Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: May 1987
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00233
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department* 1255 lHSD C* Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


.. '.*


May 15, 1987


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar
B. Unit Address Correction

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Sweet corn cultivars for Florida.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. "Pesticides linked to higher cancer risk" --
but read carefully for the real truth.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Irrigating the vegetable garden.

V. VEGETARIAN INDEX
January through December 1986 (index is attached)

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


Vegetarian 87-05


f~a~d~Bi~a~8,







I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

May 30, 1987, 10:00 AM, Urban
Gardening Harvest Fair. Riverside
Park, Jacksonville, Florida.
(Contact J. M. Stephens)


June 22 26, 1987. 4-H
Horticulture Institute.
(Contact J. M. Stephens)


Camp Ocala.


July 27 30, 1987. 4-H State
Congress. Gainesville. (Contact
J. M. Stephens)

August 20-21, 1987. Master Gardener
Advanced Training. Reitz Union,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
(Contact Jim Stephens or Bob Black)


B. Unit Address Correction

An incorrect mailing address for the
Central Fla. REC in Sanford was
listed in the April issue of the
Vegetarian. The correct mailing
address is:

Central Fla. REC Sanford
2700 E. Celery Avenue
Sanford, FL 32771
Phone: 305/322-4134
Hrs: 7:30am 4:00pm


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Sweet corn cultivars for
Florida.

During the past two or three
seasons there has been a dramatic
change in the sweet corn hybrids
used in Florida. Growers have
planted fewer acres of the
traditional sugary-type hybrids and
more acres of the newer high-sugar
types, particularly the super
sweets. Cultivar trials conducted
by IFAS faculty have identified
several of the newer hybrids that


have performed well, and are
included in the revised 'Commercial
Vegetable Cultivars for Florida'
circular that has been submitted for
publication. Because of the marked
change in sweet corn cultivars since
the last circular, the current list
is provided here.

Sugary: Yellow
Bonanza (SF, CF, NF)
Ferry-Morse. Hybrid with 8-1/2 to 9
in., slightly tapered, 16 to 18 row
ears. Resistant: Stewarts Wilt.
Tolerant: Northern Leaf Blight,
Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus, Sugar Cane
Mosaic Virus.
Gold Cup (CF) Harris Moran.
All season hybrid, 14 to 16 row,
7-1/2 to 8 in. ears, holds well.
Susceptible: Northern and Southern
Leaf Blights. Field Tolerance:
Stewarts Wilt.
Guardian (NF) Asgrow. Hybrid,
14 to 16 row, 8 to 8-1/2 in. ears,
cylindrical, medium height plants,
attractive flags and dark green
husk. Tolerant: Stewarts Wilt,
Common Smut, Southern and Northern
Leaf Blights and Maize Dwarf Mosaic
Virus (A, B and E).
Wintergreen (SF) Asgrow.
Hybrid, 12 to 16 rows, 7 to 8 in.
ears, cylindrical, fairly tall.
Tolerant: Stewarts Wilt, Common
Smut, Southern & Northern Leaf
Blights and Maize Dwarf Mosaic
Virus.
Sugary: White
Silver Queen (NF, CF, SF)
Rogers Brothers. Hybrid, 14 to 16
rows, 7-1/2 to 8 in. ears, fairly
tall plant, attractive, dark green
husks. Resistant: Stewarts Wilt.
Super Sweet: Yellow
Florida Staysweet (SF, CF)
IFAS. Medium sized, 14 to 16 row, 7
to 7-1/2 in. ear, sh2 hybrid.
Requires isolation. Tolerant:
Northern Leaf Blight.
Landmark (CF) Harris Moran.
Large, 8-1/2 in. ears, sh2 hybrid.
Requires isolation. FOR TRIAL.
Summer Sweet 7200 (SF, CF)







Abbott & Cobb. Large, sh2 hybrid.
Requires isolation. 14 to 16 rows,
8-1/2 in. long. Tolerant: Northern
Leaf Blight.
Summer Sweet 7600 (SF, CF)
Abbott & Cobb. sh2 hybrid.
Requires isolation. 14 to 16 rows,
7-1/2 in. long. Tolerant: Northern
Leaf Blight.
Summer Sweet 7800 (SF, CF)
Abbott & Cobb. Same as 'Florida
Staysweet'.
Ultimate (SF, CF) Harris Moran.
Good husk cover and color,
wellfilled tips, 7-1/2 to 8 in. ears
with 16 rows, sh2 hybrid, requires
isolation. Tolerant: Northern Leaf
Blight. FOR TRIAL.
Sweet Belle (SF, CF) Asgrow.
sh2 hybrid. Requires isolation.
16-18 rows on 8 in. long ears.
Tolerant: Stewarts Wilt, Common
Smut. FOR TRIAL.
Zenith (CF) Harris Moran.
Medium-large, sh2 hybrid. Requires
isolation. Ears are 7-1/2 to 8 in.
long with 16 rows. FOR TRIAL.
Super Sweet: White
Summer Sweet 8601 (CF, SF)
Abbott & Cobb. White, 7-1/2 in.
long ears, sh2 hybrid. Requires
isolation. FOR TRIAL.
Sugar Enhancer: White
Silverado (CF) Harris Moran.
Early, 8 in. long ears with 16 rows
having good husk cover. Excellent
germination in cold soils. Does not
require isolation. Tolerant:
Stewarts Wilt. FOR TRIAL.
Snowbelle (CF) Asgrow. Early
hybrid, 7-8 in. long cylindrical
ears, 14 to 16 rows. FOR TRIAL.
Improved Super Sweet: Yellow
Sweetie (SF) Sunseeds. Ears
are 7-1/2 to 8 in. long with 14 to
18 rows. Higher kernel sugar than
super sweet hybrids. Requires
isolation. Tolerant: Rust.

(Maynard Veg. 87-05)


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. "Pesticides linked to higher
cancer risk" but read carefully
for the real truth.

The United Fresh Fruit and
Vegetable Association has learned
that a report soon to be released by
the National Academy of Sciences
will link pesticide residues on
fresh fruits and vegetables to
increased risks of developing
cancer. The study to be published
May 20, was prepared by the National
Research Council, a scientific
advisory arm of the National Academy
of Sciences.
The report has been in
development for two years. It
reportedly contains a number of
biases which are the apparent result
of flawed procedures used in the
study. According to sources close
to the report, rather than utilizing
ACTUAL pesticide residues found on
produce at retail, the NRC
consistently used the MAXIMUM
dosages permitted by law. While
this is the level that the
Environmental Protection Agency sets
as the tolerance, in most instances,
the level of residue is substantially
lower at the time produce reaches
consumers. It should be noted that
EPA uses a 100 percent safety factor
in setting tolerances. However, the
cancer risk demonstrated by the
report is likely to appear high
since the data is reportedly based
on maximum pesticide application.
Sources providing the information to
UFFVA say the report to be issued
assumes that 100 percent of all
commodities are treated, that all
food is eaten at full tolerance and
that every person eats an average
amount of each commodity in question
daily for an entire lifetime.
UFFVA, members of the produce
industry and chemical manufacturers
are cooperating in efforts to
compile information on actual
residue levels at point of sale.







This information will be available
at a later date and should help to
clarify the more realistic risk to
cancer. In the meantime, read
carefully and don't accept just the
headlines.

(Gull, Veg. 87-05)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Irrigating the vegetable
garden.

So far, the 1987 gardening year
will be remembered as the year of
excesses. First, it was the rain.
In January, February, and March,
heavy rains fell in advance of cold
fronts which pushed down through the
state on a weekly basis. Soils were
soggy, but most gardeners were able
to plant vegetables on schedule.
But the last heavy rains in March
brought the mild freeze of April
1-2. Many warm season vegetables
like beans, squash, and cucumbers
were either killed or damaged by the
late-season frosts.
Gardeners were quick to replant
where necessary, and salvage the
damaged plants. Gardens took on the
verdance of spring, buoyed by the
warm weather and abundant soil
moisture. However, by the end of
April, another excess was
manifesting itself in the garden -
dry weather.
Essentially no rain fell in
most areas during the month of
April, and going into May, the sandy
soils across the state have long
given up their moisture. Now, it is
up to the gardener to supply the
essential ingredient for a
successful crop.
Drought (or at least dry
conditions) is no stranger to
gardeners in Florida during the
latter part of spring. As the
rain-bringing cool fronts fade away,
and before the onset of the
thunderstorms of summer, the land


often slowly dries and bakes under a
ever-intensifying hot sun. So the
wise gardener is aware of these
predictable conditions and makes
preparations for the dry period.
Those not so wise or experienced are
apt to see the fruits of their labor
reduced to a curled, stunted, brown
nothingness.
Not every gardener can fight
the battle of drought in the same
manner, so here are some suggestions
from which you may choose to
minimize the effects of long dry
spells in your garden.
Start with soil preparation.
The more humus and organic matter
the soil contains, the better it is
able to absorb and retain moisture.
Most Florida soils are sandy, so
water enters quickly, but leaves
about as quickly. In some areas
where there is clay soil, water will
run off or puddle on the clay if it
has not been amended. With sands,
clays, and the marl soils of south
Florida, use liberal amounts of
compost, manure, leaves, or other
organic matter.
Use wide, flat beds instead of
single, raised beds. Florida's
variable climatic conditions often
create a dilemma for gardeners in
this respect. For the wet periods
it is advisable to plant on raised
beds, to allow good drainage and
keep roots out of water-logged
zones. But, as the weather becomes
hot and dry, it now becomes water
resourceful to have plants growing
on wider, flatter beds where soil
moisture is conserved. On small
plots, it is further helpful to
enclose the bed with some framing
material such as lumber or concrete
blocks.
Mulching has long been
considered the number one aid for
gardeners in helping to retain soil
moisture. Not only are the natural
organic materials such as straw,
pine needles, leaves, and
woodshavings useful, but so are the
plastic mulches. The organic






materials tend to keep the soil
cooler than the plastic coverings.
Of course, light colored films are
cooler, so black film could be
white-washed to reduce
soil-temperature.
The initial wetting of mulched
soil can be somewhat of a problem,
but once the soil beneath is wet, it
stays moist longer. Since organic
mulches are porous, wetting them
heavily also moistens the soil
below. For faster action, rake
aside the mulch, soak the soil
thoroughly, then re-cover with the
mulch. It may be necessary to
perforate the surface of a plastic
mulch to allow water penetration. A
garden rake is a useful device for
this task. And always, everytime,
never wrap-up a sandy bed with
plastic mulch without first
thoroughly wetting the soil.
Of course, mulches keep down
weed growth, but even if you don't
mulch, keep weeds out of your
garden. These pesky plants are
trouble enough during normal
rainfall periods, but when drought
conditions prevail, they can be
devastating. Not only do they
intercept moisture needed by your
vegetables, they transpire
considerable amounts of water from
deep beneath the soil surface. Most
weed roots go deeper than those of
the vegetables, so they are pumping
away the moisture reserves of the
lower levels of your soil profile.
Even with all of the best
cultural practices followed as
mentioned, it will be necessary to
supply water to your garden through
one or more irrigation procedures.
Early planning should include the
system of irrigation best suited to
your situation. Most commercial
vegetables are grown in Florida on
soils that can be sub-irrigated by
seepage of water across a relatively
impervious layer, such as a limerock
or organic hard-pan, located a foot
or more beneath the soil surface.
However, most home gardeners are not


fortunate enough to have this
hard-pan condition prevalent in
their back-yard, so they must rely
on other, usually surface-applied,
watering techniques.
With all watering procedures,
the aim should be to get the best
results with the application of as
little water as possible. Urban
horticulture demands for water are
always greatest during prolonged dry
periods, when water supplies are at
their lowest. So timely irrigations
and proper water placement is of
utmost importance if we as gardeners
are to share water as a resource
with our neighbors. The best
placement is deep from the lower
limits of the root zone to the
surface. Shallow watering
encourages shallow root systems
which do not reach water held in
reserve at greater depths. Above
ground plant parts wilt rapidly,
thus requiring another sprinkling.
Try to water more thoroughly and
less frequently. Very sandy soils
which have not been amended with
organic will require almost daily
watering. This sort of soil is
prevalent in many parts of the
state, particularly in high scrubby
areas and near beaches. Often,
these well-drained soils become
marginal during severe droughts,
unless they are well-fortified with
organic matter.
For best conservation of water,
irrigate your garden at a time when
evaporation conditions are at
minimum. Most gardeners are aware
that wet plants at night are more
susceptible to diseases than when
dry. However, when water supplies
are at a critical level, one should
consider irrigating late in the
evening. The time to avoid is
mid-day watering on a hot, windy
day, when a lot of water would be
lost to the wind and evaporation.
Surface applications may be
accomplished in a variety of ways.
Over-head sprinklers attached to
garden hoses are by far the most







popular methods. Permanent-set
systems are found in many areas,
usually in established, traditional
gardening communities. Such systems
depend on water pumped from wells
through underground pipes to
over-head risers.
Since gardens have become
smaller in recent years (the average
is 300 square feet), many gardeners
are watering by hand using only the
garden hose or a sprinkling can.
Down-the-row furrow irrigation is
still used by a few gardeners, but
is not satisfactory on very sandy
soils. A few innovative types have
resorted to placing perforated milk
jugs (and similar containers) in the
ground beside a few vegetable
plants. Water in the jug moves into
the root zone at a slow, steady
pace. Captured water, as from rain
barrels and graywater, may be
recycled in this manner.
Perhaps the latest development
in garden irrigation systems is drip
(also called trickle) irrigation. A
drip system delivers water from a
source (usually a garden hose)
through specially designed
drip-tubes running the length of
garden rows, to the root-zone of the
plants. Tiny holes allow water to
drip slowly into the root zone.
Because the system operates at very
low pressure as compared to old-type
soaker hoses, longer runs are


possible and smaller quantities are
applied per minute. These drip
systems usually are sold in garden
size kits, with all of the parts
included for watering average size
gardens. While the initial
investment is higher than
sprinklers, the system may be used
for more than one season if taken
care of. Garden kits usually run
from $25 $75 for small gardens, to
higher costs as gardens get larger
(although price per area watered
becomes less). Most garden kits,
can be assembled in a matter of a
few hours.
Drip systems are especially
beneficial during water shortage
periods. The same productivity can
be obtained utilizing 80% less water
than by over-head watering. Since
only the root-zone is wetted, weeds
are not encouraged in row middles,
and fertilizer is not washed out of
the soil. One of the greater
benefits is that a drip line may be
placed beneath a layer of mulch,
thus providing a way to water plants
and apply soluble fertilizer.
Large-scale vegetable producers
are investigating ways to re-use
irrigation water which has passed
through the field to collection
points. In the future, this method
of recycling water may be of
practical benefit to the
conservation of water in urban and
gardening situations.


(Stephens, Veg. 87-05)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. S. M. Olson
Associate Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor

SAt- PDr. W. M. Stall
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Professor




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