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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00224
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: September 1986
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00224
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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1VI FV3mn

Vegetarian 86-09

September 8, 1986



A. Personnel Briefs

S; B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

ii A. Florida Pepper Institute

B. Snowpea Varieties for Florida

C. Strawberry Freeze Protection with Row Covers


A. Section 18 for use of Fusilade 2000 on Celery
S' and Head Lettuce
B. Southern Weed Science Society to meet in Orlando


A. Two All-America Variety Selections for 1986

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
"'' newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
4 j t' purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
.. ., ,constitute a recommendation of the product.

..r>' )- .

,. ---" ,

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin


A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

VI-dLta, Crops Department 1255 t_ DPP G- Ciin> illc. FL _32(I1 .:l p l_ L i.I 39-2134


A. Personnel Briefs,

Former Vegetable Crops Depart-
ment Chairman (1969-72) and Exten-
sion Vegetable Specialist Dr. George
Marlowe has been appointed the new
Director General of The Asian Vege-
table Research and Development
Center (AVRDC). His address is
AVRDC, Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan,

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar,

September 17, 1986. Urban Gardening
Training for Program Assistants.
Fifield Hall, Gainesville (Contact
J. M. Stephens).

September 25,
in Commercial
Fifield Hall,

1986. Agent Training
Vegetable Production.
(Contact George

September 25, 1986. Agent Training
in Small Farm Production.
FAMU-Tallahassee, (Contact C. H.

October 8, 1986. Florida Pepper
Institute, Country Squire Inn, Lake
Worth, 1:30 4:30 pm. (Contact
Bill Stall).

October 25-27, 1986.
Junior Horticultural
Convention. Marriot

Hotel, Raleigh,

October 26-28, 1986. Florida State
Horticulture Society. Doral Hotel,
Miami Beach, Florida.

November 20, 1986. Ninth Annual
Conference for Technical and Sales
Representatives Serving the Com-
mercial Vegetable Industry.
Kendrick Auditorium, Manatee County
Extension Office, Palmetto, (Contact
Phyllis Gilreath).

January 12-14, 1987. Southern Weed
Science Society, Orlando Hyatt,
Orlando, Florida. (Contact Bill


A. Florida Pepper Institute.

The 1986 Florida Pepper
Institute will be held October 8,
1986 at the Country Squire Inn, Lake

1986 Pepper Institute

1:30 Introductory Remarks D. J.
Cantliffe, Chairman, Vegetable Crops
Dept., Gainesville.

1:45 Update on Breeding Bacterial
Spot Resistance in Pepper. R. E.
Stall, Plant Pathology Dept.,

2:05 Bacterial Spot Control in
Pepper. J. B. Jones, Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center,

2:25 Post Harvest Decay Control in
Pepper. J. A. Bartz, Plant Pathol-
ogy Dept., Gainesville.

2:45 Pepper Weevil Management.
D. J. Schuster, Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center, Bradenton.

3:00 Pepper Varieties for Florida.
D. N. Maynard, Vegetable Crops
Dept., Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center, Bradenton.

3:25 Effects of Burst on Yield of
Bell Peppers. P. J. Stoffella,
Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Ft. Pierce.

3:45 Gels and Biostimulant Additives
for Gel-Mix Plantings. H. H. Bryan.
Tropical Research and Education
Center, Homestead.

4:05 Discussion

4:15 Adjourn

(Stall, Veg. 86-09)

B. Snowpea Varieties for

Commercial production of
snowpea (Pisum sativum va.
macrocarpon) in Florida is very
limited at the present time.
However, it appears that there is
potential for more production based
on consumer interest and consump-
tion. A recent profile of fresh
produce consumers showed that about
55% of the respondents have tried
snowpeas and another 27% had heard
of them.
The principal source for snow-
peas in Florida is Central America
and California. In preliminary
trials at Bradenton and Gainesville
in 1985, yields were comparable to
those reported in California. Local
production is limited because of a
lack of information on varieties and
the expectation by growers that
labor requirements for harvest of
the crop may be excessive. The
purpose of this study was to provide
answers to these questions.
Nine snowpea entries were
replicated 4 times in 15-ft long
plots, and arranged in a randomized
complete-block design. The Eau
Gallie fine-sand soil was prepared
in January 1986 by incorporation of
0.5-2.0-0.5 Ib N-P.05-K20 per 100
linear bed feet (1Sf). The super-
phosphate used contained 80 lb/ton
minor elements as F503 oxide.
Additional fertilizer was applied in
a single surface band in the bed
center at 2-0-2 Ib N-P 05-K 0 per
100 Ibf. The 30 in. wide, 8 in.
high black polyethylene-mulched beds
were spaced on 4.5 ft. centers with
seepage irrigation ditches every 7

Seed holes were punched in the
polyethylene mulch in double rows,
spaced 6 in. on either side of the
center of the bed with 2 in. in-row
spacing. Two seeds per plant hole
were planted February 6, 1986.
After emergence, the plants were
thinned to attain a complete stand
at 2 in. in-row spacing.
Plants were staked with tomato
stakes 3 weeks after planting and
tied using a tomato tie system as
necessary to maintain the plants in
a vertical position.
Sulfur was applied once for
powdery mildew control without much
visible effect on the incidence of
the disease. An evaluation of
powdery mildew tolerance was made on
April 18, 1986.
Harvesting began on March 27
and continued through April 25, 1986
on a thrice weekly schedule. Esti-
mates of the time required for
harvesting were made for each of the
13 harvests. Samples were taken for
the measurement of pod length and
width. Color and straightness of
pod were judged by a subjective
rating, and pod bearing habit (pods
per cluster) was estimated near
midseason. Vine heights were taken
at the end of harvest for each
Maturity from planting to first
harvest ranged from 49 days for
'Dwarf White Sugar' to 64 days for
'Dwarf Gray Sugar'. Good tolerance
to powdery mildew was recorded for
'Snowflake', 'Oregon Sugar Pod II',
and 'Oregon Sugar Pod' whereas the
other varieties had more than 50% of
the plant showing symptoms of mil-
dew. Varieties with good tolerance
to mildew were among the highest
yielding in this trial. Vine height
ranged from about 42 in. for
'Blizzard', 'Oregon Sugar Pod',
'Snowflake', and 'Oregon Sugar II'
to over 60 in. for 'Melting Sugar'
and 'Mammoth Melting Sugar', Inter-
mediate vine heights were recorded
for 'Dwarf White Sugar' and 'Dwarf
Gray Sugar'. The tallest varieties

outgrew the trellis to the point
where the plants fell over which
made harvest difficult.
'Oregon Sugar Pod II', 'Oregon
Sugar Pod', 'Snowflake', and
'Blizzard' bore mostly double pods
whereas the other varieties bore
single or mostly single pods. There
was a substantial relationship
between the double-pod bearing habit
and high yield. Pod length ranged
from 2.7 in. for 'Dwarf Gray Sugar'
to 3.5 in. for 'Mammoth Melting
Sugar' (Sunseeds). Most varieties
had pod widths of about 0.75 in.;
exceptions were 'Dwarf White Sugar',
'Blizzard', and 'Dwarf Gray Sugar'
whose pods were about 0.5 in.
'Oregon Sugar Pod II', 'Snowflake',
and 'Dwarf Gray Sugar' had dark
green pods; color of the other
varieties ranged from light to
medium-green. 'Mammoth Melting
Sugar' produced curved pods whereas
straight pods were produced by
'Oregon Sugar Pod' and 'Oregon Sugar
Pod II'; other varieties produced
pods that were somewhat curved.
Total yields ranged from 231 to
1015 10-lb cartons per acre.
'Oregon Sugar Pod II' and 'Oregon
Sugar Pod' were the highest yielding
varieties in 1986, and produced
slightly higher yields than in 1985
when they were also the highest
yielding varieties. As in 1985, the
1986 yields compare favorably with
those reported in California.
To provide an estimate of
harvesting costs, the time required
to harvest the plots each day was
recorded and expanded to I acre.
The minimum wage was used to deter-
mine the harvest labor cost of
$5,145/A. The per carton harvest
labor cost ranged from $22.27 for
'Dwarf Gray Sugar', the lowest
yielding variety, to $5.06 for
'Oregon Sugar Pod II', the highest
yielding variety. With field pack-
ing the estimated total harvest
cost might be about $6.00 per carton
for the highest yielding variety.
Preharvest costs of vegetable crops

are commonly about 50% of total
costs. Therefore, the total cost of
production and harvest would be
about $12.00 per carton or $1.20 per
In our study, an estimated 1470
hours were required to harvest 1
acre of snowpeas with a yield of
about 600 10-lb cartons averaged
over all entries as compared to only
560 hours in California in 1982 with
a yield of 700 10-lb cartons. Thus,
for a yield of 1000 cartons, the
total per carton cost was $6.25 in
California as compared to our
estimated total cost of $12.00 per
carton. Our method of estimation
may have resulted in higher harvest-
ing costs that in a commercial
situation since plot harvests are
generally more time consuming.
Based on yield, concentration
of maturity, vine height, and mildew
tolerance, 'Oregon Sugar Pod II' and
'Oregon Sugar Pod' are the most
likely varieties for commercial
production in Florida.
Growers considering snowpea
production should establish a market
prior to planting and have adequate
labor for tying and at least thrice
weekly harvests.
For more information, request
GCREC Research Report BRA 1986-12
from the author (D. N. Maynard).

(Maynard, Veg. 86-09)

C. Strawberry freeze
protection with row covers.

In a typical year, about 75 cm
of water are used to protect straw-
berries from freeze damage. Freezes
that are particularly long or severe
require intense irrigation which can
lead to several problems. These
include electrical shortages, water
shortages, ice damage to plants,
fertilizer leaching, soil erosion,
and negative effects on relations
with urban neighbors. In tests at
Gainesville and Dover, and Extension
demonstration trials in Hillsborough

county, some row covers appear to
have promise as an alternative to
irrigation for freeze protection.
In the test at Gainesville,
seven row covers were evaluated
under 3 irrigation regimes (Table
1). The irrigation regimes were no
irrigation, drip irrigation, and
overhead sprinklers. We used 3-bed
plots planted with 'Douglas' straw-
berries. Covers were pulled over
the plots the afternoon preceding a
freeze. Irrigation treatments were
operated while the air temperature
at bed height was below 0C. Covers
were pulled back and irrigation
discontinued when the temperature
rose above 0*C and the ice began to
Following selected freezes,
flowers and fruits were evaluated
for freeze damage. Mature fruit
were harvested as needed in Dec. and
Jan. and on a thrice weekly basis
Several severe freezes occurred
during the period Dec. 15, 1985
through Jan. 31, 1986 (Table 2). In
general, operation of drip irriga-
tion during freezes did not enhance
freeze protection. Combinations of
overhead sprinkling and row covers
gave the best protection in most
cases. However certain row covers
gave protection of flowers and
fruits equal to overhead sprinkler
when freezes were moderate (Table
3). It appears the lowest tempera-
ture against which certain row
covers will protect is about -9"C
(Table 4).

Early yield data showed that
several row covers were as effective
as overhead irrigation in protection
of early maturing fruits (Table 5).
Even though periodic fruit and
flower data show overhead to be
better than row covers in severe
freezes, cumulative yield data shows
row covers can provide protection
equal to overhead sprinkling. This
might be due to larger fruit size
from the row covers. It is inter-
esting to note the nearly additive
effect of cover plus sprinkler on
early yield in a few cases in Table
5. Cover EF is a light-weight
material that affords very little
freeze protection when used alone.
However, when used in combination
with sprinklers, there is a boost in
fruit yield. This might be due to
enhancement of ice formation on
plants by the presence of this
cover. Certain covers that are not
porous to water (e.g PB, PP-3) also
show enhanced fruit production by
the cover plus water treatment. In
this case, increase fruit protection
might be coming from increased insu-
lation which results from water
freezing in a layer on top of these
Row cover work shows some
promise for use of covers as an
alternate to overhead irrigation.
Covers would be especially effective
in windy freezes when optimum water
coverage of plants is difficult.
Demonstration work is continuing so
that we can determine effective
methods to deploy and remove covers
from fields. Please call if you
would like to try row covers for
freeze protection.


Table 1. Row cover materials used in study.

Material Abbreviation Source

Extruded fabric (14g)

Polypropylene #1 (17g)
Polypropylene #2 (43g)
Polypropylene #3 (57g)

Polyester (17g)

Polyethylene tunnel

Polyethylene blanket (0.3cm)






CDK International Corp.
3191 Wicks Creek Trail
Marietta, GA 30062

1400 Holcomb Bridge Rd.
Rosweli, GA 30076

E.I. DuPont, Inc.
Textile Fibers Dept.
Center Road Bldg.
Wllmington, DE 19898

Agplast, Inc.
PO Box 318
Ellenton, FL 33532

Industrial Packaging Mat,
PO Box 1702
Eaton Park, FL 33801

Table 2. Description of freeze events from
31, 1986.

Dec. 15, 1985 through Jan.

Freeze Period below 0C Lowest temperature
event (hr) (0C)

Dec. 15/16, 1985 12 -4.4
Dec. 16/17 8 -0.5
Dec. 17/18 8 -0.5
Dec. 19/20 8 -1.1
Dec. 21/22 11 -3.3
Dec. 25/26 14 -9.4
Dec. 26/27 16 -6.6
Dec. 27/28 6 -0.5
Dec. 30/31 8 -2.2
Jan. 5/6, 1986 8 -3.3
Jan. 13/14 10 -3.3
Jan. 27/28z 16 -10.0
Jan. 28/29 12 -2.7

ZMain irrigation line valve malfunctioned and severe damage occurred to
plants in all plots due to lack of water. Fruit had been harvested on
Jan. 27 but not harvested for the remainder of Jan.

Table 3. Effect of row covers on freeze protection of strawberry
flowers and fruit.

Freeze damaged flowers and fruit (sin- )
Row cover Irrigation treatment
treatment None Drip Overhead

None 77 69 14
EF 39 32 5
PP-1 22 19 11
PP-2 23 21 7
PP-3 17 15 0
PE 25 21 11
PT 29 19 4
PB 14 16 13

-0.5, -0.5, -1.1, and

YDamage from sum of effects from freezes of -4.4,

ZLSD .05 for any 2 treatment means = 11.2

Table 4. Effect of row covers on freeze protection of strawberry
flowers and fruit.

Freeze damaged flowers and fruit (sin- )z
Row cover Irrigation treatment
treatment None Drip Overhead

None 74 90 20
EF 66 60 9
PP-1 46 47 13
PP-2 44 42 11
PP-3 38 29 9
PE 59 52 7
PT 57 58 15
PB 34 41 14

YDamage from sum of effects from freezes of -9.4, -6.6, -0.5, and -2.20C.

zLSD .05 for any 2 individual treatment means = 14.

Table 5. Effect of row covers on freeze protection of early strawberry
yield (first 10 harvests).

Early marketable yield (g per plot)
Row cover Irrigation treatment
treatment None Drip Overhead

None 17 0 549
EF 86 172 1181
PP-1 472 347 624
PP-2 271 542 751
PP-3 431 766 987
PE 183 426 688
PT 222 288 918
PB 689 458 1026

LSD .05 for any 2 individual treatment means = 352. To obtain number
of 5.54 kg flats per ha, multiply by 0.24.

(Hochmuth, Veg. 86-09)


A. Section 18 for use of
Fusilade 2000 on celery and head

The FFVA was notified August
21, 1986 that the Environmental
Protection agency has issued a
Section 18 specific exemption allow-
ing the use of Fusilade 2000 on
celery and head lettuce (Dan Botts,
personal communicationss. The
exemption will be effective through
July 31, 1987.
The use rates for both crops is
.125 .188 pound ai/acre (16 oz-24
oz formulated product).
Two applications will be
allowed on celery (.375 lb
ailacre/season) and one application
only allowed on head lettuce. A 30
day pre-harvest interval must be
observed on both crops. Application
must be made with ground equipment.
Additional information is
provided on the labelling. The
label must be in possession of the
user prior to use on these crops.

(Stall, Veg. 86-09)

B. Southern Weed Science
Society to meet in Orlando.

The 40th Annual Southern Weed
Science Society meeting will be held
January 12-14, 1987 at the Hyatt
Orlando, Orlando, Florida. A paper
title submission has been called and
must be in by September 15, 1986.
Those who wish to present a paper at
the meetings this year or attend the
meeting can contact myself or Wayne
Curry (local arrangements) for more

(Stall, Veg. 86-09)


A. Two All-America Variety
Selections for 1986.

By now many vegetable gardeners
in Florida have been introduced to a
new variety of okra named 'Blondy',
and a new sweet corn variety named
'How Sweet It Is (White)'. Both
varieties were All-America Selec-
tions winners for 1986. This
distinction comes only after having
been judged to have outstanding
quality characteristics and perform-
ance capabilities in trials around
the country.
Seeds were available this
spring from mail order catalogs and
retail garden centers. Home garden-
ers that I know tried them were very
pleased with the results.
Okra 'Blondy' is the first
dwarf, white-podded okra. All other
dwarf type okra produce green pods.
The dwarf habit results in plants
which are 3 feet high and 2 feet
wide. The spineless pods are not
actually white but are creamy lime
in color. These light colored pods
really stand out against the back-
ground of normal green colored
leaves. Not only is this
open-pollinated variety attractive,
it is also productive and nutri-
The mention of a new sweet corn
with outstanding features should
make Florida gardeners perk up and
take note. Not that we don't have
some excellent choices in varieties
already, what with 'Silver Queen'
and 'Florida Staysweet' being grown
but because sweet corn is so popular
down here.
'How Sweet It Is (White)' is a
hybrid that contains the high sugar
gene, called shrunken 2, which is
not found in ordinary sweet corn
varieties. While this gene imparts
exceptional flavor, sweetness, and
longer flavor retention, it also
dictates special cultural

requirements. This variety, like
'Florida Staysweet', must be
isolated from other corn so that it
can pollinate itself. Otherwise,
reduction of sweetness could occur
due to crossing with normal types
such as 'Silver Queen'.
Unlike 'Florida Staysweet',
which is yellow, 'How Sweet It Is
(White)' has white kernals. It is
the first white sweet corn to be
selected for an award in The
All-America trials.

(Stephens Veg. 86-09)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

J. M. Stephens 2
Associate Professor7

Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor

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