Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: February 1986
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00217
Source Institution: University of Florida
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VEGETARIAN

A Vesctable Crops Extension Publication

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Vegetarian 86-02


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Onion Varieties For Florida

B. U.S. Fresh Market Vegetable
1985 Summary


February 17, 1986


Production:


C. 1986 Watermelon Institute Program is Set

III HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Freeze-Damage Report on Garden Vegetables


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS. UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


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I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

Leesburg AREC Res. Rept. LBG86-1. Watermelon Variety Evaluations
1977-85 by G. W. Elmstrom.

Gulf Coast Research & Education Center Res. Rept. BRA86-1.
Pumpkin Variety Demonstration by P. R. Gilreath and D. N.
Maynard.

Stephens, J. M. 1986. Evaluating Impact of Home Vegetable
Gardening Extension Program, State Major Program Area FL 91, Home
Fruit and Vegetable Production Florida. Veg. Crops Ext. Report
86-1.

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

March 21, 1986. Watermelon Institute, 1-5 P.M. Sheraton-Maitland,
"Salon #3", Orlando. Contact George Hochmuth, Vegetable Crops,
Gainesville.

March 24, 1986. IFAS Weed Workers. 1304 Fifield Hall,
Gainesville. 1:30 5:00 P.M.

March 25 26, 1986. Florida Weed Science Society. Florida Farm
Bureau Building. Gainesville.

April 28 30, 1986. Commercial Vegetable Crops In-Service
Training, Sanford, Seminole County Agr. Center. Contact George
Hochmuth, Vegetable Crops, Gainesville.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Onion Varieties For Florida.

Onions are a relatively minor crop in Florida, but there appears
to be potential for increased production for local use and shipping.
Onions are marketed in Florida as dry bulbs and as green bulbs,
usually with a green top several inches long. The green form, known
as 'Florida Sweets' are sold through local markets and roadside
stands.

The principal limitations to increased production are
identification of varieties better suited to Florida conditions,
difficulty in drying bulbs that mature as the summer rainy season
approaches, and developing a market for 'Florida Sweets'.

Growers should evaluate some new varieties each year to observe
performance on their own farm. Plant only those that show real
promise based on IFAS, industry or grower trials. A limited number of
new varieties should be evaluated so that observations on plant
performance and characteristics and yields can be noted and recorded.
It is relatively easy to establish a trial, but very time consuming to








make all of the observations necessary to make a decision on adoption
of a new variety for large scale production.

Some factors to consider before adopting a variety are:

*Yield The variety should have the potential to produce crops
at least equivalent to those already grown. Because of their minor
importance, commercial yield data is not available, however, yields of
500 to 1000 50-1b bags have been obtained in various experimental
plantings.

*Disease Resistance The most economical and effective means of
pest management is through the use of varieties with genetic
resistance to disease. Some onion varieties are resistant or tolerant
to pink root, and these varieties should be used where this disease is
expected to be present. When all other factors are about equal, it
would be prudent to select a variety with needed disease resistance.

*Horticultural Quality Desirable characteristics in an onion
variety include the ability to withstand low temperature stress,
freedom from bolting, earliness, and the tendency to mature and cure
quickly.

*Adaptability Successful varieties must perform well under the
range of conditions usually encountered on the individual form. Only
short-day onions can be grown successfully in Florida.

*Market Acceptability Well cured, large size (more than 3 in.
in diameter), yellow, Grano or Granex-type onions are most readily
accepted in the marketplace. There is a limited demand for white and
red-skinned onions.

Usually, there is a direct relationship between pungency and
storage life, i.e. short-day onions which are generally mild do not
store as well as long-day or northern onions which are more pungent.
Among the short-day onions, the red-skinned types generally store
better than the yellow types which in turn store better than the white
types.

Yellow-Skinned Bulb Onion Varieties:

Dessex is a very early, short-day hybrid developed by ARCO Seed Co.
Bulbs are thick-flat shaped, with firm flesh which is slightly more
pungent than Granex. Tolerant to Pink Root.

Granex 33 is a early, short-day hybrid developed by Asgrow. Bulbs are
medium-thick flat to deep-flat shaped. Tolerant to Pink Root.

Granex 429 is a medium-early, short-day hybrid developed by Asgrow.
Bulbs are deeper and less tapered than other Granex hybrids and are
nearly round.







Granex Yellow PRR is a medium early, short-day hybrid developed by the
USDA and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulbs are thick-flat
shaped. Tolerant to Pink Root.

Henry's Special PRR is a very early, short-day hybrid developed by
ARCO Seed Co. Bulbs are flattened-globe shaped. Tolerant to Pink
Root.

Texas Grano 502 PRR is an early, short-day open-pollinated variety
developed by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulbs are
top-shaped. Tolerant to Pink Root.

White-Skinned Bulb Onion Varieties:

White Granex PRR is a medium-early, short-day hybrid developed by the
USDA. Bulbs are thick-flat shaped. Tolerant to Pink Root.

Red-Skinned Bulb Onion Varieties:

Tropicana Red PRR is a medium maturity, short-day hybrid developed by
ARCO Seed Co. Bulbs are thick-flat shaped and pungent.

Red Grano PRR is a medium maturity, open-pollinated variety developed
by ARCO Seed Co. Bulbs ar top-shaped and mild. Tolerant to Pink
Root.

Green Bunching Onion Varieties:

White Portugal is an early, open-pollinated, white, mild flavored
bunching onion.

Beltsville Bunching is an open-pollinated, Japanese bunching type
developed by the USDA. Tolerant to Pink Root and Smut.

Perfecto Blanco is an open-pollinated variety developed by Northrup
King. Bulbs slowly and is ideal for stripping.

(Maynard Veg. 86-02)


B. U.S. Fresh Market Vegetable Production: 1985 Summary

The Crop Reporting Board of the USDA has released 1985 production
data for the ten fresh market vegetables currently included in their
estimates. Overall, 218 million hundredweight were harvested from
1.07 million acres that were valued at 2.85 billion dollars.
Harvested acreage declined 1%, production was unchanged and value
decreased 9% as compared to 1984.

Florida continued to rank second in harvested acres, production
and value of the ten crops included in the data (Table 1). Note that
many of Florida's important crops are not included, e.g. cabbage,
cucumber, eggplant, escarole and endive, pepper, radish, squash,
watermelon.










Table 1. Leading Fresh Market Vegetable States in 1985.

Harvested Area Production Value
Rank State I of Total State % of Total State % of Total

1 California 44.4 California 49.4 California 49.7

2 Florida 12.3 Florida 11.9 Florida 18.4

3 Texas 5.6 Arizona 6.6 Arizona 5.0

4 Arizona 5.4 Texas 4.1 Texas 4.5

5 Michigan 5.1 Oregon 3.9 New York 3.2

1Includes asparagus, broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, celery, sweet corn,
lettuce, honeydew melon, onion, tomato.


Florida ranked first in tomato and sweet corn production, second in
celery production, third in lettuce production, and fourth in carrot
production in the United States. Processing crop data in the same
report showed small acreages of snap beans and pickles being reported
from the state.

(Maynard Veg. 86-02)


C. 1986 Watermelon Institute Program is Set.

The 1986 Watermelon Institute program appears below. It will be
held on Friday, March 21, 1986 in Salon 3 of the Sheraton Maitland
Hotel in Orlando. I think we have a good program with timely topics,
some of which were inserted based on responses from our questionnaire
from last year. We are holding the program in conjunction with the
Florida Watermelon Association meetings as an experiment to see what
kind of attendance we will receive. Let's go all-out in advertising
the program to our growers. To help in this regard, you might point
out that there will be a free social hour after our program which
hopefully will encourage growers to stay and participate in the
Watermelon Association meetings.


(Hochmuth Veg. 86-02)










1986 IFAS-WATERMELON INSTITUTE

Sheraton Maitland
Salon 3
Friday, March 21, 1986

PROGRAM
12:00 to 1:00 PM Registration

1:00 Introduction Dan Cantliffe, Vegetable Crops Department,
Gainesville

1:10 Watermelon Varieties for Florida Jim Crall, AREC, Leesburg

1:30 Soil Testing and Fertility Recommendations for Optimum
Watermelon Production Ed Hanlon, Soil Science Department,
Gainesville

1:50 Mulching, Transplanting, and Row Cover Practices for Early
Watermelon Production Steve Olson, NFREC, Quincy

2:15 Plant Spacing for Optimum Watermelon Yields Gary Brinen,
Alachua County Extension Service, Gainesville

2:30 Irrigation Methods and Pointers for Watermelon Production
in Florida Dorota Hamon, Agricultural Engineering
Department, Gainesville

2:50 Break

3:00 Double Cropping Principles and Practices George Hochmuth,
Vegetable Crops Department, Gainesville

3:20 Packing and Shipping Florida Watermelons Mark Sherman,
Vegetable Crops Department, Gainesville

3:35 Marketing Possibilities for Florida Watermelons and the
Potential for Icebox Varieties Panel Discussion

4:15 Environmental Concerns and Pesticide Issues Confronting
Florida Watermelon Growers Daniel Botts, Florida Fruit and
Vegetable Association, Orlando

4:50 Comments from the Florida Watermelon Association -
Jerry Brown, Florida Watermelon Association


5:00 Adjourn











III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Freeze-Damage Report on Garden Vegetables.

January can always be expected to be a cold month in Florida.
Fortunately, cold fronts blasting the state are of short duration,
except in rare instances such as occurred in December 1983 and
January, 1985. However, for gardeners who have a winter garden at the
time one of these freezes hits the state, considerable damage to
vegetables often does occur.

While spring (February through May) is the major gardening season
for most people here in Florida, a considerable number do grow
vegetables through the winter. In south Florida, both warm and cool
season vegetables are found mixed in garden plots, while in central
and north Florida, mostly the cool season vegetables are attempted.

Damage from mid-winter freezes usually is light on cool season
vegetables, generally throughout the state. Of course, the warm-
season items such as cucumbers and tomatoes are injured or even
killed, depending upon the severity of the cold, the physiological
condition (hardiness) of the vegetables, and the amount of cold
protection provided.

A comparison of the previous three freezes and the damages
inflicted on garden vegetables at Gainesville reveals some interesting
observations. Since Gainesville is in the northern district, some of
the state's coldest temperatures (but not the coldest) were recorded
here. In December of 1983 (the Christmas freeze), lowest temperatures
were in the 16-180F range. Damage to cool-season vegetables was
considerable due to the cold occurring when vegetables were not overly
hardy. In January, 1985, the "Super-bowl-cold" dropped temperatures
to 10-150F with highs only in the 20's. Again, even cool season
vegetables were heavily damaged, this time primarily due to the
absolute severity of the cold. However, the cold wave which struck
Gainesville in January, 1986, resulted in minimal damage to cool
season vegetables, even though temperatures dipped to 18F. Damage
was not severe primarily because the temperature did not stay low for
long (only about 4-6 hours), and because the cold came late in the
season (January 27) when the vegetables had become thoroughly
hardened. In fact, the temperature climbed back to a high of 40F on
the day after the coldest night.

The following is a list of the vegetables which were growing in a
mature to over-mature stage in the Gainesville observation garden,
completely unprotected, during the January, 1986, freeze.










Table 1. Cool-season vegetables surviving the 180F freeze, January
27, 1986, Gainesville.


Beans, fava
Beans, garbanzo
Beets
Broccoli
Brussels sprouts
Burdock
Cabbage
Carrot
Cauliflower
Catnip
Celeriac
Celery
Chard
Chicory
Chinese cabbage
Chives
Chrysanthemum, edible
Collard


Coriander
Endive
Fennel
Kale
Kohlrabi
Leeks
Mint
Mustard
Onion
Parsley
Parsnip
Radish
Sage
Salsify
Spinach
Tarragon
Thyme
Turnip


While all of the vegetables listed survived, some such as coriander
and fennel, did receive obvious leaf burn of varying degrees. Keep in mind
that the absence of a particular vegetable does not imply that it was
killed. There were no cool-season vegetables killed at this site. Other
vegetables not mentioned just were not planted here. Also, gardeners should
be expecting some latent injury to show up. For example, premature seeding
(bolting) may become a problem with some things such as celery and Chinese
cabbage. It usually occurs on larger, older, vigorously growing plants
exposed to below 40F for two weeks or more. Extension agents and others
should learn several lessons from an observation such as this. Among them
are 1) that winter gardens can be a successful venture even in north
Florida, and 2) which specific vegetables might be expected to survive
unprotected in similar situations in another year.

(Stephens Veg. 86-02)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Profess

Dr. M. Sherman
Associate Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor




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