Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: August 1987
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00236
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops DcparLment* 1255 HcSPP Gaincsville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 87-08


August 17, 1987


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. Dr. Thomas Bewick Joins Vegetable Crops Dept.
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Field Testing Micronutrient Fertilizer Rates
For Potatoes Predicted By Mehlich-I Extractant.

B. Calabaza Production.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Allelopathy: Chemical Warfare Between Plants.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Master Gardener Coordinator Position Changes
Departments.

B. 4-H Plant Science Demonstrations-1987 Results.


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


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II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

September 9, 1987. Florida Tomato
Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples, Florida.

September 10 11, 1987. Joint
Tomato Conference. Ritz Carlton
Hotel, Naples, Florida.

October 29 31, 1987. National Jr.
Horticulture Association Convention
Indianapolis, Indiana. Contact Jim
Stephens.


B. Dr. Thomas Bewick Joins
Vegetable Crops Department.

Dr. Thomas Bewick joined the
Vegetable Crops faculty July 7,
1987. Tom is a recent graduate of
the Horticulture Dept. at the
University of Wisconsin where he
worked extensively in the area of
weed science in vegetable crops. He
is a native of Chicago, Illinois,
attended secondary school in
Virginia and went on to earn his
B.S. degree in Horticulture at U.C.
Davis. Following that degree he
spent about 6 years in California
and Maryland in the private sector
producing vegetables for fresh
market and processing. Subsequently
he enrolled in a M.S. program at the
University of Wisconsin and after
obtaining that degree continued
working toward the Ph.D.
Tom's appointment is both
teaching and research and will be
responsible for teaching one of the
undergraduate vegetable production
courses as well as the World
Vegetables course. He will continue
his research interests in weed
science and has particular interest
in biological control methods.

(Kostewicz, Veg. 87-08)


A. Field Testing Micronutrient
Fertilizer Rates For Potatoes
Predicted By Mehlich-I Extractant.

Present interpretations of
Mehlich-I extractable copper,
manganese, and zinc are tentative.
Interpretation depends on soil pH;
the critical levels increase with pH
and the extractant is not
recommended for alkaline soils. To
develop more data with which to
better calibrate this soil test, we
conducted a micronutrient test with
potatoes near Live Oak in Suwannee
county.
Preplant soil test
micronutrient values indicated that
little to no response would be
expected from addition of Cu, Mn, or
Zn to this soil with a pH of about
6.2, (Table 1). Zinc even appears
to be very high. The field used for
the study had been in field corn for
several years to which routine
additions of zinc were made.
Micronutrient fertilizer
amounts tested were factorial
combinations of zero and 3 lb/A Cu,
zero and 5 lb/A Mn, and zero and 3
lb/A Zn.

Table 1. Average preplant
micronutrient soil-test values from
32 samples and critical Mehlich-I
values.
Critical
Element Avg. Range range
pH 6.2 6.0-6.8
--------- ppm ---------------
Zinc 3.0 2.1-9.2 0.5-1.0
Copper 0.4 0.2-2.3 0.3-0.5
Manganese 5.9 4.0-9.2 5.0-7.0


Micronutrient mixtures were
formulated from nitrate forms and
applied in a liquid band to both
sides of the seed piece about 3
inches from the seed piece.
Micronutrients were applied on
February 17, 1987 four days after


I. NOTES OF INTEREST








'La Rouge' potatoes had been
planted. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and
potassium was added to equal the
grower practice. Remaining cultural
practices were those of the grower.
Potatoes were harvested and
graded on June 10, 1987 2 weeks
after vine killing. Potatoes were
graded into size categories of "A",
"B", and "small" according to USDA
standards. Analysis of variance
showed that the main effects of
copper and manganese were not
significant for marketable yield, or
for any grade category. Zinc did
not affect large or small potato
yields but did increase the "B" size
yield. No interactions were
significant except for the Cu x Zn
on grade A. Here, the best response
was from no addition of Cu or Zn
(Table 2).

Table 2. Yield of size "A"
potatoes. Means (8 observations)
for Cu x Zn interaction.

Cu rate (cwt/A)
Zn rate (cwt/A) 0 3
----- yield Ib/A -------
0 131.0 106.9
3 108.8 117.3

The results of this study show
that no additions of fertilizer
micronutrients were needed on this
soil, and that additions of certain
micronutrients and combinations of
micronutrients (especially copper
and zinc) actually depressed yield.
In addition this research provides
data that supports the present
critical values for interpretation
of Mehlich-I extractable Cu, Mn, and
Zn. In fact, the soil test
predicted potential problems from
toxicity if additions of zinc were
made because the soil test values
were well above the critical values.
The results from the analysis of "A"
Potato yield indicate a toxicity may
have occurred.

(Hochmuth and Hanlon Veg. 87-08)


B. Calabaza Production.

Calabaza (Cucurbita moschata
(Duchesne) Poir.) is a
subtropical/tropical pumpkin
frequently called Cuban pumpkin.
'La Primera', an improved cultivar,
was introduced in 1979 by Dr. Ray
Volin formerly of the IFAS Tropical
Research and Education Center in
Homestead. Unfortunately,
commercial seed have not been
available to growers who continue to
use their own seed saved from season
to season. Recently, however, two
seed suppliers indicated that they
will have 'La Primera' seed
available in the near future.
Meanwhile, increases from seed
obtained from Florida Foundation
Seed Producers have been made at
Leesburg AREC and the Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center. Seed
is available to county agents who
wish to establish trials or who have
growers interested in trial
plantings.
Performance of 'La Primera' in
the spring 1987 seed increase block
at the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center was evaluated.
Beds on 9 ft centers were prepared
on February 18 including
incorporation of 500 lb 0-20-0,
fumigation with 50 Ib Vorlex, and
application of two surface bands of
1000 lb 18-0-25 per acre on the bed
shoulders, and application of black
polyethylene mulch. The crop was
established by direct-seeding on
March 5 using a 4 ft in-row spacing.
The stand was adjusted by thinning
to about 1200 plants per acre. The
crop was seep-irrigated. Approved
fungicides were applied for control
of downymildew and gummy stem
blight.
The pumpkins were harvested on
June 25 as the vines were starting
to go down, and the most mature
pumpkins were yellow-orange colored.
Each fruit was weighed and counted;
the yields expanded to a 4840 linear








bed feet acre basis are shown in
Table 1.

Table 1. Calabaza yield per acre
and average fruit weight. GCREC,
Spring 1987.
Fruit Average
Number Weight(ton) Fruit Weight (lb)
2,574 27.5 21.4

Yields at GCREC were much
higher than the approximately 13
tons per acre reported in Homestead
mostly because of higher average
fruit weight, 21.4 lb in Bradenton
versus 16.2 Ib in Homestead. Most
fruit ranged between 10 and 25 lb,
however, 27% of the fruit were
larger than 25 lb whereas only 3% of
the fruit were less than 10 lb
(Table 2). The largest fruit
weighed 53.2 lb.

Table 2. Calabaza fruit weight
distribution. GCREC, Spring 1987.
Fruit Weight Distribution
(lb) (%)
< 10 3
10-15 18
15-20 29
20-25 23
25-30 14
30-35 8
35-40 3
> 40 2


Calabaza is a high quality,
tropical-type pumpkin widely used by
Hispanics. Although it is virtually
unknown to other segments of the
population, there is reason to
believe that it would be accepted
for culinary use in anyway that
butternut or similar type squash is
now used, including pie filling.
Large fruit size might discourage
some consumers, but retailers could
consider selling halves or quarters
like watermelon. Another option
would be to sell peeled and cubed
calabaza in preweighed polyethylene
bags as a convenience vegetable.
(Maynard, Veg. 87-08)


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Allelopathy: Chemical
Warfare Between Plants.

It is obvious that weeds can
exert harmful interference on crop
growth, yield and quality. Much of
the interference is due to
competition of the weeds with the
crop for resources such as water,
nutrients and light. A question
that is not clearly defined is how
much interference is due to
competition and how much is due to
chemical toxins released by the
weeds.
The term allelopathy refers to
the deleterious effect that one
higher plant has on another through
the production of chemicals that
escape into the environment.
Allelopaths are released into
the environment by 5 main means: 1)
root exudates, 2) direct tissue
contact, 3) leachates from various
tissues, 4) volatilization and 5)
through decay.
The classic case of allelopathy
is the wilting of tomato plants in
close proximity to black walnut
trees. It was noted that tomato and
potato plants grown near black
walnut trees would wilt and die.
The substance juglone, which could
be extracted from the roots and
hulls of the walnut was identified
as a powerful toxin to these and
several other plants.
Chemicals with allelopathic
potential have been isolated from
virtually all tissues of a plant,
including leaves, stems, roots,
rhizomes, flowers, fruits and seeds.
Al Putnam at Michigan State has
found that phytotoxins produced on
the trichomes (hairs) of the stems
and petioles of velvetleaf, a common
weed in the midwest, can be leached
or removed by misting water.
Many other plants have been
implicated as producing allelopathic
compounds. Whether compounds are
released into the environment in








high enough quantities to cause
reduced growth is a critical
question.
Plant growth reducing
allelopaths have been indicated for
problem weeds such as nightshades,
parthenium, yellow and purple
nutsedge and several mustard weeds
among others.
Another allelopathic phenomena
is the production by some plants of
seed germination inhibitors. These
inhibitors, many times volatiles,
will inhibit the germination of
seeds of its own species and
sometimes will stop germination of
many species. Plant succession in
various ecosystems can be attributed
to allelopaths from the dominant
plant community.
Joan Dusky at the EREC, Belle
Glade, working in muck soils has
found celery, when disked under and
rotting will form allelopathic
compounds which will inhibit or
reduce lettuce seed germination and
also inhibit the germination of
several weed seeds. Various
Cruciferae, cultivated and weed
species have potent germination
inhibitors. Work in Texas at a USDA
Laboratory has shown that stands of
carrot and beets are reduced when
planted into soil that has
decomposing cabbage residue in it.
The study of allelopathy is a
relatively new field. The
importance of the study of these
phenomena is important in an applied
sense. As more is known on the
toxicity arising from plant
residues, recommendations will be
made in the production of these
crops to reduce the effect on
subsequent crops in the same field.
In another sense, residues, if
managed may have influence only on
emergence and growth of weeds.
Recent work on cover crops and
surface stubble residues in
conservative-tillage systems have
reduced germination and growth of
several annual weed species.
As more is learned about the


germination inhibition effect of
allelopathic compounds, these
natural compounds may be used in
biocontrol programs. Conversely
compounds to reverse the process of
inhibition may be developed to cause
large numbers of the weed seeds to
germinate at one time so they may be
destroyed in a fallow situation.
The study of allelopathy is an
exciting field that will have far
reaching effects on crop production.
Several books and monographs are
published on the subject. The
knowledge is also expanding rapidly.
If any agent observes phenomena in
the field that possibly could be
attributed to allelopathic effects,
it would be appreciated if they
would bring it to our attention for
possible investigation.

(Stall, Veg. 87-08)


IV. HOME GARDENING

A. Master Gardener Coordinator
Position Changes Departments.

With the departure of Kathleen
Delate back in December, much of the
daily attention to program details
slowed down considerably. I have
attempted to provide information,
answer questions, and send out
supplies as requested. Bob Black
has been working on arrangements for
the Continued Training Session
scheduled for August 20-21. Dan
Cantliffe has maintained open lines
with administration and the rest of
us concerning the direction of the
program.
Probably all of you know of the
decision made to hire a replacement
for Kathleen Delate, but with a
revised job description and position
classification. We are in the
process of filling that position now
from the group of excellent
candidates applying. Bob Black is
chairman of the search and screen
committee for this position.








Another important decision was
made to move the position from the
Vegetable Crops Department, where it
was centered from the program's
beginning in 1979, to the Ornamental
Horticulture Department. The
initial phase of this transfer has
been made, with all of the records,
materials, and supplies having been
moved to the O.H. Dept. in July.
With the transfer to the O.H.
Department, inquiries about supplies
and program materials should be
directed to Bob Black in that
department. But please keep in mind
that this is a transistory period
during which supplies may not be
readily available. When the new
person gets on board, one of the
first jobs will be to unpack
everything (including supplies),
inventory them, and handle all back
orders. Hopefully, the switchover
will go smoothly. Since most
training courses will not begin
until the fall, there is still time
to receive supplies after the new
person is hired to handle the
orders.
The Florida Master Gardener
program seems to be in high gear in
most all of the thirty five
counties. Hopefully, there will be
little or no slow-down in the pace
due to this transistory period.


B. 4-H Plant Science
Demonstrations-1987 Results.


Horticulture demonstrations
have long been a part of the scene
at State 4-H Congress. However,
this year the horticulture
category was expanded to include
other plant groups, particularly
agronomic crops, and is now called
Plant Science Demonstrations.
Fourteen demonstrations were
given in this event, held on the
second day of 4-H Congress.
Actually, most all were about
horticultural crops. The one
exception was on the subject of
fescue grass for horse pasture.
The following table gives the
results of the event. Winners were
announced during the awards ceremony
held in the University of Florida
Auditorium. The top team will
represent Florida in Indianapolis
during the National Junior
Horticultural Association Convention
in October. The trip is sponsored
by the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association, The Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer
Services, and the Florida 4-H
Foundation.


(Stephens, Veg. 87-08)








Results
State 4-H Plant Science Demonstrations
Room 1304 Fifield Hall
J. M. Stephens, Coordinator
July 28, 1987


Placing


First

Second

Third
Fourth

Fifth
Sixth
Seventh

Eighth
Ninth
Tenth
Eleventh
Twelfth

Thirteenth
Fourteenth


Score

95.67

95.33

94.33
93.67

92.33
91.00
90.67

90.00
88.67
88.33
85.00
84.67

80.33
79.67


Name


Karen Brown and
Karen Doughtery
Tycee Betts

Chris Tompkins
Leanne Barco and
Edwin Rooks
Belinda McQuillen
Kevin Crowell
Sarah Ahmed and
Rhonda Roberts
Heather Anderson
Jamie Hostetter
Mark Fooshee
Jonathan Hill
Melody Duncan and
Vicky Rose
Scott Parker
Travis Evans


County


Marion

Manatee

Hillsborough
Citrus

Highlands
Polk
Levy

Pinellas
Gadsden
Duval
Volusia
Gilchrist

Escambia
Suwannee


Title


Growing Ferns

Cold Protection of Fruit
Trees
Strawberry Marketing
Grafting the Rose

Caladiums
Fertilizing Your Florida Lawn
Roses in Competition

Bonsai
Propagation
Plant Propagation
Orchids
Fertilizers and Rate of
Growth
Can Fescue Be To Blame
Seeds to Flowers


(Stephens 87-08)




Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantlitfe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. S. M. Olson
Associate Professor


Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Professor


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