Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: September 1985
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00214
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
yl? AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
.. BI.a UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Departmenl 1255 HSDP Gainesville. FL 32611* Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 85-9


September 16, 1985


Contents


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


Vegetable Crops Calendar
New Publications


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. EPA Restricted Use Pesticides on the Market

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Use of Agricultural Plastics in Florida
B. Cucumber varieties for Florida

IV. HOME VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Varietal Selection of Tomato Plants Available
in Stores


Note:
Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


raMaFtFMFMMFl





I. Notes of Interest


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

September 24, 1985. 6:30 p.m. Greenhouse Vegetable Production
Seminar. Columbia County Fairgrounds. Lake City, Fl. Contact:
Bill Thomas, IFAS, Columbia CED.

Oct. 1, 1985. Pepper Institute (meeting). LaBelle Civic Center,
LaBelle, Fl. Contact: Bill Stall, IFAS Vegetable Crops Dept.

Oct. 10, 1985. Florida Fertilizer and Lime Conference. Quality
Inn, Cypress Gardens, Fl. Contact: Ed Hanlon, IFAS, Soil
Science Dept.

Oct. 16-17, 1985. Horticulture Agents Retreat (conference).
Camp Ocala, Fl. Contact: Bill Carpenter, IFAS, Ornamental
Horticulture.

Oct. 22-24, 1985. Soil and Crop Science Society Of Florida
(convention). Huntley Inn, Lakeland, Fl. Contact: Gerry
Kidder, IFAS Soil Science Dept.

Oct. 25-27, 1985. National Junior Horticultural Association
(convention). Hyatt Regency Hotel, Lexington, Ky. Contact: Tom
Greenawalt, IFAS 4-H Dept.

Oct. 28 Nov. 1, 1985. International Society for Horticultural
Science Symposium: Timing Field Production of Vegetables.
Holiday Inn, Tampa International Airport Hotel. Tampa, Fl.
Contact: Dan Cantliffe, IFAS, Vegetable Crops Dept.

Nov. 3-5, 1985. Florida State Horticultural Society
(Convention). Airport Holiday Inn, Tampa, Fl. Contact: Bill
Stall, IFAS Vegetable Crops, and D. J. Cantliffe, Vice
President of Vegetable Section.


B. New Publications

Fresh Market Variety Trial Results for Spring 1985 at Bradenton,
Florida.

GCREC Research Report BRA 1985 21, by T. K. Howe, J. W. Scott,
and W. E. Waters. (Obtain copy from authors GCREC, Bradenton.)


II. Pesticide Update

A. EPA Restricted Use Pesticides On The Market

The accompanying table provides the names of pesticide active in-
gredients for which some or all formulations have been classified by
EPA as restricted, to limit their use and purchase to certified appli-
cators or those working under their direct supervision.
When considering purchase and application of specific product con-
taining one of these pesticides, always check for restricted use
statement on the label. For certain pesticides (such as chlorobenzil-
ate, endrin, and heptachlor), most registrations have been cancelled;
very few uses remain.





The sample trade names in parenthesis are provided only to allow easi-
er identification of common names.


Restricted Use Pesticides


Acrolein (Aqualin)
Acrylonitrile (with carbon tetrachloride)
Aldicarb (Temik)
Allyl alcohol
Aluminum phosphide
Amitraz (Mitac)
Azinphos methyl (Guthion)
Brodifacoum (Talon)
Bromadiolone (Maki)
Calcium cyanide
Carbofuran (Furadan)
Chlordimeform (Fundal)
Chlorofenvinphos (Supona)
Chlorobenzilate (Acaraben)
Chlorophacinone (Rozol)
Chloropicrin (Dowfume)
Chlorpyrifos (Dursban, Lorsban)
Clonitralid (Bayluscide)
Cycloheximide (Acti-Aid)
Cypermethrin (Cymbush)
DBCP (Prokil)
Demeton (Systox)
Diallate (Avadex)
Diclofop methyl (Hoelon)
Dicrotophos (Bidrin)
Diflubenzuron (Dimilin)
Dioxathion (Delnav)
Disulfoton (Di-Syston)
Endrin
EPN
Ethoprop (Mocap)
Ethyl parathion
Fenamiphos (Nemacur)
Fensulfothion (Dasanit)
Fenvalerate (Pydrin)
Fluoroacetamide (1081)
Fluorocythrinate (Payoff)


Fonofos (Dyfonate)
Heptachlor
Hydrocyanic acid
Isophenphos (Amaze)
Lindane
Magnesium phosphide
Methamidophos (Monitor)
Methidathion (Supracide)
Methiocarb (Mesurol)
Methomyl (Lannate
Methyl bromide
Methyl parathion
Mevinphos (Phosdrin)
Milban
Monocrotophos (Azodrin)
Nicotine (alkaloid)
Nitrofen (TOK)
Paraquat (Orth Paraquat CL)
Permethrin (Ambush)
Phorate (Thimet)
Phosacetim (Gophacide)
Phosphamidon (Dimecron)
Picloram (Tordon)
Profenofos (Curacron)
Pronamide (Kerb)
Propetamphos (Safrotin)
Simazine (Princep)
Sodium cyanide (M-44)
Sodium fluoroacetate EPN
(Compound 1080)
Starlicide
Strychnine
Sulfotepp (Bladadome)
Sulprofos (Bolstar)
TEPP (Vapotone)
Toxaphene
Zinc phosphide


(PESTICIDE PIPELINE, Vol. XVIII, No. 7, July 1985)

(Fluker: Chemically Speaking Aug. 1985)
VEG 85-9



III. Commercial Vegetables

A. Use of Agricultural Plastics in Florida

Florida is the second leading fresh market vegetable state in the
nation with approximately 400,000 acres of vegetables. Plastics play





a large part of nearly every facet of the Florida vegetable industry.
The use of polyethylene mulch began in the late 1950's, and today
is used on about one-fourth of the state's vegetable acres. Nearly
100 percent of the tomato and strawberry crops, and 75 per cent of the
pepper, cucumber, and eggplant crops are produced on the full-bed
mulch system. Black polyethylene mulch is the predominant type used,
although some white-on-black and black with gray center bands are used
for fall crops.
Another large user of plastics is in the vegetable greenhouse in-
dustry both for vegetable transplant production and for crop produc-
tion. Polyethylene is used for greenhouse coverings and various plas-
tics are used for greenhouse coverings and various plastics are used
for growing trays and containers, irrigation systems, containers for
bag and nutrient-film crop production techniques, and for packaging.
Drip irrigation, a system based on plastics, is an established
practice in some vegetable producing areas in Florida. There are over
3200 acres of Florida vegetables produced using drip irrigation and
this is increasing. Drip irrigation is used mainly on tomatoes, pep-
pers, watermelons, and strawberries.
Vegetable harvesting and packaging utilizes a large amount of
plastics in Florida. Plastic items used include field picking con-
tainers for most crops and pint baskets for strawberries and cherry
tomatoes. Vegetable packaging uses plastics for film wrapping of
lettuce and cauliflower, and mesh bags and film bags for packaging of
onions, carrots and radishes. Plastics also are used in the packaging
of products consumed by the Florida vegetable industry such as seeds,
fertilizers, and pesticides.
The future for agricultural plastics in Florida is promising.
There is potential for increased use in all areas mentioned above. In
addition, new uses for plastic, such as row covers for growth enhance-
ment and frost protection are being evaluated.
Much of Florida's present-day agricultural plastics technology
has evolved from research conducted by various units in the University
of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. These re-
searchers interact at all levels within the Florida vegetable industry
and with fellow research and extension colleagues in the National Ag-
ricultural Plastics Association (NAPA). The basic theme of NAPA is to
promote the exchange of research results on the use of plastics in in-
tensive crop production systems. The NAPA Congress meets nearly every
15 months and publishes a proceedings and newsletter. For more infor-
mation concerning NAPA and the upcoming 1986 Congress, contact: Dr.
George J. Hochmuth, Vegetable Crops Department, Gainesville,
904/392-7912.
(Hochmuth, VEG 85-9)


B. Cucumber varieties for Florida

Variety selection, often made several months before planting, is
one of the most important management decisions made by the grower.
Failure to select the most suitable variety or varieties may lead to
restricted yields or poor market acceptability.
The following characteristics should be considered in selection





of cucumber varieties for use in Florida:
*Yield the variety selected should have the potential to produce
crops at least equivalent to varieties already grown. The average
yield in Florida of slicing cucumbers is currently about 300 bushels
per acre while the pickling cucumber yield is about 160 bushels per
acre. The potential yield of varieties in use should be much higher
than the average yields shown above.
*Disease Resistance varieties selected for use in Florida should
have resistance to angular leaf spot, anthracnose, cucumber mosaic,
downy mildew, powdery mildew, and scab. Available resistance to other
diseases may be important in certain situations.
*Horticultural Quality Vine habit, flowering habit, fruit color and
shape, and spine color may affect the variety selection decision.
*Adaptability Successful cucumber varieties must perform well under
the range of environmental conditions usually encountered in the dis-
trict or on the individual farm.
*Market Acceptability The cucumber produced must have horticultural
and maturity characteristics acceptable to the packer, shipper, whole-
saler and consumer. For pickling cucumbers produced for processing
either on contract or for sale on the open market, variety selection
is usually dictated by the processor according to the intended use of
the pickle.
With all of these, and perhaps other considerations, it is appar-
ent that serious thought must precede variety selection.

Cucumber Variety Terminology
Several unique terms are used, either singly or in combination to
describe cucumber varieties. An understanding of these terms is es-
sential as they are related to seed costs, earliness, pollination and
other production practices.
*Open-pollinated variety A true-breeding variety with separate stam-
inate (male) and pistillate (female) flowers on the same plant. Tech-
nically, this condition is called monoecious. Poinsett 76 is an ex-
ample of an open-pollinated, monoecious slicing cucumber variety.
*Hybrid variety A variety produced by crossing two unrelated parent
cucumber lines. Hybrids are not true breeding, so new hybrid seed
must be produced for each crop by crossing the unrelated parents. Hy-
brids may be monoecious or gynoecious (see below): 'Saticoy Hybrid'
is an example of monoecious hybrid.
*Gynoecious All of the flowers produced on gynoecious hybrids are
female, therefore they are sometimes referred to as "all-female hy-
brids". Since no male flowers are produced for pollination, a small
number of monoecious seeds are blended into the seed lot by the seeds-
men to provide for adequate pollination. The pollinator is carefully
selected to produce fruit similar to the gynoecious type so that they
can be marketed together. Gynoecious hybrids are often earlier than
monoecious hybrids, but total yield may not be greater. 'Dasher II'
is an example of a gynoecious hybrid slicing cucumber.
*Parthenocarpy European greenhouse cucumber varieties grown in the
absence of bees develop without pollination, and therefore are seed-
less. These same varieties grown in the field in the presence of bees
will not be parthenocarpic or seedless.





Pickling Cucumber Variety Descriptions*
Addis. A second-early, monoecious, open-pollinated variety developed
by North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Dark green, elong-
ated, white-spined fruit are borne on compact vines. 58-65 days.
Tolerant: Downy and Powdery Mildew, Angular Leaf Spot, and
Anthracnose.
Calico. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by Petoseed. Uniform,
dark-green short, blocky fruit, 4 1/2 to 5 inches at maturity, white
spined. 55 to 60 days. Tolerant: Downy and Powdery Mildew, Angular
Leaf Spot, Anthracnose, Cucumber Mosaic Virus, and Scab.
Calypso. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by North Carolina Agri-
cultural Experiment Station. Uniform, dark-green, blocky, white-
spined fruit 5 1/2 to 6 inches at maturity. 55-60 days. Tolerant:
Downy and Powdery Mildew, Angular Leaf Spot, Anthracnose, Cucumber
Mosaic Virus, and Scab.
Carolina. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by the South Carolina
Agricultural Experiment Station. Medium dark-green, blocky, white-
spined fruit 5 1/2 to 6 inches at maturity. 55-60 days. Tolerant:
Downy and Powdery Mildew, Angular Leaf Spot, Anthracnose, Cucumber
Mosaic Virus, and Scab.
Explorer. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by Petoseed. Medium-
green, blocky, white-spined fruit are borne on compact vines. 55-58
days. Tolerant: Downy and Powdery Mildew, Angular Leaf Spot, Anth-
racnose, and Cucumber Mosaic Virus.
Lucky Strike. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by Petoseed. Med-
ium dark-green, elongated, white-spined fruit are borne on semi-
compact vines. 55-58 days. Tolerant: Downy and Powdery Mildew,
Angular Leaf Spot, Anthracnose, Cucumber Mosaic Virus, and Scab.
*For contracted pickles for processing, the processor specifies and/or
supplies seed of varieties to be grown. For open-market sale of
pickles to processors, confirm the variety before planting to deter-
mine acceptability.

Slicing Cucumber Variety Descriptions.
Centurion. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by Northrup King.
Straight, cylindrical, uniform dark-green fruit with white spines, 7
1/2 to 8 1/2 in. long. 59 days. Tolerant: Angular Leaf spot, Downy
and Powdery Mildew, Anthracnose, Cucumber Mosaic Virus, and Scab.
Dasher II. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by Petoseed.
Straight, smooth, dark green, slim, 7 1/2 to 8 in. long fruits with
slight taper on both ends. 58 days. Tolerant: Downy and Powdery
Mildew, Anthracnose, Angular Leaf Spot, Cucumber Mosaic and Scab.
Early Triumph. An early monoecious hybrid developed by Petoseed.
Uniform, dark-green fruit with taper on the blossom end, 8 1/2 in.
long. 63 days. Tolerant to Cucumber Mosaic Virus, Scab, Downy and
Powdery Mildew, Anthracnose, and Angular Leaf Spot.
Floracuke. An early gynoecious hybrid available from S & M Farm Sup-
ply. Uniform 8 to 8 1/2 in. long, dark green, straight fruit with
slight taper at both ends. 60 days. Tolerant: Cucumber Mosaic Vi-
rus, Scab, Downy and Powdery Mildew, Anthracnose, and Angular Leaf
Spot.
Raider. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by Harris-Moran. Dark
green uniform color, cylinder-shaped fruits. Vines compact, dark-





green foliage. 60 to 65 days. Tolerant: Cucumber Mosaic Virus, Ang-
ular Leaf Spot, and Scab.
Sprint 442. An early gynoecious hybrid developed by Asgrow. Very
dark green, blocky, cylinder-shaped fruits 7 to 9 inches in length.
60 to 65 days. Tolerant: Angular Leaf Spot, Anthracnose, Cucumber
Mosaic Virus, Scab, Downy and Powdery Mildew.

Cucumber Variety Disease Reaction


Angular Cucumber Downy Powdery
Variety Leaf Spot Anthracnose Mosaic Virus Mildew Mildew Scab


Pickling
Addis +

Calico +

Calypso +

Carolina +

Explorer +

Lucky Strike +


Slicing
Centurion +

Dasher II +

Early Triumph +


+ 0

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ 0


Floracuke

Raider

Sprint 442


0 +

+ +


+ = Resistance or Tolerance
0 = Not Resistant or Tolerant





Cucumber Varieties for Florida


South Southwest Central North
Florida Florida Florida Florida

Pickling Types

Addis Calico
Calypso Calypso
Carolina Carolina
Explorer
Luck Strike

Slicing Types

Dasher II Dasher II Centurion Centurion
Floracuke Sprint 442 Dasher II Early
Triumph Early Triumph Raider
Floracuke Sprint 442
Raider
Sprint 442

(Maynard: VEG 85-9)


IV. Vegetable Gardening

A. Varietal Selection of Tomato Plants Available in Stores.

Throughout the state of Florida few home gardeners have heard of
such tomato variety names as 'Duke', 'FTE-12', 'Hayslip', 'Horizon',
and 'Sunny'. These varieties are commonly grown by the commercial
farmers in a state which leads the nation in the production of this
popular salad vegetable.
Surely these high-yielding plants will produce just as many toma-
to fruits in the garden as in the field, so why aren't they grown
there? The explanation is fairly simple. First, these are relatively
new varieties, so gardeners just haven't gotten word of them as yet.
Secondly, plants just aren't offered for sale in garden seed and plant
stores, and gardeners do prefer to set plants rather than start from
seeds in most cases.
To determine just what varieties are available in garden supply
stores from which gardeners may choose for their gardens, we conducted
observational trails based just on those varieties that were offered
on the store shelves in three north Florida cities Tallahassee,
Jacksonville, and Gainesville.
Tomato varieties which we (Extension) feel are well-suited for
planting in home gardening situations throughout the state are listed
in The Planting Guide for Vegetable Gardens, and in Fact Sheet 75-8,
Tomatoes in the Florida Garden and Extension Circular 104. However,
due to space limitations, only a select few can be mentioned. There
are many others which might and should be listed. For example, the





varieties developed at the Bradenton AREC for use in container cul-
ture, such as Florida Basket, Florida Lanai, and Florida Petite, are
recommended but are not in these guides.
Let's now take a look in the following table at currently recom-
mended varieties and see which ones were actually available as trans-
plants for sale on the shelves of stores surveyed in the three cities
mentioned.

Plants of tomato varieties offered by selected stores in north Florida,
March 1985.
Recommended for: Plants in stores at:
Variety Commercial Garden Gainesville-Tallahassee* Jacksonville

Atkinson +
Beefmaster -- +
Beefsteak + +
Better Boy + + +
Better Bush + +
Big Boy + +
Bonnie +
Castlette + -
Celebrity + +
Champion + +
Cherry, Grande + +
Cherry, Large + +
Cherry, Red + + +
Duke + +
Early Giant +
Early Girl + +
Fantastic + +
Fla. MH-1 +
Floradade + + + +
Floradel +
Floramerica + + +
Florida Basket +
Florida Lanai +
Florida Petite +
Four-way Hybrid + +
Hayslip + -
Heartland -+
Heinz +
Homestead + + +
Horizon +
Indian River +
Jubilee Yellow -- +
La Roma +
Manalucie + +
Manapal +
Marglobe + +
Marion -
Patio + + +
Ponderosa +






Recommended for:
Commercial Garden


CONTINUED
Plants in stores at:
Gainesville-Tallahassee Jacksonville


Rebel Red
Red Top V-9
Roma
Rutgers
Small Fry
Stakeless
Sunny
Sunray
Supermarket
Sweet 100
Tiny Tim
Tropic
Tropired
Walter
Whopper
Yellow Plum


*Plants were obtained simultaneously from stores in
for planting.


both cities and mixed


Information in the table should be looked at with care before
conclusions are drawn. Keep in mind that these were the offerings at
a very limited number of garden supply stores (3) at a precise time of
day. While this information reflects what is available to gardeners,
it is not totally representative. Plants of other varieties might
show up at other times and other places.
However, the table does show that of the 26 varieties currently
in Extension guides for gardeners to try, 10 varieties were available
in all three cities during the prime planting month of March. Furth-
ermore, plants of 40 varieties of which 14 were recommended varieties
were found in stores in at least one of the North Florida cities.
That represents a fairly good selection of plant material for garden-
ers in Florida. Of course, many gardeners prefer to purchase seeds
and start their own plants.
Those plants which were found for sale at the local stores were
planted and evaluated. A report on the preformance will be forthcom-
ing after a repeat of the trial in 1986.
(Stephens, DelValle, UG Jacksonville, and Edwards, FAMU VEG 85-9)

This Newsletter Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. M. Sherman
Associate Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Variety




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