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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00245
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: May 1989
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00245
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HISP Gainesville. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 89-05


May 10, 1989


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
B. New Publications.

H. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A Determining Precooling Schedules.
B. Producing Triploid Watermelon Transplants.

In. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A Florida Vegetables Worth $1.4 Billion in 1987-88.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A Spudlets Tissue Cultured Potato.



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
rAnocoATnIIC CYTCMAlnKI a InoV KI Ar'OtrII Ti InE AMkn unaAC cornAiMI(r qTATF F Fl FlRIflA IFAS IINIVFRSITY OF


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA





-1-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Calendar.

May 18, 1989. Vegetable Field
Day, Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center, Bradenton (Contact Don
Maynard).


June
Horticultural
(Contact Jim

July
Horticulture
Gainesville.


19-23, 1989.
Institute,
Stephens).


State 4-H
Camp Ocala.


24-28, 1989. State 4-H
Events 4-H Congress.
(Contact Jim Stephens).


July 30 Aug. 4, 1989. ASHS
Convention, Tulsa, OK.

August 23-25, 1989. Florida
Master Gardener Continued Training
Conference. Reitz Union, University of
Florida, Gainesville. (Contact Kathleen
Ruppert, Ornamental Horticulture).

B. New Publications.

Squash Silverleaf and Tomato
Irregular Ripening: New Vegetable
Disorders in Florida by D. N. Maynard
and D. J. Cantliffe. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv.
Veg. Crops Fact Sheet 37.

Staked Tomato Variety Trial
Results-Fall 1988 by Calvin E. Arnold and
Karen A. Armbrester. Immokalee
SWFREC Research Report IMM89-1.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A.
Schedules.


nfotanrmninrm


Pro.rnninn(


The key to maintaining present
markets and securing new markets lies in
the ability of shippers to consistently
supply high quality produce capable of
withstanding subsequent handling to
distant markets.
Precooling is the rapid removal of
field heat to temperatures approaching


proper storage temperature and is the
first line of defense in slowing the
biological processes which reduce product
quality. It has been in use in Florida
since the introduction of hydrocooling of
celery in the 1920's. Precooling, in
conjunction with refrigeration during
subsequent handling operations, provides
a cold chain to maximize storage life and
control disease and pests.
The purpose of this article is to
present a method for determining the
cooling times for precooling operations.
Since cooling times vary for each
precooling situation it is necessary to
develop a precooling schedule which
considers the precooling method,
commodity, container type and stacking
method, if palletized. This schedule
should be developed periodically for
existing operations when containers are
modified, when new commodities are
precooled and when new precoolers are
installed. This method is easy to use and
is applicable to all precooling methods
where the cooling medium is maintained
at a constant temperature during the
precooling treatment.
A. The procedure is as follows:
After the precooler has been running long
enough for the cooling medium
temperature to stabilize, the product
should be loaded in the precooler in the
same arrangement as for normal
precooling. Using the Precooling Schedule
Worksheet as a guide (Figure 1), fill in
the information at the top of the form.
Next record pulp temperatures on the
worksheet at the elapsed time intervals
for a cooling cycle (in minutes for vacuum
cooling and hydrocooling, or hours for
forced-air cooling and slush. These
measurements should be repeated for two
more cooling cycles. Then determine the
average of the three readings for each
cooling cycle to arrive at an average
cooling history for these particular
operating conditions. The pulp
temperatures should be measured using a
vegetable which will provide a
representative temperature for the entire
container, pallet or group of pallets, as
the case may be. A portable electronic


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-2-
Figure 1. Master copy of Precooling Schedule Worksheet.





PRECOOLING SCHEDULE WORKSHEET

PRECOOL METHOD CROP
DATE CONTAINER TYPE
COOLING MEDIUM TEMP.


PULP TEMPERATURES


----------TEST------------

ELAPSED TIME A B C Average

Minutes Hours

0 0.0
10 0.5
20 1.0
30 1.5
40 2.0
50 2.5
60 3.0
70 3.5
80 4.0
90 4.5
100 5.0
110 5.5
120 6.0
130 6.5
140 7.0
150 7.5
160 8.0
170 8.5
180 9.0
190 9.5
200 10.0
210 10.5
220 11.0
230 11.5
240 12.0
250 12.5
260 13.0
270 13.5
280 14.0
290 14.5
300 15.0





-3-


thermometer with an insertion type probe
and digital read-out is a worthwhile
investment for accurate temperature
measurement. Thermocouples allow
remote readout at a central location
particularly for vacuum cooling, in which
the product is sealed in the tube.
The procedure for vacuum cooling
scheduling is slightly different, since the
wet bulb temperature decreases as the
vacuum tube pressure falls. For this
situation, the wet bulb temperature in the
vacuum tube and the pulp temperature
should be measured to avoid the potential
of freezing with absolute pressures below
0.18 inches mercury. Determination of
the cooling time for vacuum cooling
requires that the same absolute pressure
be reached and held during each cooling
cycle.
B. After determining the average
cooling temperatures for the three cooling
cycles, the cooling curve can be plotted on
a copy of the Precooling Schedule. An
example for slush-ice precooling of sweet
corn will help to understand the
procedure (Figure 2). Points were plotted
on the Precooling Schedule for each
elapsed time and average temperature and
then connected with a line. (If the
elapsed time is measured in hours, as in
the case of room or forced-air cooling
situations, the times must be converted to
minutes for plotting on the Precooling
Schedule.) Notice that the Elapsed


Cooling Time axis is on a logarithmic
scale and begins at 10 minutes. This
scale allows longer cooling times to be
plotted. The cooling curve for a rapid
cooling method such as vacuum cooling
can be plotted more accurately by dividing
the Elapsed Cooling Time axis by a factor
of 10, to begin at 1 minute.
C. Finally, to determine the actual
7/8 Cooling Time, a line was drawn from
the Initial Pulp Temperature on the left
axis to the Cooling Medium Temperature
(or wet bulb temperature) on the right
axis of the Precooling Schedule. Then,
where this line intersected the vertical
dashed line for 7/8 Cooling (point D on
Figure 2), a horizontal line was drawn to
the cooling curve (point E). At this point
on the cooling curve, a vertical line was
drawn to the Elapsed Cooling Time axis
(point F). This is the 7/8 Cooling Time
(read 225 minutes for this example) for
sweet corn under these particular
conditions. A master copy of the
Precooling Schedule is provided (Figure
3).
By using these worksheets to
determine the precooling schedules for
individual commodities and packaging
methods, successful precooling can be
accomplished to provide maximum storage
life and quality.

(Sargent, Vegetarian 89-05)


Figure 2. Example for determining precooling schedule.
PRECOOLING SCHEDULE
PRECOOL METHOD 5 Ltw Xcc COOUNG MEDIUM TEMP. _20F
DATE 3/l1/f' CROP 5..wr- CO&M C(5. ,,/L)
CONTAINER TYPE CofAteumch L: LtL)
Precooling Achieved: 1/2 7/8


GcC

W-
a.
a.


ELAPSED COOLING TIME (MINUTES)





Figure 3. Master copy of Precooling Schedule.


PRECOOLING SCHEDULE


PRECOOL METHOD
DATE


COOLING MEDIUM TEMP.
CROP
CONTAINER TYPE


Precooling Achieved: 1/2
t


7/8
t


I I






II


20


40 60 100


200


400 600


1000


ELAPSED COOLING TIME (MINUTES)


100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30


0
0
0



m


0



-n
30 -





-5-


B. Producing Triploid
Watermelon Transplants.

Germination of triploid (seedless)
watermelon seed is less dependable than
of normal diploidd) seed. Triploid
seedcoats are generally thicker and harder
than normal watermelon seedcoats, and
the embryo does not completely fill the
seed cavity. The thick seedcoat and small
embryo of triploid seeds both contribute
to the poor germination sometimes
encountered. Accordingly, the
requirements for optimum germination of
triploid watermelon seeds are more
stringent than those for normal
watermelon seed.
The need for temperature
maintained at 80-85"F and judicious water
management to avoid waterlogging of the
media, as well as the relatively high cost
of triploid seed dictate the use of
containerized transplants rather than field
seeding. Research conducted by Steve
Olson at the North Florida Research and
Education Center, and reported in the
January 1989 Vegetarian, indicates that
1.5 inch cells are preferable to 1.0 or 2.0
inch cells for producing watermelon
transplants. Although there were no
differences in the yields of plants from 3,
4, or 5 week old transplants, he cautions
against the use of overgrown transplants
because of the difficulty of field
establishment.


In the spring of 1989, about 10,000
triploid watermelon seeds of many
different named varieties and
experimental lines were planted in a peat-
vermiculite media contained in 1.5 inch
cells in Todd planter flats by a
commercial plant grower. All of the
known requirements for optimum triploid
seed germination were followed. After
four weeks, the number of emerged,
usable transplants were counted.
The percentage of emerged triploid
plants from the experimental lines ranged
from 26 to 98 with an average of 77. The
emergence of named varieties was
between 39 and 98% with an average of
84%. The number of named varieties and
experimental lines having various seed
emergence percentages is shown in the
following table.
The differences shown are
obviously due to variations in seed quality
related to production techniques,
characteristics of the particular hybrid or
seed storage conditions. Growers should
be aware of the possible great differences
in transplant production potential of
various seed lots and provide for sufficient
plants to satisfy their needs.

(Maynard & Elmstrom, Vegetarian 89-05)


Emergence of Triploid Watermelon Seed


Emergence Named Experimental
(%) Varieties (No.) Lines (No.) Total (No.)

90-100 8 13 21
80-89 4 18 22
70-79 5 11 16
60-69 2 6 8
50-59 0 4 4
40-49 1 5 6
30-39 1 4 5
20-29 0 1 1





-6-


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Florida Vegetables Worth
$1.4 Billion in 1987-88.

The Vegetable Summary for the
1987-88 crop year has just been released
by the Florida Agricultural Statistics
Service. The farm value of Florida-grown
vegetables, including melons, potatoes and
strawberries sold in the 1987-88 crop year
totaled $1.4 billion.
According to the summary, the
crops increasing in value were snap beans,
cabbage, carrots, celery sweet corn,
cucumbers, eggplant, escarole, lettuce,
radish, squash, tomatoes and strawberries.
Crops with lower values than the
previous year were peppers, potatoes and
watermelon. All three crops which
showed declines in value had lower season
average prices than the previous year and,
in fact, were following record setting
highs.
Sweet corn, watermelons, and
tomatoes showed the largest increases in
harvested acreage over the previous year
while snap beans, lettuce and cucumbers,
celery, eggplant, escarole, radishes and
squash showed a reduction in harvest
acreage compared to 1986-87.
Season average prices for snap
beans, cucumbers and eggplant were new
records. Carrot, celery, lettuce, and
radish prices were also up from the
previous year. Season average prices for
all other crops estimated were down from
the previous year.
The following table on planted
acreage and total value of listed
vegetables were extracted from the
summary.
To obtain the Florida Agricultural
Statistics Vegetable Summary 1987-88,
write:

Florida Agricultural Statistics Service,
1222 Woodward Street,
Orlando, Florida 32803
Phone (407) 648-6020.


Florida Vegetables, Planted
Tntal Value 1987-88


Acreage and


Planted Total
Acreage Value
1987-88 $1000


Snap beans
Cabbage
Carrots
Celery
Sweet Corn
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Escarole
Lettuce
Peppers
Radishes
Squash
Tomatoes
Watermelons
Potatoes
Strawberries
Other Vegetables


31,350
17,100
12,700
8,900
59,100
15,600
2,200
4,900
12,600
21,500
28,000
14,700
57,000
57,500
36,900
5,000
43,210
428,260


54,300
29,559
13,486
47,858
71,551
54,778
10,253
12,619
59,768
93,044
18,685
40,144
535,337
62,556
45,966
73,875
126,041
1,349,820


(Stall, Vegetarian 89-05)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Spudlets Tissue Cultured Potato
Tubers.

MicroCulture, Inc., an Oregon
company, has just released a form of
potato seed they are calling "Spudlets".
These are unique mini-tubers (whole
miniature potatoes) produced through
micropropagation-tissue culture
technology.
The company has placed "Spudlets"
on the market for home gardeners to try.
It claims that planting a whole tuber
instead of the traditional cut-tuber will
reduce the susceptibility to disease and
rot problems. Of course that is true, but
I might point out that gardeners already
have the option of planting whole tubers
grown in the conventional manner. Many
commercial farmers select the "B" size
tubers (less than 1 7/8 inches diameter)









for planting whole. However, gardeners
usually are not able to find a handy
source of these small regular potatoes for
planting, so must purchase large-size
seed-stock potatoes and cut them into 2-
ounce seed pieces.
One should not confuse the
"Spudlets" with another form of potato
seed pieces marketed as Potato Sets,
"Spud-nuts", or "Spud-eyes". These are
nothing more than thumb-nail size
portions scooped out of a seed-potato.
Each "set" contains a small amount of
flesh around an eye. Because they are
cut they are generally treated with a
fungicide to reduce spoilage.
According to promotional materials,
MicroCulture, Inc. produces mini-tubers of
nine different varieties, ranging from the
novel colored-fleshed type including 'All
Blue', 'Desiree' (yellow flesh, red skin),
and 'Yellow Fin' (yellow flesh, yellow
skin), to the standard types, including
'Kennebec', 'Red Pontiac', 'Irish Cobbler';
'Russet Burbank', 'Redsen', and 'Norgold
Russet'.


I have not seen results of tests of
these "Spudlets" in Florida, but I am
encouraging gardeners to try them. Plant
at the usual best times, such as early
Spring. I am skeptical about yields due
to several factors. One involves the small
size of the tubers. At least two ounces
have been needed for best size tubers.
Also, the varieties offered are not the
most adaptable to Florida conditions,
although 'Kennebec' and 'Red Pontiac'
have given fair to good results in many
Florida gardens in the past. Also, the
ordering price is relatively high, listed as
somewhere around 50 to 75 cents per
tuber.


Agents who wish to
about "Spudlets", or try
demonstration gardens,
MICROCULTURE, INC.,
222, Dept. NP, Corvallis,
(phone 503-754-7771).


find out more
them in your
can contact
P.O. Box 3004-
Oregon, 97339,


(Stephens, Vegetarian 89-05)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor


Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


AA1i1S


Dr. D. D. Gull
Assoc. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


Dr. S. A. Sargent
Asst. Professor




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