Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: July 1987
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00235
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

\-gclabcl Crops Department 1255 lHSP D Gainesville, FL 32611 Telcpihone 392-213,


Vegetarian 87-07


July 13, 1987


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I Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

B. New Postharvest Faculty Joins Department

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. What Is A Leaching Rain?

B. 1987 Florida Tomato Institute

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Ratings On Pesticide Risk.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Tomato Variety Demonstration Results.



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.







The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


I








I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

July 27 30, 1987. 4-H State
Congress. Gainesville.
(Contact J. M. Stephens)

July 28 29, 1987. State 4-H
Horticultural Events
(Demonstrations, Plant
Identification, and Career
Exploration), Fifield Hall
(Contact Jim Stephens)

August 20 21, 1987. Florida
Master Gardener Advanced Training.
Reitz Union, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
(Contact Bob Black, OH Dept.)

September 9, 1987. Florida Tomato
Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples, Florida.

September 10 11, 1987. Joint
Tomato Conference. Ritz Carlton
Hotel, Naples, Florida.

B. New Postharvest Faculty
Joins Department.

Dr. Steven A. Sargent joined
the Vegetable Crops faculty July 1,
1987. Dr. Sargent is a native of
Michigan and received all of his
degrees from Michigan State. He
majored in horticulture as an
undergraduate, specialized in
postharvest for his Master's degree
and concentrated on Ag. Engineering
for his Doctorate.
Dr. Sargent is married to
Suzana and they have two daughters,
Stefanie age 3 yrs and Vanessa is 10
months old. Mrs. Sargent has her
Master's degree from Michigan State
and specialized in working with the
mentally retarded. We welcome them
to Florida.
Prior to joining our faculty,
Dr. Sargent was on the faculty at
Michigan State and project


coordinator of an interdepartmental
team to evaluate and improve the
quality of Michigan apples. The
team consisted of Ag. Economists,
Ag. Engineers and Horticulturists;
their thrust areas were variety
evaluation, harvesting, postharvest
handling procedures and controlled
atmosphere storage. Dr. Sargent has
additional experience in retail
surveys, precooling methods and
developing harvest indicators to
predict maturity.
At UF, Dr. Sargent will have a
joint appointment, 80% research and
20% teaching. His research
responsibilities will be to develop
innovative solutions to contemporary
postharvest problems of the Florida
vegetable industries. In his
teaching program he plans to develop
a complementary course to those
already being taught in the
department. Dr. Sargent is fluent
in both spanish and portugese, and
with his additional training in the
area of engineering we feel he will
be a most valuable asset to our
department and the vegetable
industry of Florida.
(Gull, Veg. 87-07)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. What Is A Leaching Rain?

Knowing the answer to this
question, a producer can better
judge when, or if, his crop would
benefit from supplemental
fertilization. A supplemental
fertilization is an addition of
fertilizer over and above that
needed to supply the Crop Nutrient
Requirement, in essence, a
replacement of nutrient lost through
leaching.
There are many different
mechanisms that cause mobile
nutrients, such as nitrates, to move
within the soil. Let's discuss
briefly some of these processes.








When the crop is actively growing,
nitrates will move with water to the
root. Water is flowing toward the
root because of the "pull" created
in plant leaves through transpiration.
Once present at the root, a plant
has the opportunity to take up
nitrates. However, as water from
irrigation or precipitation
infiltrates the soil surface, this
water displaces water already
present in the soil. As this
displacement and redistribution of
water takes place, nitrates will be
transported with the displaced
water. If this displaced water
moves to depths below the root zone,
there is a good chance that both the
water and the nitrates will be lost
for possible use to the crop. When
these leaching losses are a high
percentage of the total nitrates,
replacement through fertilizer
addition should be considered.
Lastly, microbes may intercept
nitrates at any time. With respect
to the need for supplemental
fertilization, it is usually the
depletion of mobile nutrients by
physical means (leaching) that
dictates such need.
With all of these processes,
transporting of nutrients in moving
water, nutrient uptake by the plant,
and microbial activity occurring at
the same time, any "rule of thumb"
answer to "what is leaching rain"
must be understood in terms of
simplifying assumptions. Assume
that your soil is sandy and of
medium water holding potential
(field capacity = 10% by volume).
Furthermore, assume that the crop
has a rooting depth of about 30
inches; the fertilizer is within the
surface few inches, and that there
was no surface runoff of the
rainfall in question. Then leaching
of water soluble nutrients can be
expected whenever the total amount
of rainfall/irrigation exceeds 3
inches within a 3-day period or the
total exceeds 4 inches within a
7-day period. Growers should modify


this approach to their own
production systems. If your soil
has higher water holding capacity,
the rule should be modified to
reflect less leaching potential. A
particularly vigorous rainfall may
create runoff from a field. In this
situation, not all water actually
infiltrated the soil, even though
the total amount of precipitation
has "triggered" the rule. Thus,
leaching was probably less than
predicted by the rule. The decision
to make a supplemental fertilization
should be made with caution, since
the real need depends upon stage of
crop growth, the nutrient in
question, as well as other soil
factors (texture, restrictive soil
horizons, organic content, etc.).
However, this "leaching rain rule"
is a good first approximation when
considering supplemental
fertilization.
(Hanlon, Hammon, Hochmuth,
Veg. 87-07)

B. 1987 Florida Tomato Institute.

The 1987 Florida Tomato
Institute will be held September 9,
1987, at the Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples Florida. The Institute will
be held the Wednesday proceeding the
Thursday Florida Tomato Committee
Organizational Meeting and the
Friday Florida Tomato Exchange
Annual Meeting.
A preliminary program for the
Institute is below.

1987 Tomato Institute
Preliminary Program

Observations of the Differences in
Tomato Production Between Seep and
Drip Irrigation in Immokalee.
P. H. Everett, SFREC, Immokalee.

Chemigation: The Future of Drip
Irrigation Delivery of Nematicides
and Insecticides. J. W. Noling,
CREC, Lake Alfred.








Effect of Irrigation on Disease
Development of Bacterial Spot.
M. A. Moss, TREC, Homestead.

Bacterial Spot and Target Spot -
Identification and Control.
J. P. Jones, GCREC, Bradenton.

Control of Nightshade and Other
Weeds in Tomato Row Middles.
J. P. Gilreath, GCREC, Bradenton.

New Pests and Possible New
Insecticides for Use in Tomatoes.
D. J. Schuster, GCREC, Bradenton.

The Delany Paradox: Reality vs.
Illusion. Martha Rhodes; Assistant
Commissioner, FDACS, Tallahassee.

Research and Extension Programs at
the Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center. J. M. Davidson,
Dean for Research, IFAS,
Gainesville.

IR-4: Securing Pesticide Labels for
the Tomato Industry. C. W. Meister,
Region Coordinator, IR-4 Program,
Gainesville.

Heat Tolerant Tomato Variety
Outlook. J. W. Scott, GCREC,
Bradenton.

Healthy Seed. John Cross, Quality
Consultant, Asgrow Seed, Kalamazoo,
Michigan.

Arrival Conditions of Florida
Tomatoes at Terminal Markets.
D. D. Gull, Vegetable Crops
Department, Gainesville.

Lessons Learned from Restricting
Sales of Low Quality Tomatoes.
J. J. VanSickle, FRED, Gainesville.

Tariff, Trade, Tension and Tomatoes.
Dr. Earl Butz. Former Secretary of
Agriculture, Dean Emeritus of
Agriculture, Purdue University.

(Stall, Veg. 87-07)


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Ratings on Pesticide Risk.


Perceptions of risk and actual
risk levels are many times far
apart. In the chart below, the left
hand side are rankings of actual
levels of risk of accidental death
from various causes as established
for insurance purposes. On the
right are the risks from pesticides
as ranked by college students, women
voters, and business people.
Pesticides as a whole have
received very bad press. In any
discussion of or mention of
pesticides to the general public,
the reaction is more emotional than
rational.
If you don't believe this, just
try to convince a college student
that he has a higher risk of being
killed by home appliances than by
pesticides.

Actual Level of Risk How They Ranked It

--1

Motor Vehicles
Pesticides as Ranked
s by College Students
Motorcycles -

Swimming
Pesticides as Ranked
G -10 by Women Voters
General Aviation
Bicycles
Hunting
Home Appliances Pesticides as Ranked
by Business People

Commercial Aviation
-20

Power Mowers

Skiing



PESTICIDES

Spray Cans --30

RaIlng It pi icic l rtik. On l IrI are tu luvIls i i0 rala or accCIenhl tln 11h Ia rm rou c4au a IIr tbl hdlll lor l niurai. n
purposes. On the tight ar Iet nI k Iitol ptlcid. a r ankd Dy college. lludenl. women volor. and bulJnel. peopl. Reprlnltd
Science aOI Food .nd Agrlcultur.. January 19U








IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Tomato Variety
Demonstration Results.

Garden Aides in the
Jacksonville Urban Gardening program
are committed to using
demonstrations as a teaching
technique. What better way is there
to show off new varieties and
compare them with old standards. So
this spring the staff planted some
29 varieties of tomatoes for
observation.
The tomatoes were seeded on
January 7 and transplanted to the
garden on February 27. Each variety


was represented by 2 plants, with
each plant grown one per hill by the
Wade Ellis method of mounding over
cow manure. On June 17, 1987, the
public, including both Urban
Gardeners and general gardeners,
were invited to look at and compare
all the varieties in the
demonstration (observation trial).
Over 75 gardeners converged on the
plots and made some interesting
observations. The gardeners were
asked to rate the different
varieties. Some did, while most
just observed. A tabulation of the
ratings are given here, and are
compared with my own ratings.


Varieties No. Votes Percent Ratings
No. Voting 1-2 3 4-5 1-2 3 4-5 Gardeners' Stephens


Large Red
4-Way Hybrid
Flora-Dade
Celebrity
Sun Coast
Better Boy
Big Boy
Floradel
Whopper
Duke
Champion
Ace 55
Pirate
Walter
Manalucie
Homestead
Beefstake
Beefmaster
Better Bush
Atkinson
Volunteer

Large Yellow
Jubilee
Golden Boy


- 47
17 66


Outstanding
Outstanding
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Good
Good
Good
Better Than Ave.
Better Than Ave.
Better Than Ave.
Better Than Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Poor


Good
Better


Than Ave.


Good
Ave.


Ave.
Outstanding
Good
Excellent
Ave.
Ave.
Excellent
Ave.
Excellent
Fair
Ave.
Good
Good
Excellent
Ave.
Fair
Ave.
Ave.
Good
Poor


Excellent
Fair


Excellent
Ave.


Paste
Roma
Genoa






Varieties No. Votes Percent Ratings
No. Voting 1-2 3 4-5 1-2 3 4-5 Gardeners' Stephens

Small Red
Sweet 100 16 1 5 10 6 31 63 Excellent Excellent
Red Cherry 13 4 4 5 30 30 40 Good Good
Small-Fry 16 1 9 6 6 56 38 Better Than Ave. Good
Quick Pick 13 9 4 69 31 Ave. Ave.

Small Yellow
Goldie 14 6 8 43 57 Ave. Ave.


Tasce Test.
Samples of each variety were
cut open for display and taste
evaluation. As would be expected,
there was no consensus of opinion
reached in this test. But the
exercise did promote much
good-natured debate over the taste
of this one and that one. All it
proved was how fickle taste buds
are.
Summary.
Before jumping too rapidly to
conclusions, keep in mind that this
planting was only an observational
trial. There were only two plants
of each variety, and these plants
were not replicated and randomized.
Differences in performance could
have been due to factors other than
variety. Also, bias could have been
reduced by eliminating the variety
name tags from each plant. However,
there are a few things to be
learned, as the result of "trends"
exposed in the trial.


1. Varieties ranked "good" or
better would be good choices for
gardeners to try in the Jacksonville
area and upper portion of the state.
2. Most all varieties produced
at least average results, indicating
that most gardeners would not find
efforts completely wasted with any
of the choices. Keep in mind that
these were offerings from local seed
and plant supply stores, so some
selection had been made for the area
by store managers.
3. There are not many choices
among yellow-fruited varieties.
4. The evaluations were made
on the basis of a subjective
composite comparison of several
characteristics such as yield, fruit
size, color of fruit and leaves,
vigor, location of fruit on plant,
sunburn, disease, and other
blemishes. Basically, each rating
reflected what an average gardener
wants to see in his or her own
tomato row.
(Stephens, Veg. 87-07)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. S. M. Olson
Associate Professor


Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


A)s~


Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Professor




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