Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1987
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00231
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
AIF S UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 IISDPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Telcphonc 392-2134

Vegetarian 87-3 March 17, 1987
Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

B. New Publications

,".. 1 C. Gulf Coast REC Field Day
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
~A. Phosphorus sources and placement for watermelons.

;.::, B B. Specialty Vegetable Opportunities.
III. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Changes in vegetable disease control fungicides.

SB. Restrictions on Flooding Fields after Fusilade
Applications.
C. Horticultural Weed Tour

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. 1987 Florida State Fair Horticulture Contest for
4-H/FFA.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
.-^^-^J c newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
L authors.

e. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
Constitute a recommendation of the product.




The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING







I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable crops calendar

April 21-22, 1987. Commercial
Vegetable Crops Extension In-Service
Training. Vanderbilt Inn, Naples
(Contact Don Maynard or Reggie
Brown).

April 23, 1987. Commercial
Vegetable Crops Extension Program
Planning. Vanderbilt Inn, Naples
(Contact D. J. Cantliffe).

April 24, 1987. State FFA Vegetable
ID Contest. University of Florida.
(Contact J. M. Stephens).

May 5, 1987. Cucumber/Squash
Variety Demonstration at AREC
Leesburg, 4:00 pm 7:30 pm.
(Contact G. W. Elmstrom).

May 7, 1987. Home Horticulture
Agents In-Service Training Session.
Gainesville.
(Contact J. M. Stephens).

May 7, 1987. Field Day-Polk County
Mined Lands Research/Demonstration
Project, Bartow, Florida.
(Contact Jim Stricker, Polk County
Extension Office).

May 20, 1987. Field Day-IFAS Gulf
Coast Agric Research Center,
Bradenton.
(Contact Dr. Will Waters).

June 22-26, 1987. State 4-H
Horticulture Institute. Camp Ocala.
(Contact J. M. Stephens).


B. New Publications

Staked Tomato Variety Trial Results
- Fall 1986. Immokalee SWFREC
Research Report IMM 87-2 by P. H.
Everett and K. A. Armbrester.

Pepper Variety Trial Results Fall
1986. Immokalee SWFREC Research


Report IMM 87-1 by P. H. Everett and
K. A. Armbrester.

Dover AREC Research Report, DOV 87-1
Strawberry Field Day Program,
February 1987, E. E. Albregts, C. M.
Howard, and W. E. Waters, editors.

Broccoli Trial Results for Fall 1985
and Spring 1986. Bradenton GCREC
Research Report BRA1987-1 by A. A.
Csizinszky.

Sweet Corn Variety Trial -
Supersweets, Spring 1986, Bradenton
GCREC Research Report BRA1987-2 by
T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters.

Eggplant Variety Trial Results for
Spring 1986, Bradenton GCREC
Research Report BRA1987-3 by T. K.
Howe and W. E. Waters.

Cir 104-P, Vegetable Gardening
Guide, has been revised (new
format). Authors are: J. M.
Stephens, R. A. Dunn, G. Kidder,
D. Short, and G. W. Simone. (For
copy, contact Chic Hinton, IFAS
Publications).

C. Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center to hold Vegetable
Field Day.

Dr. W. E. Waters has announced
that the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center in Bradenton,
Florida, in conjunction with the
Florida Cooperative Extension
Service, has scheduled a Vegetable
Field Day on Wednesday, May 20,
1987.
The program will include
presentations on vegetable research
involving nutrition, trickle
irrigation, water management, weed
control, pest management, variety
trials, nematode management, an
update on tomato breeding, bacterial
population studies on resistent
tomatoes, control of bacterial spot
of tomato, and tomato disease
control.








The program will start at
8:45 AM with registration and a box
lunch. A tour of the Center will be
held in the afternoon.
The Center is located
approximately one mile west of 1-75
off State Road 70 at Caruso Road.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Phosphorus sources and
placement for watermelons.

Previous work showed that
watermelon yields were reduced when
diammonium phosphate (DAP) was used
as the sole phosphorus (P) source
especially when used at high rates.
Reduced copper availability from the
increased pH in the DAP band was
suspected as a possible cause of
reduced yields. This work was done
on acid sandy soils testing low in
water soluble P. All fertilizer was
applied in a banded fashion.
Adverse effects of DAP on other
commodities are rarely documented
and actually most literature extols
the advantages of DAP as a
relatively inexpensive and
high-analysis source of both
nitrogen and P.
To test further the effects of
DAP on watermelons, we conducted an
experiment at Gainesville in 1986.


In addition to comparing DAP to
normal and triple superphosphate, we
explored various techniques of
placement of P. The plan was to
determine if diluting the "DAP
effect" by broadcasting or by
separating the micronutrients from
the DAP band would circumvent any
potential problem.
Phosphorous (P205) was applied
at 160 pounds per acre on a soil
that tested "medium" for P.
Placement treatments were as in
table 1.
Results showed no effect of
treatments on yield of watermelon.
There were no differences among the
P fertilizer sources used in this
study. These results indicated
that, on soils testing medium or
above, where small amounts of
fertilizer P are needed, there is no
difference among P sources.
Micronutrient placement treatments
did not significantly differ.
Placement of P for watermelons in
this study did not matter. The
latter conclusion is interesting
from the soil testing point of view
since the soil used in this study
tested "medium" in P. Yields from
several plots receiving no
additional P did not differ from
similar plots receiving the
recommended rate of P. It seems
that the current soil test
calibration for watermelons is set
too high.


Ur.ln I IrVro-r --r usedri in P soure----- --


and placement experiment, 1986.


Treatment
no.


P 1 2
Source Location


Placement


Micronutri nt
Placement


Band
Band
Broadcast
Band
Band
Broadcast
Band
Band
Broadcast
Band


Separate
Mix
Mix
Separate
Mix
Mix
Separate
Mix
Mix
Separate


NSP
NSP
NSP
NSP
NSP
NSP
TSP
TSP
TSP
TSP


Trench
Trench
Trench
Flat
Flat
Flat
Trench
Trench
Trench
Flat


~rastm~nte Iicrrrl in P anrrrre







TSP
TSP
DAP
DAP
DAP
DAP
DAP
DAP


Flat
Flat
Trench
Trench
Trench
Flat
Flat
Flat


Band
Broadcast
Band
Band
Broadcast
Band
Band
Broadcast


1
2TSP = triple super phosphate; NSP = normal super phosphate.
Trench = Fertilizer applied in bottom of 20 cm trench which is a very common
grower practice, Flat = placed on level ground.
Micronutrients were either mixed with the N-P-K materials or separated by
banding the micronutrients in a separate band from the N-P-K materials.

(Hochmuth, Hanlon Veg. 87-03)


B. Specialty Vegetable
Opportunities.

Male representatives of
upper-income households and
consumers in the west are more
likely to have tried or heard of
specialty vegetables and herbs than
other segments of the population
according to the 1987 Fresh Trends
survey conducted for Vance Research.
The results of the survey were
published recently in The Packer
Focus.
Alfalfa or bean sprouts,
snowpeas, pearl onions, parsnips,
leeks, miniature vegetables, napa
cabbage, shallots, and kohlrabi were
the most familiar of the 20

Use and Awareness of Fret


Have
tried


Vegetable


specialty vegetables included in the
survey. On the other hand, a low
proportion of the respondents were
familiar with rapini, radicchio,
chayote, jicama, and tomatillo.
Surprisingly, there was a
higher general awareness of fresh
herbs than there was of the
specialty vegetables. Cilantro
(Coriandrum sativum L.), also called
Chinese parsley, was the only herb
having a low level of recognition.
As might be expected, garlic,
parsley, chive, mint, sage, and
oregano had been tried most commonly
by the respondents.


;h Specialty Vegetables and Herbs
Are Are not
it aware of it aware of it
-------------------------------


Belgian endive 8 36 55
Bok choy 18 35 47
Celeriac 8 37 55
Chayote 4 20 75
Daikon 23 36 41
Jerusalem artichoke 16 39 45
Jicama 12 17 71
Kohlrabi 26 36 38
Leek 38 48 15
Miniature vegetables 34 31 35
Napa 33 39 29
Parsley root 9 43 48


Mix
Mix
Separate
Mix
Mix
Separate
Mix
Mix







Parsnip 45 47 8
Pearl onion 61 28 11
Radicchio 2 20 78
Rapini 1 14 85
Shallot 32 41 27
Snowpea 58 31 11
Sprouts 71 23 6
Tomatillo 6 21 73

Herb -
Anise 23 57 20
Basil 54 39 6
Chive 70 26 4
Cilantro 11 32 57
Dill 66 29 6
Garlic 85 12 3
Ginger 38 53 9
Horseradish 36 53 12
Marjoram 31 52 17
Mint 64 30 6
Oregano 58 12 3
Parsley 85 12 3
Rosemary 45 48 7
Sage 57 38 5
Tarragon 34 53 13
Thyme 48 45 2


What conclusions can be drawn
from these data that might influence
growers' decisions on production of
specialty vegetables? The pessimist
might respond that the market is too
small to affect production
decisions. On the other hand, the
optimist might see a huge untapped
market. As usual, the real answer
probably lies somewhere between the
two extremes.
For many specialty vegetables,
there is a low level of recognition.
Increased awareness will certainly
lead to more interest and higher
sales. The food service industry,
newspapers, and popular magazines
have done much to popularize
specialty vegetables. For example,
in a period of about a month last
fall, radicchio was served to me at
a southwest Florida restaurant and
two or three popular magazine
articles on this new crop were
noted.
There is a market, although


limited, for these crops.
Production and variety information
has been developed for some of
them--leek, miniature vegetables,
radicchio, shallot, and snowpea--at
the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center. As always,
growers are advised to establish
markets before extensive plantings
are made.

(Maynard, Veg. 87-03)


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Changes in vegetable disease
control fungicides.

Fungicide Label Revisions
1. Dyrene 50% WP
Use of Dyrene on bulb and dry
onions to control Botrytis Blast or
Purple Blotch has been deleted. Use
of Dyrene on green onion or garlic
is not recommended in Florida.






2. Topsin M 70% WP
For use on Cucurbits
(Cucumbers, Melons, Pumpkins, and
Summer and Winter Squash) for
control of Anthracnose, Gummy Stem
Blight, Powdery Mildew, and
Corynespora Target Spot. Use
0.25-0.5 Ib/acre for ground
application or 0.5 Ib/acre for
aerial application. Initiate sprays
when plants first begin to run and
repeat on a 7-14 day schedule as
needed. Use a 7-day schedule for
control of Target Spot.

New Fungicides
1. Benlate 50 DF
This is a new formulation of Benlate
50% WP that is being marketed as a
dispersible granule. This
formulation has an identical label
to Benlate 50 WP but offers better
solubility and suspension properties
over the old formulation.
2. Bravo C/M--80.7% WP
This is a combination
fungicide/bactericide from Fermenta
Plant Protection Co. that combines
chlorothalonil (Bravo, 27.0%),
copper oxychloride (48.3%), and
maneb (5.4%) for broad spectrum
disease control. Product is cleared
for use on tomatoes to control
Bacterial Spot, Bacterial Speck,
Early Blight, Late Blight, Leaf
Mold, Gray Leaf Spot, Septoria Spot,
Alternaria Fruit Rot, Gray Mold,
Soil Rot, and Anthracnose. Rates
range from 2-3 lb/3-4 day schedule
or 4-6 lb/week. There is a 5-day
limitation between last spray and
harvest. See label for other
restrictions.
3. Champion Flowable--37.5%
This is a flowable formulation of
cupric hydroxide manufactured by
Agtrol Chemical Products in Houston,
Texas. This product is being
distributed within Florida and
directly competes with the Kocide
606 product. The labels for the two
products are essentially identical
as is the amount of active
ingredient.


4. Manpower--37.6% Flowable
This is another product issued by
Agtrol Chemicals of Texas. This is
a convenience combination
bactericide/fungicide for use on
certain vegetables only. Active
ingredients include cupric hydroxide
(18.4%) plus maneb with zinc salt
(19.2%). The product is cleared for
use on beans to control Bacterial
Blight, Rust, and Downy Mildew; on
celery for control of Early, Late,
and Bacterial Blights; on peppers
for control of Bacterial Spot,
Anthracnose, and Cercospora Leaf
Spot; and on tomato for control of
Early Blight, Late Blight, Bacterial
Blight, Bacterial Speck, and
Anthracnose. The amount of cupric
hydroxide is comparable to that of
Kocide 606. However, use of
Manpower as a substitute for another
brand of copper plus a maneb + zinc
product for spot/speck control on
tomato will deliver less maneb +
zinc fungicide per acre.
5. Rovral--50% WP Section 18
Special Exemption.
The State of Florida has issued a
Section 18 Special Exemption for the
use of Rovral on carrots (including
mini sweet carrots) to control
Alternaria leaf blight. This
exemption is good through June 15,
1987 only.
Rovral should be applied as a
foliar spray in a minimum of 10
gal./acre and may be applied up to
the day of harvest. The rate is 1-2
lb. product/acre on a 7-14 day
schedule. Use Rovral as one part of
a complete disease control program.
Apply at first sign of disease and
follow with additional sprays as
needed. Only three sprays of Rovral
can be applied per crop. Shorten
spray interval and use the high rate
for severe disease conditions. Note
that only garlic, leafy vegetables,
dry bulb onions, or peanuts can be
rotated onto this land after carrot
harvest. One year after Rovral use,







root crops, cereal grains, soybeans,
and tomatoes can be grown on this
land.

(Gary Simone, Plant Pathology,
Veg. 87-03)

B. Restrictions on Flooding
Fields after Fusilade Applications.

A mailgram from Donald Stubs,
Head Emergency Response and Minor
Use Section, EPA to Doyle Connor,
Commissioner, Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services
stated that subsequent to the
specific exemptions for lettuce, exp
7/31/87, celery exp 7/31/87 and
carrots 7/31/87 a review of the
environmental fate effects of these
uses was completed. That review
indicates that under flooded
conditions, fluazifop free acid is
expected to be highly mobile. A
waiting period before flooding of
greater than 30 days is advisable,
45-60 days is preferable. This may
allow ample time for fluazifop to
degrade under aerobic conditions
before flooding. In Palm Beach and
Hendry counties, there are sensitive
high yield aquifers capable of
serving municipal areas with
drinking water. The time of
flooding would be most critical in
these two counties.
In light of this finding the
following restriction was applied to
the fluazifop exemptions: Withhold
field flooding for a minimum of
45-60 days following application of
fusilade. In Palm Beach and Hendry
counties that have high yield
aquifers, a 60-day interval must be
observed.

(Stall, Veg. 87-03)


C. Horticultural Weed Tour

The Horticultural Weed Tour
will be held April 28 and 29, 1987.
The tour will start at the Gulf


Coast Research and Education Center-
Bradenton at 10:00 AM Tuesday, April
28. The tour will then move to
Belle Glade for a get-together
Tuesday evening and a tour of the
Palm Beach area Wednesday April 29.
For more information contact
Dr. Jim Gilreath, GCREC, Bradenton
or Dr. Joan Dusky, EREC Belle Glade.

(Stall, Veg. 87-03)



IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 1987 Florida State Fair
Horticulture Contest for 4-H/FFA.

The 1987 Horticulture Judging
and Identification Contest was
held at the State Fairgrounds,
Tampa, in the Livestock Pavilion,
Saturday, February 14, 1987.
Extension specialists Bob Black and
Jim Stephens conducted the contest.
The section on fruit crops was
omitted this time due to scheduling
conflicts.
The identification portion of
the contest included 30 ornamental
plant specimens and 30 vegetable
specimens. Contestants had a list
of 45 items in each of both
categories from which to study, but
had to identify only 30 in each
group.
There were two classes for
judging, one ornamental (marigolds)
and one vegetable (potatoes). Each
class was composed of 4 plates or
plants.
About 40 teams of 3 to 4
members competed in the FFA
division. Placings in the FFA
division may be obtained from Mr.
Danny Bartlett, State FFA Program
Specialist, Department of Education,
Knott Building, Tallahassee, FL
32301. For FFA contestants, this
event at the state fair is a warm-up
exercise for the state events in the
three areas of Horticulture: (1)
Citrus Identification Contest at






Winter Haven (usually in February);
(2) The State Ornamental
Horticulture Contest at the Central
Florida Fair, Orlando (usually in
the first week of March), and the
State Vegetable Judging and
Identification Contest, scheduled
for April 24, 1987, at Gainesville.
In the 4-H division, which was
conducted simultaneously with FFA,
there were 42 individuals
participating (10 teams and 4
individuals). Here are the results.
The first 5 teams and the contest's
highest scoring 4-H'er received
trophies from the Florida State
Fair.

High Individual Scorer: Ann Eberly
(Leon Co.) Score: 68 out of 70
points.

1st Place 4-H Team: Sarasota
County, composed of Sean York, Donna
Liedl, Eric Hernandez, and Nick
Hernandez. Score: 195 out of 210.

2nd Place 4-H Team: Leon County,
composed of Ann Eberly, Elaine
Davis, Ricky Blackmon, and Jimmy
Daniels. Score: 188 out of 210.

3rd Place 4-H Team: Osceola County
composed of Laura Harrelson, Joanna
Harrelson, Shannon Butler, and Leigh
Ann Butler. Score: 183 out of 210.


4th Place 4-H Team: St. Johns
County, composed of Dana Robinson,
Jennifer Dingfelder, Jan
Worthington, and Adam Ortagus.
Score: 177 out of 210.

5th Place 4-H Team: Clay County,
composed of Cathy Thorson, Julie
Good, Rachel Sayler, and Jeremy
Pugh. Score: 161 out of 210.


6th Place 4-H Team:
Score: 159/210.

7th Place 4-H Team:
Score: 153/210.

8th Place 4-H Team:
Score: 127/210.


Leon County #2.


Levy County.


Clay County #2.


9th Place 4-H Team: Bradford
County. Score: 110/210.

10th Place 4-H Team: Gilchrist
County. Score 105/210.

Individuals (Highest Scoring): 1st,
Ann Eberly (68/70); 2nd (tie), Laura
Harrelson and Sean York (65.75/70);
4th, Donna Liedl (64.35/70); and
5th, Eric Hernandez (64.35/70).

Congratulations are in order
for all these participants and
winners. May you all continue to
study and learn more about
horticulture as you prepare now for
State 4-H Congress and the state
finals.


(Stephens Veg. 87-03)








Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor1

Dr S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor


Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Professor




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