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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: January 1989
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00241
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIOA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication


Vegelablc Crops Departmen 1255 HSPP Gainesville. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 89-1


January 16, 1989


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A. Record Income for Vegetables.
B. Precooling Florida Sweet Corn. Part II. Slush Ice
Precooling.
C. Watermelon Referendum.
D. Selection of Transplant Cell Size and Transplant
Age for Watermelon Production.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Changes in Maneb Labelling and Availability.
B. Enquick Herbicide Receives 24(C) Label for Tomato,
Pepper and Eggplant Row Middles.
C. Avermectin Section 18 Specific Exemption for Use
on Tomatoes.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida's Participation at National Junior
Horticultural Assoc. (NJHA) Conventions.



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS. UNIVERSITY OF


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I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Calendar

Jan. 30, 1989. Watermelon
Institute. Farm Bureau Building
Auditorium. 12:00 noon to 4:00 pm.
(Contact George Hochmuth, (904) 392-
7912).
Feb. 1, 1989. Strawberry Field
Day, Dover.
Feb. 5-7, 1989. Southern
Region ASHS Annual Convention.
Opryland Hotel, Nashville, TN.
Feb. 8-9, 1989. FSGSA-IFAS
Seed Seminar, Holiday Inn West, 1-75
-Newberry Road. Gainesville.
Feb. 10, 1989. Cabbage Field
Day, CFREC, Sanford, 10:00 AM-Noon.
Feb. 11, 1989. 4-H/FFA Horti-
culture Identification/Judging Event.
Florida State Fair. Tampa. 9:00 am
(Contact Jim Stephens).
March 6-9, 1989. National
Agricultural Plastics Assoc. 21st
Congress, Orlando Hyatt Hotel,
Kissimmee, FL. (G. Hochmuth).
June 19-23, 1989. State 4H
Horticultural Institute, Camp Ocala.
(Contact Jim Stephens).

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Record Income for Vegeta-
bles.
According to data recently
released by the USDA1, vegetable
income increased to $9.2 billion in
the U.S. in 1987. After adjusting
for inflation, receipts rose for the
first time since 1984. About 14% of
the total farm receipts from crops
came from vegetables (Table 1). This
improvement over 1986 and 1985 was
attributed to higher prices for some
vegetables lettuce, potatoes, and
onions and reduced receipts for
crops under government programs.


Table 1:
Cronn 1987


Crop Percent

Feed grains 19
Oil crops 16
Vegetables 14
Fruits & nuts 11
Greenhouse & nursery 9
Cotton & tobacco 9
Food grains 8
Others 14

Potatoes accounted for 17% of
the vegetable income and tomatoes and
lettuce contributed 14 and 9% respec-
tively.
In Florida, vegetables repre-
sented just over 30% of the crop in-
come in 1987, up from 28.3% in 1986.
In another report2, details of
the 1988 Florida strawberry crop are
provided. Yields increased to 250
cwt/acre in 1987. On the other hand,
prices were slightly lower in 1988
than in 1987. Nonetheless, record
receipts of almost $74 million were
received compared to just over $64
million in 1987.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 89-01)


U.S. Cash Receipts for


Corn.


B. Precooling Florida Sweet
Part II. Slush Ice


Precooling.


The first article in this
series presented an overview of the
principles and recommended methods
for optimal precooling of sweet corn
(Vegetarian 88-10). This article
will describe the results of cooling
tests performed in March, 1988, at a
south Florida packinghouse using
slush ice as the sole precooling
method for sweet corn. Dr. Jeffrey
K. Brecht (Vegetable Crops Dept.) and
Dr. Michael T. Talbot (Agricultural
Engineering Dept.) were cooperators.


1Vegetables and Specialties, TVS-245, September 1988.
2Vegetables, Vg 1-1 (9-88), September 9, 1988.




-2-


The slush ice method fit well
into existing operations; sweet corn
was field packed and transported to
the packinghouse for application of
slush ice. The slush ice was applied
in the following manner. The
ice/water slurry was pumped from a
reservoir beneath the pallet through
a split nozzle which injected two
cartons simultaneously through the
handholds. The injector was held in
place until back pressure indicated
that the cartons were filled with
ice. The use of two nozzles
permitted a pallet of 40 to 48
cartons to be injected in less than
2 minutes.
Slush icing requires the use of
oversize containers to permit
injection of a sufficient quantity of
ice to accomplish precooling.
Heavily waxed corrugated cartons were
used at this packinghouse. Each
carton held about 60 ears and about
25 pounds of ice.
Prior to precooling, ears were
removed from selected cartons and the
shanks were trimmed close to the
kernels. This permitted insertion of
a temperature probe about 2 inches
into the center of the cut end of
each ear. Cooling rates were
measured using 7 ears with
temperature probes placed in each of
the two cartons. These cartons were
then injected with slush ice and
placed into a cold room at 380F for
about 3 hours.
To measure cooling rates
between cartons, a single ear with a
temperature probe was placed in the
center of each of 15 cartons. The
cartons were stacked on a pallet,
injected with slush, placed in the
cold room, and held overnight.

Results:
An examination of the cartons
revealed generally uniform
distribution of the ice around the
individual ears and, therefore,
fairly uniform cooling. However, if
the injector was prematurely removed
from a carton during the slush


treatment, the cooling rate was
significantly slowed due to
inadequate coverage by the ice.
Fifty percent of the field heat
was removed in an average of 51
minutes for the pallet; 75 percent of
the field heat was removed after 170
minutes. Although the initial
cooling rate was slower than either
vacuum cooling or hydrocooling, the
presence of the ice allowed the sweet
corn to continue cooling. After 10.6
hours, 95 percent cooling was
achieved. This rate is quite
acceptable in order to maintain
postharvest quality, assuming that
the cartons are transported from the
field and injected in a timely
manner. It was estimated that the 25
pounds of ice injected into each
carton was sufficient to provide
cooling to 320 and maintain that
temperature and high relative
humidity for at least 8 days of
refrigerated transport at 34.
There are several requirements
for adoption of slush ice precooling:

*a consistent supply of ice
*use of waxed, corrugated cartons
*uniformly packed cartons
*avoidance of delays in transport,
injection
*thorough injection

In a later article, information
will be presented related to costs of
operating a slush ice precooling
system.

(Sargent, Vegetarian 89-01)


C. Watermelon Referendum.

I have just received a
communication from Washington that
the National Watermelon Referendum
will probably take place from
February 6 through 21, 1989. When I
receive the information and packets
from Washington, I will immediately
forward them to the counties. The
voting by growers and handlers must




-3-


take place in the county offices.
As I understand it, growers may
only vote once, in one location even
though they may grow in more than one
county. The number of acres that
each grower produces per year will
also be asked for on the ballot. The
grower should state his total acreage
in Florida, not in one county.
If two growers are in
partnership, each may vote, but must
divide the acreage produced between
them. In the packets the counties
receive will be copies of the
Proposed Rules for the Watermelon
Research and Promotion Plan from the
Federal Register and a short summary
of the plan.
Only 48 counties in Florida
will receive packets. This is due to
production statistics from the census
of agriculture. Each county that
will receive ballots was contacted
initially last summer. If agents
have questions on if their county is
included or need to ask any questions
on the referendum, they may contact
me or Tom Tichenor at the Marketing
Order Admin. Branch, USDA,
Washington, D.C. (202)475-3930.

(Stall, Vegetarian, 89-01)

D. Selection of Transplant
Cell Size and Transplant Age for
Watermelon Production.

Refer to the December
Vegetarian for article on use and
benefits of transplanting
watermelons. In this article the
effect of various cell sizes and
transplant ages on yield will be
discussed.
A study was initiated at the
NFREC, Quincy to look at the effect
of various cell sizes and transplant
ages on yields of 'Charleston Grey'
watermelons. Transplants were grown
in expanded polystyrene flats of the
inverted pyramid design (Speedling
Todde planter flats), of the
following sizes Model 100A, 150 and
200. The following table (Table 1)


gives the costs and dimensions of the
various sizes.
The experiment was repeated for
3 years. No differences in yields
were recorded from the various cell
sizes (Table 2). Transplants were
grown for 3,4, or 5 weeks from
seeding in the various cell sizes.
There were no significant yield
differences (Table 3) from the
various ages. With the largest cell
size (Model 200), the 3-week-old
transplants were difficult to remove
because the root systems had not
filled the cell and allow the media
to hold together.
There were no interactions
between the various cell sizes and
transplant ages. The 100A may be a
bit small because of the limited
surface area each plant has. There
is a tendency for the 100A plants to
become elongated and harder to
handle.
If possible when receiving
plants it is best to keep them in the
flats. If there is a delay in
planting, plants in shipping boxes
may become yellowed and elongated.
When receiving or purchasing
transplants, they should be inspected
carefully for insects, diseases,
stunting or presence of blooms. If
blooms are showing or open, the
plants may be too old to perform
satisfactorily. The grower should
inquire as to the age of the
transplants. Old transplants have a
very hard time establishing a root
system. The transplants should be
watered in or watered as soon as
possible after planting to help
establish their root system.

(Olson, Vegetarian 89-01)




-4-


Table 1. Cost and Dimensions of Flats Used in Trials.


Model $/thousand Width Depth Volume
(in) (in) (cu in)
100A 32.50z 1.0 3.0 1.0
150 47.80 1.5 2.5 1.9
200 82.00 2.0 3.0 4.0

ZAverage costs, may vary depending upon quantity purchased and does not include
seed costs.

Table 2. Effect of Various Flat Sizes on Watermelon Yields.

Total Yields (cwt/A)
Model 1984 1985 1986 Avg
100A 370 575 377 441
150 349 604 375 443
200 392 631 366 463

Significance NS NS NS



Table 3. Effect of Transplant Age on Watermelon Yields.

Transplant Age Total Yield (cwt/A)
(weeks from seeding) 1984 1985 1986 Avg

3 353 593 385 444
4 370 605 354 443
5 388 612 380 460

NS NS NS


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Changes in Maneb Labelling
and Availability.

Since the patent of maneb as a
fungicide in 1950, effective plant
disease control of foliar diseases
with chemicals became a reliable ally
of the farmer. The popularity of
maneb grew on major vegetables as
well as minor vegetables. Maneb
fungicides were labelled for use on
more vegetables than any other organ-
ic fungicide type. The wide label-
ling of maneb continued for many
years and rarely were complaints
heard that this broad spectrum
fungicide did not perform as


expected. The broad labelling of
maneb lulled us to sleep on any
labelling issue because we had most
vegetables "covered." However, as we
sought new crops to be added to the
maneb label after 1970, difficulties
were encountered. A series of
hurdles such as EPA, IR-4, corporate
belt tightening, adverse press
releases, and others had to be
overcome for each and every new
registration on new or old labels.
Over time, not only did new
registrations slow down, old
registrations were cancelled or
voluntarily withdrawn. By 1977,
RPAR's were issued for numerous
agricultural chemicals including
maneb and other EBCD (ethylene bis




-5-


dithiocarbamate) fungicides. EPA
said that the possible formation of
ethylenethiourea (ETU) presented risk
as a carcinogen. The RPAR was satis-
fied in favor of the EBDC fungicides
but new tacts were taken to withhold
new registration for the EBDC's.
With each new request by the EPA for
the manufacturers to present new
evidence that the product was "safe,"
additional costs (in the millions)
had to be incurred to keep a product
in the market place. This author
heard that the cost to keep maneb on
the market was $8,000,000. At one
time four or five companies were to
have shared the "cost." "Nuts," said
some, and now as this author under-
stands the situation, the current
licensing of maneb is in ONE company.
Pennwalt Corporation now markets
maneb. Manex, Dithane M-22, Dithane
M-22 Special, Manzate, Manzate D,
Stoller Maneb, and other maneb
formulations are no longer available
except what is in the trade at this
time. THE ONLY MANEB FORMULATIONS
THAT ARE BEING MANUFACTURED ARE
PENNWALT'S MANEB 80 AND MANEB PLUS
ZINC F-4. THE NEW "MANEX 11" SOLD BY
GRIFFIN CORPORATION IS A FLOWABLE
MANCOZEB PRODUCT (equivalent to
Dithane M-45 and Manzate 200).
As of October 3, 1988, a
registration standard for maneb has
been issued by the EPA. Of interest
in their fact sheet on the
registration standard for maneb, they
refer to Dithane M-22 and Manzate as
the "Principal Trade Names." Those
two products are of historical
interest only. Regardless, the MANEB
80 and MANEB PLUS ZINC F-4 products
are the remains of the maneb fungi-
cides.
Pennwalt's two maneb
formulations are labelled for use on
14 and 10 vegetable crops,
respectively, for Maneb Plus Zinc F-
4 and Maneb 80. New chemical
listings for vegetable fungicides are
being printed at this time. At one
time, maneb fungicides were labelled
for use on 26 or more vegetables.


The elimination of crops such as
carrots and celery from maneb labels
is not currently a major problem
because other fungicides can fill the
void. However, the deletion of some
crops such as collards, turnips, and
mustards from the maneb label creates
a void with the exception of a few
inorganic copper and sulfur labels.
Soon we will be like the
nematologists who have learned to
study nematodes with high population
levels only.
In discussions with Pennwalt
personnel, we are anticipating them
to send a SLN (24-C) that will
petition for the use of maneb on
turnips, mustards, and collards. At
the present time, we do not have
adequate controls for downy mildew
and Alternaria leaf spots in these
crops. One final bit of information,
the two maneb formulations currently
available from the one company is all
we have for tank mixing with copper
fungicides for bacterial spot in
pepper. Either mancozeb or maneb can
be used on tomatoes, but only maneb
is labelled for peppers. I have been
told more times than I care to hear
about that at some point in time a
rollover of crops from maneb label to
the mancozeb labels will solve the
problem. I look forward to that
occurrence but the way things are
going, the life expectancy of maneb
in the marketplace may be about 1/2
of a normal life expectancy of the
ultimate beneficiary, the consumer.

(Kucharek, Vegetarian 89-01)


B. Enquick
Receives 24(0) Label
Penner and EceDlant Row


Herbicide
for Tomato,
Middles


Enquick herbicide
(Monocarbamide Dihydrogensulfate) has
received a special local needs 24(c)
label for use with Gramoxone Super in
tomato, pepper and eggplant* row
middles.
Enquick is a desiccant produced










by Unocal Chemicals Division. The
product is to be used as a directed
shielded spray at 3 to 5 gallons of
Enquick in 20 to 50 gallons total
spray per treated acre. Use a non-
ionic surfactant at a rate of 1-2 pts
per 100 gallons of spray mix.
Enquick is a contact herbicide-
desiccant which destroys plant tissue
by disrupting cell membrane
structures. Thorough coverage is
critical, Enquick has no systemic
action. Note: Enquick is severely
corrosive to nylon; mildly corrosive
to mild steel, aluminum, brass,
leather or natural rubber. Non-nylon
plastic and 316-L stainless steel are
recommended for application
equipment. Diluted Enquick is more
corrosive to steel than the
concentrate.
*Note: Gramoxone does not have a
eggplant row middle label.

(Stall, Vegetarian, 89-01)

C. Avermectin Section 18
Specific Exemption for Use on
Tomatoes.

Avermectin B, (Agri-Mek 0.15EC)
has received a Section 18 specific
exemption for the control of
leafminers in fresh market tomatoes.
The specific exemption becomes
effective January 1, 1989 and expires
July 31, 1989. There are several
restrictions on the label which must
be closely adhered to. Also,
remaining unused stocks on July 31,
1989 are to be returned to Merk.
A maximum of ten ground
applications per crop season at a
maximum rate of 16 ounces of product
per acre per application can be made.
A maximum of 56,500 acres of tomatoes
may be treated.
Do not apply within 3 days of
harvest.
A detailed use report is
required. FFVA has asked that all
users keep accurate records of their
use. Be sure to read and follow all
instructions and restrictions on the


label.

(Stall, Vegetarian 89-01)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida's Participation
at National Junior Horticultural
Assoc. (NJHA) Conventions.

For over 30 years, Florida
4-H'ers have represented our state
well in various horticultural
competitive events at the NJHA
convention, and 1988 was no
exception. As has been the case for
the past decade with the exception of
two years (St. Johns County in 1984,
and Leon County, 1987), the county
doing the honors in Horticulture
Judging and Identification was
Marion.
In 1988, the Marion County 4-H
team placed 1st in the nation in the
4-H Division. Claudia Craver had the
top 4-H score, followed by team-mates
Yogi Williams (3rd), Kim Charles
(5th), and Danny Lane (7th).
Congratulations to this fine team,
coached by Marion County 4-H Agent
Bob Renner, for an outstanding
showing at Chicago in October, 1988.
For those not familiar with the
National Junior Horticultural
Association (NJHA), it is an
organization for America's youth
interested in horticulture.
Leadership is provided by an NJHA
Executive Committee, an NJHA
Foundation Board of Officers
(National Chairman is Jack Leaver,
Fremont, MI, whose daughter Jan
Hoffman is Executive Secretary), and
State Program Leaders, one from each
state. Florida's current (1989)
leader is Bob Renner, Marion County
4-H Agent.
Financing comes from
contributions from corporations,
associations, businesses, and
individuals. Most of the membership
results from participation in ongoing
state youth programs such as 4-H and
FFA, although some states have










independent NJHA organizations
(Florida does not).
According to NJHA Historian
Wibb Justi of Worthinton, Ohio, the
activities of NJHA began in 1935, but
it was not until 1939 that the
organization officially began. Thus,
1989 will mark the 50th year, which
will be celebrated in Hunt Valley,
Maryland, at the next convention. In
the beginning the organization was
called the National Junior Vegetable
Grower Association (NJVGA) until its
becoming NJHA in 1965.
Florida will be hosting the
NJHA Convention in October, 1991, at
Altamonte Springs (Orlando). This
will be the third time we have hosted
the convention. It was my privilege
to have helped host the 1962 and 1971
(both at Miami Beach) conventions.
Here is a brief history of the
past conventions since my first
encounter in 1962. Florida had
participated earlier at Detroit and
Springfield.

History of Florida's Horticulture
(and Vegetable) Identification teams
at NJVGA/NJHA Conventions J. M.
Stephens.
Year Place County
1962 Miami Beach St. Johns
1963 Pittsburgh St. Johns
1964 New Orleans St. Johns
1965 Cincinnati St. Johns
1966 St. Louis St. Johns
1967 New York St. Johns
1968 Atlanta St. Johns


1969 Indianapolis Marion
1970 Denver St. Johns
1971 Miami Beach St. Johns
1972 Columbus St. Johns
1973 Oklahoma City St. Johns
1974 Chevy Chase St. Johns
1975 Biloxi St. Johns
1976 King of Prussia Polk
1977 Winston-Salem Marion
1978 Cleveland Marion
1979 St. Louis Marion
1980 Atlanta Marion
1981 Colorado Marion
1982 Niagra Marion
1983 Tulsa Marion
1984 Grand Rapids St. Johns
1985 Lexington Marion
1986 Raleigh Marion
1987 Indianapolis Leon
1988 Chicago Marion
1989 Hunt Valley ?
During the early years, at
least through 1973, Florida 4-H'ers
were joined by FFA teams from
Florida. In all years, a state
winning 4H horticultural
demonstration team/individual has
accompanied the judging/
identification team. Although
flowers, ornamentals, and fruits were
included when the organization became
NJHA in 1965, we in Florida kept the
vegetable theme until 1975. That
marked the end of the reign of St.
Johns County which had won in every
year since 1962, with the exception
of 1969 when Marion County won
(coached by Jimmy Geisson).


(Stephens, Vegetarian 89-01)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. D. D. Gull
Assoc. Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor

Dr. S. A. Sargent
Asst. Professor




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