and Trade Show.

Saturday, January 13, 1990
Suwannee Co Agric. Ctr. & Coliseum
Live Oak, FL

8:30 am Registration and Trade Show
(Coffee and Donuts)

9:15 am Field Vegetable Session

12:00 N 1:30 pm lunch and visit exhibits

1:30 pm (Choice of two sessions)
Greenhouse Vegetable Session or
Snap Bean and Sweet Corn Session


4:00 pm Adjourn


MEAL RESERVATIONS AT $5.00 EACH
ARE REQUIRED BY JANUARY 6, 1990.

*Credits (CEU's) will be granted for each
session toward renewal of certification for
pesticide applicators.

Sponsored by, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida, Cooperative Service and Area
Agribusinesses.

FIELD VEGETABLE SESSION


Morning
Moderator:


Allen Tyree Extension
Agent I Hamilton County.


8:30A Registration, Coffee and Donuts.

9:30 Cucumber and Squash Varieties
and Production Mr. Bob
Hochmuth,Multi-CountyExtension
Agent

10:00 Disease Update (Watermelon,
Changes in Fungicides) Dr. Tom
Kucharek, Extension Plant
Pathologist

10:30 Fertilizer Management for Drip
Irrigation and Plastic Mulch Dr.
George Hochmuth, Extension Vege-
table Specialist


11:00 Watermelon Varieties
Icebox and Seedless)
Elmstrom, Cucurbit
Central Florida AREC,


(Standard
Dr. Gary
Specialist,
Leesburg.


11:30 Future Management of Water
Resources in the Suwannee Valley
-Mr. Terry Demott, Water
Resources Specialist, Suwannee
River Water Management District.

11:50 Suwannee Valley State Farmer's
Market Update Mr. Jim Warner,
Suwannee Valley State Farmer's
Market Manager

12:00 LUNCH AND VISIT EXHIBITS
(Lunch Reserv. $5.00 in advance)







GREENHOUSE VEGETABLE SESSION


Moderator:


Mike Sweat, Baker County
Extension Director


1:30P The Sweet Potato Whitefly "The
Whole Story", Dr. Fred Johnson,
Extension Entomologist

2:15 Fruit Disorders and Nutrition Ma-
nagement for Winter, Dr. George
Hochmuth.

3:00 New Diseases, New Challenges, Dr.
Gary Simone, Extension Plant
Pathologist

SNAP BEAN AND SWEET CORN SESSION

Moderator: Bob Tervola, Suwannee
County Extension Director

1:30P Fertilizer Programs for Snap Beans
and Sweet Corn, Dr. George
Hochmuth.


2:00 1989 Snap Bean Variety
Results, Mr. Bob Hochmuth.


Trial


2:20 Weed Control in Snap Beans and
Sweet Corn, Dr. Bill Stall.

2:50 Sweet Corn Variety Trial Results,
Mr. Bob Hochmuth, Mr. Bob
Tervola, Dr. Steve Sargent.

3:30 Discussion

For further information, contact: Bob
Hochmuth, Live Oak AREC at (904) 362-
1725.

D. 1990 Sweet Corn Institute.

The 1990 Sweet Corn Institute will
be held Wednesday, January 24, 1990 at
the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Annex
III, 4401 E. Colonial Drive, Orlando, FL.
The Institute is held on alternating years
to update Florida growers and industry on
the newest research and developments in
the Sweet Corn industry.


The registration for the institute
will start about 9:30 with the meeting
starting promptly at 10:00 am. A prelimi-
nary program follows:

Preliminary Program

Welcome: D. J. Cantliffe, Chairman,
Vegetable Crops Dept., University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Supersweet Corns. Progress and Perspec-
tive. Bryant Long. Abbott & Cobb Seed
Co., West Palm, Florida.

Postharvest Quality of Supersweet Corn
Cultivars. J. K. Brecht. Vegetable Crops
Dept., Gainesville, Florida.

Sensory Evaluation of Sh2 and se Sweet
Corns. Charles Boyer, Penn State Univer-
sity, University Park, Pennsylvania.


Sweet Corn Marketing in
Donald Scruggs, South Bay
South Bay, Florida.


the 90's.
Growers,


Solid Matrix Priming A Hope for Better
Stands of Sh2 Sweet Corns. Carlos Parera
and D. J. Cantliffe, Gainesville, Florida.

Precooling Recommendations for Sweet
Corn. S. A. Sargent, Vegetable Crops
Dept., Gainesville, Florida.

Phosphorus Fertilization of Sweet Corn in
Organic Soils. C. A. Sanchez, Everglades
Res. & Educ. Ctr., Belle Glade, Florida.

Fungicidal Control of Foliar Sweet Corn
Diseases. R. N. Raid, Everglades Res. &
Educ. Ctr., Belle Glade, Florida.

Insect Problems in Sweet Corn. F. A.
Johnson, Dept. of Entomology & Nemato-
logy, Gainesville, Florida.

Reregistration and its Impact on Minor
Crops. D. A Botts. FFVA, Orlando,
Florida.







E. 1990 IFAS Watermelon Institute.

Tuesday, January 30, 1990
Marion Co. Coop. Ext. Office Auditorium
2232 NE Jacksonville Road
Ocala, FL


Moderator:


Bill Phillips, Marion County
Extension Director


1:00P Welcome and Introduction Dan
Cantliffe, Chairman Vegetable
Crops Dept., IFAS, Gainesville, FL.
1:10 Degradable mulches for water-
melons Bob Hochmuth, Live Oak
REC, IFAS, Live Oak, FL.

1:30 Management of micro (drip) irri-
gation for watermelons Gary
Clark, Gulf Coast REC, IFAS,
Bradenton, FL.

2:00 Fertilizer management for drip-
irrigated watermelons George
Hochmuth, Vegetable Crops Dept.,
IFAS, Gainesville, FL.

2:20 Water rules and regulations
affecting agriculture Bill Smith,
Southwest Florida Water Manage-
ment District, Brooksville, FL.

2:45 BREAK

3:00 Performance of seedless water-
melon varieties Spring 1989 Don
Maynard, Gulf Coast REC, IFAS,
Bradenton, FL.

3:20 Weed control systems for waterme-
lons Bill Stall, Vegetable Crops
Dept., IFAS, Gainesville, FL.

3:40 Controlling white flies, thrips, and
spider mites Fred Johnson, Dept.
Entomology and Nematology, IFAS,
Gainesville, FL.

4:10 Epidemiology of watermelon mosaic
virus 2 in north central Florida
Susan Webb, Central Florida REC,
IFAS, Leesburg, FL.


4:30 Bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon
Don Hopkins, Central Florida REC,
IFAS, Leesburg, FL.

4:50 Disease control program for water-
melons Tom Kucharek, Dept.
Plant Pathology, IFAS, Gainesville,
FL.

5:10 Adjourn

II.COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A. Spring Broccoli
Selection for North Florida.


Variety


Broccoli is a minor crop for north
Florida. Small production areas exist for
local sales. Interest in production has
been increasing, but because of cost of
handling (top icing) large acreage produc-
tion has not occurred. The following
information is results of numerous repli-
cated trials conducted at the N.F.R.E.C.,
Quincy from 1986-1989.

Transplanting dates were 20 Feb.
1986, 25 Feb. 1987, 26 Feb. 1988 and 28
Feb. 1989. In-row spacing was 9 inches
and between row spacing was 36 inches.
Total nitrogen applied ranged from 160
to 175 lbs./A. Total phosphorus applied
was 108 lbs./A. Potassium (K2O) amounts
applied ranged from 275 to 295 lbs./A.
All plants were produced in expanded
polystyrene trays with dimensions of 1
inch X 1 inch X 3 inches. The varieties
tested are listed in the following table.
Information is also provided as to source
of seed, number of years planted, average
yield over number of years planted and
average number of days from transplant-
ing to first harvest. All varieties listed
were planted in 1989. Some varieties
were not included in all years because of
lack of seed or were new releases.

The highest yielding variety was
'Greenbelt'. It was first in yield in 2 of 3
years and in second place the third year.
'Pirate' came in second in yield and
placed second in 3 out of 4 years and was


qm







first in fourth year planted. 'Green
Valiant' placed third overall and ranked
number 3 in 3 of 4 years. The top 3 vari-
eties are late maturing varieties requiring
68 to 70 days to harvest. The next 3 var-
ieties 'Green Top', 'Mariner' and 'Green
Charger' were very similar in yield and
maturity. They would be included in the
mid-season maturity group. The highest


yielding early variety was 'Galaxy'. Ano-
ther early variety was Packman. If the
varieties are broken into maturity early (<
60 days), mid-season (61 to 66) and late (>
67 days), we have 4 early varieties, 11
mid-season varieties, and 4 late varieties.
Selection of varieties from each maturity
group would allow an extended season
from a single planting date.


Spring Broccol


Variety
Greenbelt
Pirate
Green Valiant
Green Top
Mariner
Green Charger
Galaxy
Mercedes
Pinnacle
Emperor
Commodore
Lancelot
Brigadier
Packman
Sprinter
Green Duke
Commander
Top Star
Premium Crop
ZAll varieties
or release of


i Trials. 1986-1989. NFREC,
Seed Number ofZ
Source years planted
Northrup King 3
Petoseed 4
Northrup King 4
Takii 3
Petoseed 2
Northrup King 3
Asgrow 3
Northrup King 2
Takii 3
Northrup King 4
Northrup King 3
Petoseed 3
Petoseed 3
Petoseed 4
Northrup King 3
Northrup King 3
Northrup King 3
Northrup King 2
Petoseed 3
were planted in spring 1989,
new varieties.


Quincy.
Average Yield
(crates/A)
617
592
486
477
476
474
460
450
436
434
433
425
414
396
390
390
375
365
361
missing years


are


Average days
to first harvest
68
70
68
63
63
62
57
64
67
64
59
64
61
57
62
63
62
60
65
due to lack of seed


(Olson, Vegetarian, 89-12)


B.


Comparative Yields of Watermelon


Fruit Types.


Three types of watermelons are
grown in Florida: standard, icebox, and
seedless. Standard and icebox melons are
differentiated by weight; standard melons
range from 18 to 35 pounds each, whereas
ice box melons range from 6 to 12 pounds
each. Triploid or seedless melons are
characterized by the absence or near ab-
sence of hard seeds. Fruit weight within
each type is influenced by variety, season,
cultural management practices, time of
harvest, and possibly other factors.

Some growers considering growing
seedless watermelons have expressed
concern that yields from seedless melons


may not be as high as those from
standard varieties. In theory, however,
yields from seedless melons should be
higher than those from standard melons
because more fruit are set on each plant.
Developing seeds restrict fruit set in
standard and icebox watermelons,
therefore, the increased fruit set in
seedless watermelons is related to the
absence of seeds.

To determine the effects of
watermelon fruit type on yields, the data
shown in Table 1 were gleaned from
recent IFAS variety trial results.







Table 1. Yields of standard, seedless and icebox
watermelons.
Standard Seedless Icebox
Location Season Yield (cwt/A)
Leesburg Spring 1988 (20)z 464 --- (8) 402
Spring 1989 (14) 537 (30) 525 (7) 385
Bradenton Spring 1988 --- (16) 586 (16) 439
Spring 1989 --- (30) 657 (10) 450
Quincy Spring 1987 (25) 408 ( 4) 684 ---

Average 470 613 419
ZNumbers in parenthesis refers to the number of
varieties in the average yield.


Unfortunately, only two direct
comparisons between yields of standard
and seedless watermelons were found. In
spring 1987 at Quincy, average yields
from four seedless varieties were far
higher than the average yields from 25
standard varieties. On the other hand,
average yields from 14 standard varieties
and 30 seedless varieties were about equal
at Leesburg in the spring of 1989. Yields
of icebox-type melons at Bradenton were
less than those from seedless melons and
less than those from standard melons at
Leesburg in spring 1988 and 1989. Aver-
age yields over three locations indicate


that yields of seedless varieties were
higher than those of standard varieties
which in turn were higher than those of
icebox varieties.

The average fruit weight data pre-
sented in Table 2 support the view that
the higher yields of seedless varieties are
the result of greatly increased fruit set
since average fruit weight was only about
two-thirds of that of standard varieties
also is indicated because average fruit
weight was less than one-half of that of
standard melons whereas yields were only
slightly less that those of standard
melons.


Table 2. Average fruit weight of standard, seedless,
and icebox watermelons.
Standard Seedless Icebox
Location Season Average fruit weight (pounds)
Leesburg Spring 1988 18.6 --- 8.2
Spring 1989 21.8 14.1 8.6
Bradenton Spring 1988 --- 13.8 11.1
Spring 1989 --- 13.0 9.2
Quincy Spring 1987 23.9 17.4 ---

Average 21.4 14.6 9.3


The data presented here support
the view that watermelon yields are high-
est in seedless types, intermediate in
standard types, and lowest in icebox types.
Greater fruit set accounts for the higher
yields obtained from the seedless types.
It is hoped that additional data will be
available soon to verify these conclusions.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 89-12)


C. Reducing Internal Bruising
During Tomato Handling.

Postharvest handling of perishable
crops requires careful coordination and
integration of the various steps from field
to consumer, since mechanical damage is
the leading cause of quality loss at whole-
sale and retail levels for many commodi-
ties. As tomatoes ripen and soften during
typical handling and shipping operations,







greater care must be taken to minimize
mechanical damage such as bruises, cuts,
punctures, abrasions and internal bruising.
Over 75% of Florida tomatoes are shipped
out of the state; therefore ways of
avoiding or reducing mechanical damage
are of great interest to the Florida tomato
packer/shippers.

Internal bruising (IB) becomes
apparent after the tomato is nearly fully
ripe; the consumer will notice the damage
at slicing, which may affect future sales.
It has been described as a breakdown of
the locular gel from the normal clear,
pink color to a cloudy, yellowish color.
This report will focus on studies per-
formed this past year for three tomato
cultivars to establish maximum drop
heights which should not be exceeded at
transfer points in order to avoid unaccept-
able incidence of IB during tomato handl-
ing. Dr. Jeff Brecht, Vegetable Crops
Dept., was principal cooperator.

Three cultivars were hand har-
vested in commercial fields in the
Ruskin/Bradenton areas: 'Solar Set' and
Northrup-King 4459 at the mature green
(MG) stage and 'Sunny' at MG and brea-
ker (BR) stage. The tomatoes sampled
were of medium size (6X6 size) and were
placed directly into polystyrene cell pack
trays to avoid damage and returned to the
laboratory in Gainesville the same day.

Groups of 20 tomatoes were indi-
vidually dropped from approximately 4, 8
and 12 inches at MG and BR ripeness
stages. For each drop height and ripe-
ness stage, twenty fruits were dropped
once on opposite sides at the fruit equa-
tor, and 20 fruits were dropped twice on
the same location at the equator. Follow-
ing the respective drop treatments, the
tomatoes were held at about 73 until at
the firm, red-ripe stage. At this point
they were evaluated for internal bruising
by slicing through equator.

Analysis showed that incidence and
severity of IB increased with increasing
drop height, and that tomatoes at BR


stage were more susceptible to IB. For
MG fruits, regardless of cultivar, a single
drop from 8 inches was sufficient to cause
5 to 45% of the tomatoes to have IB; a
single drop from 12 inches caused 30 to
45% IB. For BR fruits, a single drop
from 4 inches caused from 63% to 73%
IB; from 8 inches, 60% to 100% of the
tomatoes had IB. Two drops at the same
location generally caused more IB than a
single drop for all cultivars. Of these
three cultivars, 'Sunny' was least suscep-
tible to IB, followed by 'Solar Set' and
'NK-4459'.

Although a handful of cultivars
account for the majority of tomatoes
packed in the state, most packinghouses
handle several cultivars during the course
of a season. All handling operations
should be evaluated from the perspective
of reducing and eliminating transfer
points which might cause mechanical
damage. IB is a "hidden" damage, the
extent of which truly reflects on the care
taken during handling. Minor modifica-
tions at transfer points, such as lowering
drop heights, coordinating transfer veloci-
ties and adding padding materials to
contact surfaces can cause significant
reduction in the amount of IB and other
damage incurred during harvest, handling
and packing operations.

(Sargent, Vegetarian, 89-12)

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A.
on Cabbage.


Limited Use Label for Dual


Third Party Registrations, Inc.
(TPR, Inc) has announced the acceptance
of a limited use 24 (c) label allowing the
use of Dual 8E on transplanted, tight-
headed cabbage. The supplemental label-
ling is for Special Local Need for
distribution and use only within Florida
by persons who have signed authorization
and waiver agreements with TPR, Inc.







To obtain proper labelling allowing
use of this product a grower must contact
the following:
TPR, Inc.
P. O. Box 140097
Orlando, FL 32814-0097
Telephone: (407) 898-4057

(Stall, Vegetarian, 89-12)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. New Record Set for Jicama.

A market-gardener in Archer,
Florida has just established a new state
record for the largest jicama root grown
in Florida. Kathy Bergsma weighed one
in at 2 pounds, 3 ounces. The old record
for jicama was a root weighing 6 ounces
grown in Palm Beach County. Before one
gets the impression that these are big
jicama roots, keep in mind that roots over
50 pounds have been reported in other
areas. So this particular record likely will
not stand long. In fact, Kathy says she
will be out to break her own record next
year.

Kathy decided to try a few plants
in her market garden this past spring, so
she ordered a few seeds from a seed
company catalog and grew about 500
plants. What she discovered was a new
crop for this area, and quite possibly a
profitable one. So far she has had good
luck selling the "roots" of her labor at the
wholesale price of 75 cents per pound.
The current retail price for fresh jicama
roots at local supermarkets is around
$1.50 per pound.


According to Kathy, the jicama was
not too difficult to grow. On April 15,
she spaced the seeds 18 inches apart
within each row, and placed 2 rows on
each 4-foot wide elevated bed. She then
kept the plants growing by fertilizing and
watering when necessary. Although the
plants were trailing (resembling pole
beans), they were not trellised, as is
usually suggested. A few caterpillars
feeding on the foliage were the only
problem encountered, and since the plants
were not devastated by their feeding, no
control measures were taken.

Roots were dug December 1, 1989.
While the largest was just over 2 pounds,
most averaged about I to 1 pound in size.
A major concern was the lack of uniformi-
ty in shape. The ideal jicama root is top-
shaped, similar to a beet or turnip.
However, Kathy's crop included many
which were doubled, split, elongated, and
otherwise off-shape. Quite a few roots
had secondary roots attached which had
to be trimmed in preparation of the roots
for marketing.

Since most of the jicama roots will
be sold through the Alachua County
farmer's market, further sales (retail) can
be monitored. Hopefully, the demand will
increase for this new but delectable vege-
table. Due to its sweet flavor, much like
that of an apple, jicama should prove
popular as a snack item, salad ingredient,
as well as for use in cooked dishes. No
matter if it doesn't, says Kathy, she still
has her state record, and for now, that is
sweet enough.

(Stephens, Vegetarian, 89-12)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor

Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor


Dr. D. D. Gull
Assoc. Professor

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor (Edit
k it


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor

Dr. S. A. Sargent
Asst. Professor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor




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