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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: July 1986
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00222
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Full Text


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

"eet able Crops Department 1255 IISPP Carine5 ille. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134
I I II Ill


Vegetarian 86-08


July 8, 1986


Contents


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Florida Pepper Institute

B. Careers in Vegetable Crops

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. New Ridomil/Bravo 81W Fungicide for Vegetables

S .' B. The Enigma Associated with Tank Mixes

IV. GARDENING

5I A. Video Cassettes Available on Vegetable
Gardening

n I., B. 4-H Horticulture ID and Judging Contest
1986 4-H Congress


,ii"- Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
_Q- s' authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
..- necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.




The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


I ----











I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

Annual Rhubarb Production,
Fall-Spring 1985-86. D. N. Maynard
and T. K. Howell. Bradenton GCREC
Research Report BRA-1986-14

I have obtained two cookbooks
published by Harper and Row which I
consider worthy of mentioning. I
don't mention them because of the
..."opulent collection ... of
recipes" as the publicity release
states, but for the information in
them on many major and especially
minor vegetables.

THE CLASSIC VEGETABLE COOKBOOK
by Ruth Spear (H & R 1985) is a
cookbook, but also gives helpful
hints on the vegetable, what to look
for in buying, how to store and how
to prepare fresh produce for cook-
ing. It contains the "major" vege-
tables (potato, tomato, celery etc.)
as well as some not well known ones
i.e. celery root, fennel, fiddlehead
ferns, salsify, sorrel, chayote, and
more.
As a side note, any cookbook
that has 20 recipes for eggplant
goes a long way with me.
UNCOMMON FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
--A Common Sense Guide, by
Elizabeth Schneider (H & R, 1986) is
as the cover says "From Arugula to
Yuca: An Encyclopedic Cookbook of
America's New Produce."
This book again gives hints on
buying, storage, and preparation,
but is aimed at the minor or ethnic
vegetables and fruits.
Those in south Florida will
probably already know several rec-
ipes for yuca (cassava), calabaza,
boniato, malanga and dasheen, but
also found will be jicama, long
bean, pepino, tamarilla tomatilla
and many others.
You may find these books help-
ful, as I already have when people
call in and say, "I hear you grow in


your area ..." or "I have just
purchased a few ... at the market",
"HOW DO YOU COOK THEM?"
P.S. The spaghetti squash
recipes are very good.

(Stall, Veg. 86-08)

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

September 4, 1986. Florida Tomato
Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples, Florida.

September 5-6, 1986. Joint tomato
Exchange/Committee Conference. Ritz
Carlton Hotel, Naples, Florida.

September 25, 1986. Specialized
Training in Commercial Vegetable
Production. Fifield Hall, Gaines-
ville, Florida. (Contact George J.
Hochmuth)

October 8, 1986. Florida Pepper
Institute, Country Squire Inn, Lake
Worth, 1:30 4:30 pm.


October 26-28, 1986.
Horticulture Society.
Miami Beach, Florida.


Florida State
Doral Hotel,


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Florida Pepper Institute

The Florida Pepper Institute
will be held October 8, 1986, at the
Country Squire Inn, 7859 Lake Worth
Rd., Lake Worth, Florida. The
meeting will start at 1:30 pm and
end approximately at 4:30 pm. The
program is not completely finalized
at this point, but I will get a
program out as soon as it is pos-
sible.

(Stall, Veg. 86-08)











B. Careers in Vegetable Crops

Vegetable production is a
dynamic industry whose products
reach everyone in the United States
on a daily basis. The production,
harvesting, and marketing of vegeta-
bles has been an integral part of
American agriculture since the early
days of our country. Many allied
agricultural supply and service
industries have developed and are
intimately associated with vegetable
production. Florida is a major
producer of fresh market vegetables
in the U.S. and at certain times of
the year is the sole source of many
fresh vegetables. Foreign competi-
tion in the marketplace has grown
dramatically in recent history and
will probably continue to pressure
in the future. Thus, today's pro-
ducer must be adequately trained to
use progressive technology but must
also be broadly educated in sciences
and business to recognize potential
developments and be able to put to-
gether workable solutions or techno-
logies and keep ahead of competi-
tion, foreign or domestic.
The curriculum in Vegetable
Crops at the University of Florida
is composed of a range of subjects
which not only prepares the graduate
to deal with real world situations,
but also develops a foundation in
science.
The business and economics of
production will continue to pressure
growers but the real future chal-
lenge to growers will be in the
development of applied technologies
utilizing advances in the more basic
aspects of the plant sciences.
Thus, an understanding of these
sciences is essential else our
industry will become followers, not
leaders, and suffer competitive
disadvantages in the marketplace.
The following is a summary of
the basic curriculum our majors must
follow. With the help of an advis-
or, students select a number of
elective courses that will prepare


them for specific career objectives.
Lower Division (Freshman & Sophmore)

General Education requirements
64 hrs
plus
College of Agriculture Pre-
Professional Requirements which
includes:

8-11 hours of Chemistry
4 hrs Physics
8 hrs of Biology & Botany
4 hrs Food & Resource Economics

Upper Division (Junior & Senior)
64 hrs

Vegetable Crops Major Curriculum
Credit Hours
Genetics 3
Organic & Biological
Chemistry 4
Plant Physiology 6
Entomology 3
Plant Pathology 4
General Soils 4
Weed Science 3
Warm Season Vegetables 4
Cool Season Vegetables 3
Vegetable Crops Nutrition 2
Growth & Development
of Vegetable Crops 3
Principles of Post Harvest
Horticulture 3
Approved electives 23

A major goal of the Vegetable
Crops Department is to supply our
large industry and its allied indus-
tries with highly trained employees.
Currently, the number of opportun-
ities exceeds the supply of grad-
uates. We encourage any one who is
interested in more information on
our program to contact us. Or
better yet, if you know of any
student that you feel may be choos-
ing a potential career, pass on a
copy of this article. A number of
scholarships are available and we
are always willing to discuss addi-
tional industry support of our
programs. Have a question or a











comment? Drop this author a line or
write Dr. D. J. Cantliffe, Chairman,
Vegetable Crops Dept., University of
Florida, 1255 Fifield Hall,
Gainesville, FL 32611.
(Kostewicz, Veg. 86-08)

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. New Ridomil/Bravo 81W
Fungicide for Vegetables

A new Ciba-Geigy fungicide has
received registration for use on
vegetable crops as of June 13, 1986.
This product is a combination
fungicide composed of 9% Ridomil
(metalaxyl) and 72% Bravo (chloroth-
alonil) and is marketed under the
trade name of Ridomil/Bravo 81W. As
a fungicide, this product offers
both systemic and protectant action
and a broad range of efficacy for
fungal pathogens on select vegeta-
bles Cole Crops
For use on cabbage, broccoli,
and cauliflower only. To control
downy mildew, use 1.5-2.0 lbs./A in
sufficient water for thorough cover-
age. Begin at crop emergence or
first incidence of disease and
reapply on a 14-day schedule. Do
not apply within 7 days of harvest.
Do not apply more than 11 lbs./crop.
This product will also control
Alternaria leaf spot when used at a
rate of 1.5 Ibs./A (Southeast states
only).
Cucurbit Crops
For use on cucumbers, melons
and squash. To control downy
mildew, apply 1.5-2.0 lbs./A in
sufficient water for thorough cover-
age. Apply at first true leaf stage
or under disease-favorable condi-
tions. Reapply on a 14-day sched-
ule. To control either anthracnose,
Cercospora leaf spot, gummy stem
blight, leaf blight, or scab, apply
2 Ibs./A on a 14-day schedule.
Under severe disease pressure,
reduce rate to 1-1.5 lbs./A on a
7-day schedule. Use of another


EPA-approved fungicide may be needed
to control these problems.
Note: Do not apply within 5
days of harvest and do not apply
more than 11 Ibs. of product per
crop*
Onions (dry bulb, seed and green)
To control downy mildew, apply
1.5-2.0 lbs./A in sufficient water
for coverage. Begin at disease
onset and continue on a 14-day
schedule. Utilize a compatible
spreader-sticker with this product.
To control Botrytis leaf blight
(blast) and Alternaria purple
blotch, apply 2.0 Ibs./A on a 14-day
schedule with another EPA-approved
fungicide applied between Ridomil/
Bravo 81W sprays or else apply the
new Ridomil/Bravo product at 2.0
lbs./A every 7 days.
Notes: Do not apply to sweet
Spanish onions if they have received
any other chlorothalonil-containing
fungicides. Do not apply to dry
bulb onions within 7 days of harvest
or to green onions within 14 days of
harvest. Do not apply more than 4
times per year on green onions. Do
not apply more than 11 lbs./A to dry
bulb or seed onions.
Potatoes
To control late blight, apply
1.5-2.0 Ibs./A preventatively during
disease-favorable weather. Reapply
on a 14-day schedule.
To control tuber rot and stor-
age rot caused by Pythium and Phyto-
phthora fungi, apply 2.0 Ibs./A at
flowering and 14 days later. If the
field is known to be infested with
these fungi, a third spray is
advised 14 days after the second
spray.
To control early blight and
Botrytis vine rot, apply 1.5-2.0
Ibs./A on a 14-day schedule starting
when plants are 6-inches tall.
Under severe disease pressure, use
1.5 lbs./A on a 7-day schedule or
some other EPA-registered fungicide
between Ridomil/Bravo 81W sprays.
Note: Do not apply within 7
days of harvest.











Tomatoes
To control late blight, apply
1.5-2.0 lbs./A in sufficient water
for coverage on a 14-day interval.
Begin sprays in disease-favorable
weather but before infection occurs.
To control early blight,
anthracnose, and gray leaf spot,
apply 2.0 lbs./A in disease favor-
able weather on a 14-day schedule.
Under severe disease pressure condi-
tions, apply another EPA-approved
fungicide between Ridomil/Bravo 81W
sprays.
NOTE: Only label-listed crops can
be planted during the fall following
crops to which Ridomil/Bravo 81W was
applied. Small grain cover crops
can be grown in the fall season
provided that the crop is plowed
down and not used for food or feed.
Corn, root crops, or any label crop
can be grown on land 1 year follow-
ing fungicide use. Other crops may
be planted 18 months following
application of product.

(G. W. Simone 86-08)

B. The Enigma Associated with
Tank Mixes

Tank mixes refer to the use of
more than one chemical besides water
in a spray that is to be mixed and
delivered to a target. Tank mixes
facilitate farming operations by
providing a mechanism whereby multi-
ple pests can be controlled simulta-
neously and spray equipment and
personnel are used judiciously. As
a result, timely mitigation of
multiple pest and nutritional prob-
lems can be achieved, variable costs
are reduced and human exposure to
pesticides is minimized. Further,
certain tank mixes are necessary to
maximize control of some pests. For
example, on peppers and tomatoes,
the addition of a maneb or mancozeb
fungicide to a copper spray is
required for improved control of
those strains of the bacterial spot
organism that are resistant to low


amounts of soluble copper. Also,
the efficacy of a chemical can be
enhanced in some instances by the
addition of a select adjuvant such
as a wetting and sticking agent.
Benefits from tank mixes are some-
times offset by undesirable effects
such as nozzle plugging, precipita-
tion of the tank mix in spray equip-
ment, reduced efficacy of components
within the tank mix, and damage to
the spray target.
In the production of tomatoes
in Florida, tank mixing of fungi-
cides, insecticides, foliar nutri-
ents, and adjuvants is the rule
rather than the exception. Usually
the final spray mix is effective and
does not burn the leaves of the
fruit. The composition of tank
mixes varies from farm to farm and
on a temporal basis. Because
research on tank mixes is limited,
the successful use of a tank mix by
a grower is based on experience and
trial and error. Research associ-
ated with the development of agri-
cultural chemicals is primarily
conducted on efficacy and factors
related to environmental safety.
Only a limited amount of information
is available on tank mixing a com-
pound prior to its release and such
should appear on the label. This is
understandable as the number of
treatment combinations with just 14
different compounds is 16,384 if all
compounds are tested in the presence
and absence of all other compounds
at one rate. If such a test were
conducted using two rates of each
compound in the presence and absence
of all other compounds, 4,782,969
treatments are possible. These
enormous number of treatment
combinations are further confounded
by numerous weather situations and
the condition of the crop at the
time of spray applications.
Formulations of chemicals that
are included within sprays include
soluble salts (primarily fertil-
izers), chelated fertilizers,
various types of granules, powders









wettablee, soluble, etc), and
liquids (emulsifiable concentrates,
flowables, adjuvants, etc). When
tank mixing, the grower not only
combines different active ingredi-
ents, but he also combines the
various carriers and adjuvants
("inert ingredients") that are part
of the pesticide. Carrier and
adjuvant ingredients can cause or be
associated with phytotoxic reac-
tions. Xylene and other organic
solvents are part of the emulsi-
fiable concentrate formulations.
Such solvents can alter the integri-
ty of the plant cuticle and related
waxes (plant skin) which protect the
plant from adverse environmental
factors. Further, some spray
adjuvants apparently function by
altering the cuticle and waxes in
such a way as to allow transport of
pesticides and foliar nutrients into
the softer inner tissues of the
leaves, stem and fruit.
These additional ingredients
are determined by the manufacturer
to be beneficial for reasons related
to shipment, storage, spray mixing,
spray delivery to the target, spray
deposition, spray tenacity on he
target, safety, etc. If the active
ingredient, by itself, could be used
exclusively, many of the manufac-
turer's logistical and economic
problems could be avoided and a
large number of tank mixing problems
would also be avoided- However,
other tank mixing problems would
appear as some of those additives
within the pesticide formulations
act as safening agents. Therefore,
it is incumbent on all those assoc-
iated with pesticides to realize
that chemical spray tank mixes are
and will continue to be an enigmatic
topic.

Some General Guidelines On Tank
Mixing For Growers:

1. Tank mix only the necessary
rates of those chemicals that are
needed at that time. Tank mixing


for status among your friends or for
the purpose of developing an all-
purpose spray mix is rarely to your
advantage.
2. Possible sources of information
on tank mixes include product
"labels, commercial company repre-
sentatives, county extension agents,
extension specialists, university
researchers, other growers, experi-
enced consultants, and your experi-
ence. If you decide that available
information on a given tank mix is
inadequate, it would be to your
advantage to conduct a test.
3. When you decide to add or sub-
stitute a new chemical to your spray
mix, test the new tank mix on a
small portion of the crop that will
eventually receive the spray about a
week before you intend to use it on
a large scale. That will allow you
some time to evaluate the results.
Admittedly, the sudden appearance of
a pest problem may require immediate
action but in such a situation, con-
sider deleting all those chemicals
from the spray mix that are not
necessary at that time.
4. Chemical types that seem to be
associated frequently with chemical
burn on foliage or fruit include
emulsifiable concentrate pesticides,
paraffin or oil based adjuvants
(including crop oils and non-
chelated formulations of fertil-
izers).
5. Tender plants, such as those
recently transplanted, emerged or
grown under cloudy overcast condi-
tions, are more apt to incur chemi-
cal burns.
6. Plants that have sustained
mechanical damage from sand blasting
or wind driven rains or other forces
are more likely to incur chemical
burns because the outer protective
tissues on the plant have been
disrupted.
7. Tank mixing epsom salts or other
magnesium products in a spray for
nutritional purposes can be counter
productive to the copper-maneb spray
mix used for bacterial spot control.










Magnesium is an essential growth
factor for bacteria and any excess
of this element means the copper-
maneb spray mix must contend with a
higher population of bacteria.
8. While the maneb increases the
solubility of the copper, thus
improving bacterial spot control,
some research shows that copper
reduces the effectiveness of the
maneb or mancozeb for control of
fungus diseases such as late blight
and grey leaf spot. However, this
phenomenon does not occur according
to other research. This enigma is
partially rectified by the availa-
bility of Ridomil products for late
blight and the availability of
resistant varieties for grey leaf
spot. Also, because late blight
weather disease and bacterial spot
is a warm-hot weather disease, the
grower can reduce or alternate the
use of copper sprays during cool
weather to maximize control of late
blight with those fungicides other
than Ridomil.
9. The use of Dyrene with copper
fungicides particularly during hot
weather can result in phytotoxicity
to tomatoes.
10. Reduced effectiveness of pesti-
cides with use of hard or high pH
water is often discussed. Certainly
Benlate and probably many other
pesticides have reduced effective-
ness when used with high pH water.
However, until we find another
source of water, not much can be
done about this situation. A point
to consider is whether the high pH
water reduces the efficacy of the
pesticides as much as some may think
it does. Also, why do different
crop fields, sometimes adjacent to
each other, differ so greatly in
pest control? Remember, numerous
other factors such as spray timing,
use of the correct material, cul-
tural practices, varietal suscepti-
bility, time of planting, weather,
and soil type can drastically alter
pest populations and nutrient prob-
lems. Maybe, the enigma is ours and


not necessarily associated with tank
mixes.

(Kucharek Veg. 86-08)

IV. GARDENING

A. Video Cassettes Available
on Vegetable Gardening

Now that the medium of home
video has been firmly established
across Florida and the rest of the
U.S., county extension should be
looking quite seriously at the
educational possibilities for this
teaching method. The equipment is
there, with many county extension
offices having their own video
playback units and monitors, or at
least having access to such neces-
sary equipment, and in the area of
horticulture, the programs (educa-
tional materials) are finally here.
The IFAS film and educational
resources library has published a
catalog which includes videos avail-
able for Extension Service use in
the counties. Some of these pro-
grams are quite lengthy and de-
tailed, such as the IFAS series on
plant propagation. Others are brief
and pointed toward a single lesson,
such as the IFAS Vegetable Gardening
Tips by Jim Stephens and the IFAS
Horticulture Tips by Bob Black.
Since 1982, approximately 150
short-topics relating to vegetable
gardening in Florida have been
discussed and demonstrated on video
cassette tapes for television broad-
casting statewide. These 3/4 inch
formatted tapes, with countdowns and
formal closings, were developed
jointly by IFAS Editorial Communica-
tions Specialist Carl Breeden, and
Vegetable Crops Specialist Jim
Stephens.
Now these same short subjects
are available as 1/2 inch tapes on
loan from the IFAS film library for
general Extension use.
The video format is 1/2 inch
VHS, functional on most home video











VHS players. The short-topics, each
of which are introduced by large-
lettered titles, range from 1 to 8
minutes in length. The average
playback time is 3 minutes. Count-
downs and the formal closings have
been removed, as these tended to
distract the audience in continuous
showings.
Each separate cassette contains
from 8 to 17 topics grouped accord-
ing to a common subject category.
Each cassette has its own caption,
such as "Pest Control." The topics
are not repeated on other cassettes,
even though that topic might also
pertain to another category.
Each short-topic has been
developed for the educational level
of a general gardening audience and
while the subject matter discussed
might not be specific for all areas
of the state, particularly south
Florida, its video format might at
least serve as an introduction for
more specific comments you may wish


to present. Bear in mind that the
value of videos versus slide-tapes
has not been fully evaluated. One
immediate limitation that I can
foresee is the reduced screen size
(suggesting small audience numbers)
imposed by monitor size.
A complete descriptive list of
the topics available on vegetable
gardening is available from the
Vegetable Crops Department. The
list gives the title of each
cassette tape, the number of topics
it contains, topic titles, length,
and two- or three-sentence comments
about what is shown and discussed.
For a copy of the list, write to Jim
Stephens, Vegetable Specialist, 1253
Fifield, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611. To borrow
the tapes, write to the IFAS Film
Library, Bldg. 116, Mowry Rd.,
University of Florida, Gainesville
FL 32611.
(Stephens Veg. 86-08)


4-H Horticulture ID and Judging Contest
1986 4-H Congress


Placing


Judging OH VCFC Total


1st Marion


Sarasota





St. Johns


051
052
053
054


101
102
103
104


091
092
093
094


Knowles
Marzella
McCroskey
Johnston


Liedl
Whitfield
Hernandez
York


Robinson
Dingfelder
Worthington
Ortagus


176
172
174
158


183
188
163
197


172
167
163
139


325
320
340
245


240
245
270
300


325
270
305
105


265
230
295
235


260
255
280
300


270
270
225
155


766
722
809
638
2297

683
688
713
797
2198

767
707
693
399
2167










Leon





Osceola





Volusia





Clay




Hendry





Polk


10th Duval




llth Taylor





12th Pinellas


041 Eberly
042 Daniels
043 Judge
044 Blackman


160
163
160
174


061 Rodebush 161
062 Butler (Leigh Ann) 162
063 Harrelson 175
064 Butler (Shannon) 181


121 Gibson
122 Hartman
123 Morton
124 Nylen


011 Thorson
013 Medford
014 Goad


031 Leitner
032 Kirkland
033 Branam
034 Williams (SG)


081 Kramer (Gary)
082 Kramer (Sherry)
083 Cason
084 Crowell


141 Johnson
142 Ratterree
143 Fooshee


111 Greene
112 William (AE)
113 McLeod
114 Alexander (G)


071 Anderson
072 Kavanagh
073 Gallither


179
153
141


170
188
149
168


160
169
153
169


158
155
176


180
168
154
169


184
169
62


315
235
325
230


125
250
330
285


235
310
215
285


285
230
250


140
195
180
160


205
205
80
145


180
160
235


165
155
160
175


115
115
80


280
230
260
260


190
230
275
250


240
250
200
270


270
210
220


205
190
140
165


210
125
135
180


135
155
210


175
170
200
165


230
130
110


755
628
745
664
2164

476
642
780
716
2138

619
723
573
735
2077

634
593
611
1838

515
573
469
493
1581

575
499
368
494
1568

473
470
621
1564

520
493
514
509
1543

529
414
252
1195










13th Brevard


151 Makela
152 Ermerins


250
65


First Place Individual McCroskey, Marion County
Second Place Individual Sean York, Sarasota County
Third Place Individual L. L. Harrelson, Osceola County

(Delate, Veg. 86-08)



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor


A~i


Contributed articles by


T. A. Kucharek
G. W. Simone
S. R. Kostewicz


Extension Plant Pathologist
Extension Plant Pathologist
Undergraduate Coordinator Vegetable Crops


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