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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: April 1986
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00219
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


/:~


N
U~-


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

iNdetabl Crops Department 1255 H DP Gainesville FL 32611 Telephone 392 2134


Vegetarian 86-04


April 17, 1986


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Leek Varieties for Florida

B. WHERE Eating more, is better!

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Supplemental Label for Ambush 2E on Chinese
Cabbage (Tight-heading varieties only)

t / i i, B. Section 18 for Fusilade 2000 for use on carrots

SC. Chinese vegetable tolerance groupings

D. Photodegradation of Paraquat on Plastic Mulch

'i: '"' III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 'Suncoast' new home garden tomato


'- Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
'. -' newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
i authors.

'. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
'-J the purpose of providing information and does not
.-necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.
,-e n ,, ., '.,.*' .y ,'. ,,.



The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


ii r












I. NOTES OF IIJTERESr

A. New Publications

Agricultural Experiment Station,
Circular S-322, September 1985.
Suncoast A Large-cruited Home Garden
Tomato by J. W. Scott, P. H.
Everett, H. H. Bryan, D. D. Gull,
T. K. Howe, P. J. Stofella, and
R. B. Volin.

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

May 6-7, 1986. Horticultural Weed
Tour, Contact Joan Dusky,
Everglades Research and Education
Center, Belle Glade.

May 8, 1986. Cucumber/Squash Vari-
ety Demonstration 4:00 pm 8:00 pm,
AREC Leesburg, G. W. Elmstrom.

'lay 29-30, 1986. Home horticulture
agents In-Service Training. Camp
Ocala. Contact Jim Stephens.

June 4, 1986. Watermelon Field Day
1:30 pm 5:00 pm, AREC Leesburg,
G. W. Elmstrom.

June 23-27, 1986. Florida 4-H
Horticulture Institute, Camp Ocala.
Important: Registration Deadline is
May 16. Return all registration
forms to Brooks Humphrys, Brevard
County Extension Service, 1125 West
King Street, Cocoa, FL 32922.
Contact person: Jim Stephens.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Leek Varieties for Florida.

Commercial production of leeks
(Allium ameloprasum, Porrum Group)
is quite limited in Florida at the
present time. However, it appears
that there is potential for more
production based on consumer
interest. The Packer's recent
profile of fresh produce consumers
showed that, of 30 specialty crops,
42% of the respondents had tried


leeks, and another 46% indicated
that they had heard of them.
Leeks are considered to be a
major vegetable crop in Europe
rather than a specialty crop as they
are in the United States. For
example, the leek crop in the United
Kingdom in 1985 was 45,000 metric
tons and had an approximate value
exceeding $26 million.
Leeks, a long-season crop, are
grown for their swollen, but not
bulbed, leaf base, the edible
portion being the shank which
extends from the stem plate to the
first leaf. A white shank is
required for the market so blanching
with soil or straw, for poly-
ethylene-mulched crops, is required.
Leeks are not as pungent as onions,
and are prized for their delicate
flavor. The crop can be direct
seeded or established from
transplants. They are very tolerant
of cold and a succession of
plantings should provide a
continuous supply from late fall
through mid-spring in central
Florida.
Seeds of ten leek varieties
were individually planted in No.
001A Todd planter flat cells (1/2
in.) containing a peat-lite mix on
September 9, 1985. The transplants
were grown in an unheated fiberglass
house. A liquid 20-20-20 fertilizer
was applied twice during the
transplant production period.
The land was prepared in
September 1985 by incorporation of
0.5-2.0-1.0 lb N-P 0 -K20 per 100
linear bed feet (1lfy. The
superphosphate used as the phosphate
source contained 80 lb/ton minor
elements as 503 oxide. Additional
fertilizer was applied in a single
band in the bed center at 2.5-0-5.0
lb N-P 20-K20 per 100 Ibf. The
white polyethylene covered beds were
spaced on 4.5 ft. centers with
irrigation ditches every 7 beds.
The leek transplants were set in
holes punched in the plastic on
December 2, 1985. In-row spacing












was 4 in. and the 2 rows on the bed
were 15 in. apart. The 8-ft. long
plots had 48 plants, and were
replicated 3 times. The only
culture during the growth period was
one hand-hoeing of the row middles.
No pesticides were applied since
there was no indication of need.
The leeks in this trial were not
blanched, but commercial growers
should blanch polyethylene-mulched
leeks with straw to insure the
production of white shanks.
The leeks were harvested on
March 7, 1986 by lifting with a
spading fork. Leaves were trimmed
to 12 in. from the stem plate.
Measurements were taken on the
number and weight of trimmed leeks
per plot, shank length and shank
diameter. Observations were made on
leaf color, leaf arrangement, and
incidence of bulb enlargement.
Weather during the experimental
period did not deviate greatly from
the 30-year average. December was a
bit cooler than normal, and December
and February were slightly drier
than normal whereas January was
somewhat wetter than normal.
Leek yields ranged from 1850
(HMX 4970) to 2600 (Tivi) pounds per
1000 lbf. Of the ten varieties
included in the trial, only yields
of 'Tivi' were significantly higher
than 'Carina' and 'HMX 4970'. Most
of the varieties had intermediate
yields that were not different from
the highest or lowest yielding
varieties.
Trimmed weight of individual
leeks ranged from 5.0 oz (HMX 4970)
to 7.2 oz (Electra). 'Verina' and
'Tivi' were among the largest
whereas 'Acadia' produced small
plants. As with yields, most
varieties produced intermediate-
sized plants.
Shank length is one of the most
important characteristics in leeks.
'King Richard' produced 5 in. long
shanks whereas those of 'Empire' and
'Acadia' were only 2.2 and 2.1 in.
long, respectively. Intermediate


length shanks of other varieties
ranged from 2.5 in. to 3.7 in.
Shank diameter was quite uniform
among varieties, ranging from 1.1 to
1.3 in. As expected from the
foregoing, 'King Richard' had the
highest L:D ratio.
Most of the varieties evaluated
had typical blue leaves. Exceptions
were 'Tivi' and 'King Richard' which
had green leaves and 'Verina' which
had yellow-green leaves. It is
interesting to note that under the
conditions of this trial, the
green-leaved varieties generally
tended to be higher yielding than
the blue-leaved varieties.
Leek leaves typically have an
equitant arrangement, i.e. leaves
are overlapping in two ranks. When
fully expressed the leaves will be
flat in a fan-like arrangement.
This should be considered an
advantage to facilitate bunching.
Some varieties in this trial
deviated from the fully equitant
arrangement; 'Varina,' 'Electra,'
and 'Carina' were medium flat,
whereas 'Catalina,' 'Winter Giant,'
and 'Empire' were thick flat.
Observations were made on the
tendency of these varieties to bulb.
Any deviations from a parallel shank
were noted, however slight. In most
varieties there was a 1/16 to 1/8
in. expansion just above the stem
plate. Only 'Verina' and 'King
Richard' showed no expansion,
whereas 70% of the 'Electra' and
'Catalina' plants were expanded at
the stem plate. It should be
stressed that all of these leeks
would be acceptable on the market,
and would not be discriminated
against on the basis of bulbing.
Leeks are a long-season crop.
In this trial, 54 days were required
from seeding to transplant and 88
days elapsed between transplanting
and harvest. Production time might
be somewhat shorter for fall and
spring than for mid-winter. The
yield potential with 2 rows per bed
on 4.5 ft. centers is high 19,51ij)






-3-


lb per 7500 Ibf.
As with other vegetables,
growers should establish a market
before planting. From this
evaluation, growers could consider
trial plantings of the following
leek varieties:
Catalina (Sluis & Groot).
Medium-length shank, blue leaves,
thick-flat leaf arrangement.
Electra (Harris Moran). Long
shanks, green leaves, flat leaf
arrangement.
Tivi (Harris Moran). Medium to
long shanks, green leaves, flat leaf
arrangement.
Verina (Sluis & Groot). Medium
to long shanks, yellow-green leaves,
medium-flat leaf arrangement.
For more information, request
GCREC Research Report 1986-5 from
the author.

(D. Maynard, Veg. 86-04)


B. WHERE eating more, is
better!

Americans' pursuit of good
health, trim bodies and long lives
is turning the nation into a
nutritional battlefield. Old dogmas
and new theories are under attack.
Doctors, consumers, politicians and
food handlers are all vying for
control of the diet. This war over
diet affects what ends up on
Americans' dinner plates and in
their bodies and feeds a
multibillion-dollar industry of
weight-loss clinics and diet
products along with a $3 billion
vitamin-and-mineral trade; enter,
the fresh vegetable industry.
This recent surge of consumer
interest in diet, health, and
fitness has increased the demand for
vegetables, and the industry has
responded by expanding acreage and
increasing output. Over the past 12
years, per-capita consumption has
increased about 5 percent with some
items as really big gainers -


broccoli and cauliflower. Broccoli
consumption jumped 160 percent in
1983 and cauliflower saw a 130
percent rise. Preliminary data for
1984 indicate that per-capita use of
both increased another 11 percent.
Demand for vegetables is expected to
continue increasing for the
remainder of this decade.
Historically, California is the
prime producer of broccoli and
cauliflower. Since the mid-1970's
broccoli has been adopted in many
Southeastern states as an
alternative crop; cauliflower is
produced less frequently.
American tastes and preferences
are important factors affecting
vegetable consumption. Consumer
attitudes often are changed by the
results of medical, economic and
social research. Consumers demand
more than just food, though. They
also want convenience, prestige and
consistency of quality. The bottom
line is that diets are changing and
consumers are eating more fresh
vegetables.
On a recent trip to the New
York market (Hunts Point), I queried
a number of brokers and fresh
produce handlers as to whether they
normally handled fresh products from
Florida, and too frequently the
reply was "NOT IF I CAN GET IT
SuMEPLACE ELSE". With an apparent
abundance of imported fresh
products, ranging from Chile apples
to Holland tomatoes, the basic
complaint seemed to be that there is
a difference between what the
Florida grower wants to ship and the
receiver wants to obtain for
merchandising aren't we giving
him what he wants?
With increased consumption of
fresh vegetables, Florida's
capability to produce at a time when
our main competitors are imports,
and our ability for expansion of
production limited by available
markets, perhaps a closer scrutiny












of what's being produced and shipped
is in order.

(Gull, Veg. 86-0:)


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Supplemental Label for
Ambush 2E on Chinese Cabbage
(Tight-heading varieties only).

Ambush 2E now has a
supplemental label for use on
tight-headed Chinese cabbage for
control of cabbage looper, imported
cabbage worm, diamondback moth, and
in the suppression of cabbage aphid.
The label states the use rate
of 0.05 to 0.1 Ibs a.i./A may be
applied every 5-10 days as needed by
air or ground. Not more then 1.0 lb
a.i. per acre per season may be
applied and a one day PHI is to be
observed.

(Stall Veg. 86-04)


B. Section 18 for Fusilade 2000
for use on carrots.

I have been informed by Dan
Botts, FFVA, that effective April 4,
the US EPA has granted an emergency-
use (Section 18) label for the use
of Fusilade 2000 for the control of
g osegrtss, crabgrass, bermudagrass,
foxtail, and panicum sp. on 8400
acres of carrots.
Two applications of 0.19 lb
a.i./A may be made by ground
application. A 30 day PHI is to be
observed with a 60 day crop rotation
for grass crops. The Section 18
will expire August 15, 1986. Before
application, have the supplemental
label in your possession and read it
throughly.

(Stall .'eg. 86-04)


C. Chinese vegetable tolerance
groupings.

Dr. Charles Meister, IR-4
Southern Region Coordinator,
responded to my questions on the new
tolerance groupings and its meaning
to Chinese vegetable labels with the
following letter. He agreed that it
be published here.
In response to IR-4 efforts,
EPA has grouped Chinese
broccoli with broccoli and
tight-headed varieties of
Chinese cabbage with cabbage
for pesticide tolerance
purposes (Federal Register
Notice CFR 180.1 (h).
This means that a pesticide
tolerance established for
broccoli is established for
Chinese broccoli (Gui Ion,
etc.) and a pesticide tolerance
established for cabbage is
established for tightly-headed
varieties of Chinese cabbage.
In order to obtain legal
uses, pesticide registrants
must add crops to product
labels. This is being done
gradually, and last February
tight-headed varieties of
Chinese cabbage were added to
the insecticide labels: Dylox
80 SP, Guthion 50 WP, Monitor
4, and Metasystox R (also
Ambush, see Pesticide Update
A).
More pesticide registrants
may add tight-headed varieties
of cabbage and Chinese broccoli
to their cabbage and broccoli
labels if they are alerted to
the need and are provided with
field performance and
phytotoxicity data.
The IR-4 project in Florida
is working with IFAS
researchers and growers to
expand pesticide labels.
Contact Dr. Charles W.
Meister (904) 392-1979 for more
information.










I have copies of the Federal
sisterer Notice CFR 180.1 (h) and
the labels mentioned. If you need
them, give me a call.

(Stall Vea. 86-04)


D. Photodegradation of
Paraquat on Plastic Mulch.

Dr. J. P. Gilreath of the Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center
in BrSdenton has been conducting
some interesting research on the
photodegradation of paraquat on
plastic mulch. This information has
some very practical implications for
growers.
In Florida, 2 weeks or longer
pass after application of plastic
mulch before transplanting
operations begin, during which time
weeds can make significant growth.
Many growers broadcast spray a
preplant application of paraquat to
both the mulched beds and the
uncovered row middles to kill
emerged weeds. Transplanting is
sometimes done 24 hours or less
following paraquat application.
This study was initiated
because naraquat-like injury has
been observed on tomato and other
crops in Florida when transplanting
was followed by rainfall or heavy
dew with wind, causing contact of
plant foliage with the polyethylene
mulch. Generally, this has been
observed when transplanting and
rainfall occur within 3 days after
paraquat application.
In this study, paraquat
(1 lb./A) was applied to white and
black polyethylene mulch in the
field on 32 ft. long single row
plots (30 in. bed width). Duplicate
studies were conducted with paraquat
applications on 24 October and 10
.;o*Ember 19L4. Duplicate squares (1
ft ) were then cut from the plots at
0,2,4,8,24,30,48,72,96,120 and 144
hours after paraquat application.
One set was held for quantitative


analysis and the other used for a
bioassay. The plastic squares were
rinsed with distilled water to
remove the residual paraquat.
Shoots of six-week old 'Duke' tomato
plants were then dipped into this
rinsate for 15 seconds and held in a
greenhouse for 7 days at which time
they were evaluated for vigor by
comparison with untreated plants.
Results indicated no difference
due to mulch color. Substantial
injury was observed from 0 to 96
hours after application with 50% or
more crop loss anticipated until 120
hours (5 days) after application.
Paraquat residue from plastic 0 to
48 hours following application
reduced vigor to a point where if
the plants survived, a marketable
crop was not expected. From 120
hours on, plant vigor was acceptable
with very little crop loss expected.
Quantitative analysis indicated
607 of the applied paraquat was
recovered immediately after
application (275 ppm). The greatest
decrease in concentration occurred
in the first 24 hours, dropping
about 50%. Correlation of
concentration and vigor indicates
that apparently concentrations below
about 30 ppm of eluted paraquat are
not particularly injurious to 6-week
old tomato plants (120 hours).
Thus, growers who broadcast
spray paraquat preplant at a rate of
1 lb./A in mulched production
situations should delay planting 5
days after application to lessen the
chance of herbicide injury.
Applications of greater than 1 lb./A
would likely require a waiting
period longer than 5 days. Early
indications from continuing studies
indicate an even longer waiting
period would be required in January
and shorter in August.

Dr. Phyllis R. Gilreath (Veg. 86-04)
Extension Agent Vegetables
Manatee Co. Extension Service












III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 'Suncoast' new home
garden tomato.

Florida home gardeners will be
growing a new tomato cultivar which
was released in 1985 by plant
breeder Jay Scott primarily for
their enjoyment. It goes by the
name 'Suncoast' which derives from
the location of its origination, the
Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center at Bradenton, Florida.
Over the years an abundance of
Florida-bred cultivars have been
grown successfully by Florida and
out-of-state .ardeners. Primarily,
these have been the hand-me-downs
from a research program aimed
largely at large-scale production.
Most of these are the large,
red-fruited varieties such as
'Walter', 'Floradade', 'Floradel',
'Manalucie', and 'Floramerica'.
recently, of course, small-fruited
varieties best for container-culture
were released for the home
production trade.
Not since 'Floramerica', which
won an All-America award in 1974 and
has been grown widely in gardens
across the country, has a variety
showed so much promise as 'Suncoast'
for Florida home gardeners.
Previously released varieties have
been good, offering disease
resistance, fruit-size, and
productivity. So what more can
'Suncoast' offer? All of the above-
plus exemplary fruit quality
highlighted by excellent taste and
extraordinary deep red
interior/exterior color.
The release circular,
Agricultural Experiment Stations
S-322, entitled "Suncoast A
Large-fruited Home Garden Tomato"
was printed September 1985 and has
just recently reached Extension
offices. It fully describes the
history and characteristics of this
new variety which resulted from the
breeding programr of Dr. Jay Scott,


Ve:etPble Crops professor located at
3radencon. The following summarizes
the information in the release
circular.

Type open-pollinated, determinate
plant producing large red fruits in
about 75 days from transplanting.

Origin Parentage included Florida
breeding lines crossed with lines
from University of California and
Purdue. Of particular note is the
'Purdue Crimson' which contributed
the crimson gene for the deep red
color.

Fruit characteristics
Shape lobe to slightly flattened
globe.
Color green when immature, with
light green shoulders, turning to
deep red on maturity.
Firmness adequate for good
shelf-life.
Taste sweet, with enough acid for
good "tomato-like" taste.
Vitamins A and C comparable to
other varieties.

Vine characteristics
Type determinate.
Length 3 to 4 feet high when
staked.
Shape leaves more erect than for
most varieties.

Resistance
1. Fusarium wilt races 1 and 2
2. Verticillium wilt
3. Gray lafrspot

Tolerances
1. Soft rot
2. Blossom-end rot
3. Cracking concentric and radial
4. Graywall
5. Blotchy ripening
6. Fruit pox and gold fleck

Growing 'Suncoast' This new
variety should become quite popular
in gardens in Florida and elsewhere.
It should be recommended by Florida






-7-


C,,iiperative Extension Service for
statewide production in home
gardens, large containers, and
market gardens for local sales.
It should be grown in a similar
manner and during the same periods
of the year as for other varieties,
primarily fall and spring. It is
suitable for ground, cage, or stake
culture without pruning. Pruning
tends to remove vine cover exposing
fruits to possible sunburn. Tomato
fruit size and earliness are good
without pruning.
Seeds and Plants seeds have
been distributed for seed production
through The Florida Foundation Seed
Producers, Inc. P.O. Box 309,
Greenwood, FL 32443. Hopefully, by
1987 seeds and plants will be
available to gardeners and Extension
personnel for trials direct from
garden retail seed outlets (stores
and catalogs). As with any new
variety, some period of time is
required for seed supply and demand
to reach equilibrium. Right now
(spring of 1986) advise anyone
wanting a few seeds for trial to
purchase them from the only retail
outlet I know offering seeds:
Tomato Growers Supply Co. P.O. Box
2237 Fort Myers, FL 33902

(Stephens Vea. 86-04)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe :Kthleen Delate
Chairman Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. G. J. -ochmu L Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Profes cVj Assistant Professor

Dr. M. Sherman Dr. W. M. Stall
Associate Professor Professor

J. M. Stephens Dr. D. N. Maynard
Associate ProCessor Professor


D. D. Gull
Associate Professor




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