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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: May 1986
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00220
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
I-itc 1= UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

V~gtabl Crops Department 1255 HISDI Caineville, FL 32611* 'lephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 86-05


May 19, 1986


Contents


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Blossom-end rot problems
B. Predicting time of harvest for vegetable crops

C. What's National Agricultural Plastics Association
(NAPA) all about?
III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Growing tomatoes the "Wade Ellis Way"

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricullural Sciences i an EQual Employment Opportunity Affirmairve Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and inslitutrons that function without regard to race. color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


lisp












I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications

Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center, Research Report BRA1986-5,
April 1986. Leek Variety Evaluation
Fall-Winter 1985-86 by D. N. Maynard
and T. K. Howe.

Agricultural Experiment Station,
Bulletin 857, November 1985.
Diseases, Nematodes, Mites, and
Insects Affecting Strawberries in
Florida by C. M. Howard, A. J.
Overman, J. F. Price, E. E.
Albregts.

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

May 29-30, 1986. Home horticulture
agents In-Service Training. Camp
Ocala. Contact Jim Stephens.

June 4, 1986. Watermelon Field Day
1:30 pm 5:00 pm, AREC Leesburg,
G. W. Elmstrom.

June 23-27, 1986. Florida 4-H
Horticulture Institute, Camp Ocala.
Important:. Registration Deadline is
May 16. Return all registration
forms to Brooks Humphrys, Brevard
County Extension Service, 1125 West
King Street, Cocoa, FL 32922.
Contact person: Jim Stephens.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Blossom-end Rot Problems

This spring has been windy and
dry in Florida. Vegetable Growers
in Florida are beginning to see
blossom-end rot problems develop in
their fields.
Blossom-end rot of tomato,
pepper, and watermelon first becomes
apparent as a water-soaked lesion or
series of lesions on the blossom-end
of the fruit. This can happen at
anytime during fruit enlargement and
maturation. The tissue breakdown
usually develops rapidly, eventually


becoming sunken, dark, and leathery.
Blossom-end rot is a calcium
deficiency disorder. We can, how-
ever, see the disorder in soils with
optimum to high available calcium
The reason for this is several
fold.
A low Ca content in the fruit,
causing blossom-end rot may not be a
result of insufficient soil Ca but
rather a problem of distribution 1n
the plant.
Calcium transport in the plant
is relatively slow and primarily in
water in the xylem. Transpiration
then becomes a prime mover of xylem
water and Ca.
Shortage of water or an irreg-
ular water supply results in reduced
Ca translocation, especially into
fruit. Fruit have low transpira-
tion rates but a high Ca demand.
When water is supplied to
drought stressed plants, water in
the plant moves primarily to leaf
tissue and not to fruit and can
result in Ca deficiency in fruits
In contrast, withholding water hag
little effect on Mg and almost no
effect on K influx into the fruit
Where blossom-end rot is start-
ing to become a problem in fruiting
vegetables, there are 2 basic con-
trol measures that can be suggested:
1. Before planting crops, make
sure soil pH is adequate. Follow
soil test recommendations for good
liming practices. This is one of
the most important factors for
assuring calcium availability to
plants. Following soil test reco-
mendations for preplant application
rates of potassium will help avoid
the possibility of interference or
calcium uptake by excessive potas-
sium in the soil.
2. Maintain a uniform soil
moisture content. In times of
severe drought, as this year, irrt-
gate more often with less water per
irrigation. This will eliminate the
flooding-wilting cycle and help max-
imize the amount of calcium reaching












the fruit. Since calcium moves pri-
marily in the water stream in the
plant we can help maximize calcium
transport to all plant parts by mak-
ing sure our plants are not water-
stressed.
3. Since calcium moves prima-
rily in the xylem and does not re-
translocate easily by phloem, it is
difficult to correct fruit problems
by foliar sprays.

(Stall, Hochmuth Veg. 86-05)


B. Predicting time of harvest
for vegetable crops

Vegetable growers often ask the
question, "When do you think my crop
will be ready to harvest?" There
are several reasons why this
question is important and deserves
an accurate reply:


the market may be going up
and the grower wants to take
advantage of the situation
the market may be poor and
the grower may wish to delay harvest
for as long as possible
growers are always anxious to
get the crop harvested to avoid
freezes, rains or hail which might
damage or destroy the crop or impede
harvest operations
like all of us, growers wish
to receive their rewards for their
investment and labor
For the fruiting vegetables,
days from pollination provide a
fairly accurate determination of
harvest time. Weather, of course,
has a great effect on growth and can
markedly advance or restrict maturi-
ty of crops. Nonetheless, the times
listed in the following table will
provide a useful approximation that
can be used to advise growers.


DAYS FROM POLLINATION TO MARKET MATURITY UNDER WARM GROWING CONDITIONS

Vegetable Time to Market Maturity
(days)

Bean 7-10
SSweet Corn 18-23
Cucumber, pickling (3/4-1-1/8 in.
in diameter) 4-5
Cucumber, slicing 15-18
Eggplant (2/3 maximum size) 25-40
Muskmelon 42-46
Okra 4-6
Pepper, green (about maximum size) 45-55
Pepper, red 2 60-70
Summer Squash, crookneck 2 6-7
Summer Squash, straight2eck 5-6
Summer Squash, zucchini 3-4
Squash, winter, acorn 55-60
Tomato, mature green 35-45
Tomato, red ripe 40-50
Watermelon, large 50-60
Tomato, Cherry 35-40
Watermelon, icebox 28-32


2From 50% silking.
For a weight of 1/4 to 1/2 lb.
(Maynard Veg. 86-05)










C. What's National Agricul-
tural Plastics Association (NAPA)
all about?

"One of the significant recent
developments in horticulture has
been the use of plastic films for
crop production."
Dr. George A. Marlowe, Jr.
First President of NAPA
October, 1960

This was the opening statement
in the first Proceedings of the
National Horticultural Plastics
Conference. While it was written
more than 25 years ago, the thought
is still true today. Developments
in the plastics industry have con-
tinued at a rapid pace and have
changed many practices in agricul-
tural production. Fifty-five
industry and university scientists
met at that first congress in
Lexington, Kentucky to discuss the
"future of plastic products for
horticulture." The name of the
association was later changed to the
National Agricultural Plastics Asso-
ciation to reflect the wide scope
and activity of members and con-
gresses. The NAPA has grown sub-
stantially in the last 25 years so
that we now have more than 500
members.
The availability of plastic
products specifically for agricul-
tural uses has changed the way we
grow and package our food. Plastic-
covered greenhouses have largely
replaced the glass structures of the
past. Plastic mulch has become a
common sight on farms and trickle
irrigation is used on thousands of
acres of crop land. Plastic wraps
have allowed longer storage of
perishable foods and better,
fresher-looking produce. These
technologies and others were
developed and nurtured by members of
the NAPA. The NAPA Congress has
always been a place for the people
who dream to meet the people who
make things happen.


The primary activity of the
NAPA today is to sponsor this na-
tional congress and industry exhibi-
tion. Current research, practical
observations, product reports, and
demonstrations are presented at the
congress. The Proceedings of each
congress documents these reports for
the future. New Products are often
unveiled at the NAPA congress. This
allows people familiar with the uses
of agricultural products to interact
with designers and manufacturers on
the applicability of their new prod-
ucts. In addition, educators, ad-
visors, and consultants learn about
new products and technologies that
have recently been introduced into
the market.
The University of Illinois is
hosting the 19th Congress of the
National Agricultural Plastics
Association. We hope you can join
us in Peoria for what looks to be an
exciting and educational event.
This year's conference has many
research reports on all phases of
plastic use for agriculture. These
include row covers, trickle irriga-
tion, hydroponics, mulches, nursery
production, greenhouse structures
and covers, and new innovations in
plastics. I am sure everyone would
find something of benefit at this
meeting.
We are actively seeking commer-
cial sustaining members and commer-
cial exhibitors for the Peoria meet-
ing. NAPA needs your support. If
you know of anyone interested in
sustaining membership and exhibiting
at Peoria please call George J.
Hochmuth, Vegetable Crops Dept,
Gainesville.

(Hochmuth, Veg 86-05)











III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Growing tomatoes the "Wade
Ellis Way"

As a Florida home gardener, you
should always be on the alert for
new and better ways for growing your
vegetables. Gardeners learn from
gardeners, so here is a tomato
growing technique which I learned
from Mr. Wade Ellis, a very suc-
cessful gardener in Duval county.
We'll call it the Wade Ellis way to
grow tomatoes.
Using his special technique of
planting on a specially prepared
mound of cow manure, Mr. Ellis has
consistently grown plants that
produced almost unbelievable yields
of quality tomatoes. It is not
unusual to find on his plants 40 to
60 tomato fruits ranging in size
from small (just forming) to large,
mature greens close to one pound
each. He relies on varieties which
are proven for his area. His best
results have been with 'Floradade'
and 'Duke'. The former is a readily
available variety most gardeners can
purchase, while 'Duke' is grown
mostly in commercial fields and is
not as easy to find for planting in
gardens. The simple technique in-
volves building a mound of soil over
a pile of cow manure. Here is the
step-by-step procedure to follow:
(1) Select the spot or row in
your garden to be planted with
tomatoes, and prepare as usual.
Lime the soil if a soil-test
indicates a need for it, and treat
for nematodes if necessary.
(2) On the properly prepared
soil begin construction of your
mound (hill) by placing a
double-layer of newspaper flat on
the soil surface. The paper
temporarily curtails the leaching
loss of nutrients and moisture from
the root zone.
(3) Place a shovelful (about
one gallon) of rotted cow manure on
the center of the newspaper.


(4) Make a depression in the
center of the manure heap, using
your fist or a trowel, almost down
to the level of the newspaper.
(5) Place one and one-half
cups of common, dry fertilizer in
the central depression. An analysis
in the range of 6-6-6 to 10-10-10
will suffice. Do not mix the
fertilizer with the manure.
(6) Using a hoe or rake, pull
the soil from around the edges of
the newspaper up over the manure
until a mound is formed 3 to 4
inches above the manure pile.
Again, do not mix the soil, manure,
and fertilizer.
(7) Now, dig a planting hole
on top of the mound just deep and
large enough to accommodate the
tomato root-ball. Place the plant
roots in the hole, add water, then
firm the soil around the stem.
Important keep roots at least one
inch above the fertilizer. Make a
slight saucer-shaped depression
around the base of the stem to hold
water until it soaks into the soil.
(8) To support the plant use a
tomato-cage, or insert two or three
sturdy 4 to 6 foot tomato stakes
around each mound. Tie the plant to
these supports with cord as the
plant grows. Staking is especially
necessary with this method since
most of the root growth is in the
above-ground mound, thus leaving the
plant vulnerable to wind blowing.
(9) Water and care for the
plant as usual. With the
'Floradade' variety it is not
necessary to prune the plants.
(10) If yellowing or browning
of the leaf edges occurs, this
indicates you placed the plants too
close to the fertilizer. Pull out
the plant and reset at the edge of
the mound rather than on top of the
mound. Note: Although Mr. Ellis
always uses cow manure, other forms
of rich organic matter such as com-
post might be substituted for the
cow manure.
(Stephens Veg. 86-05)











Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. M. Sherman
Associate Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor


Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant P,rofessor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


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