Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: July 1985
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Volume ID: VID00212
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGE TAIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HISPP C Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 85-7


July 15, 1985


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Weed Update Parthenium hysterophorus

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. 1984 U.S. Fresh Market Vegetable Production Summary

B. Resistance in Vegetable Pathogens to Previously
Effective Chemicals for Plant Disease Control

C. Recent Changes in Vegetable Crops Extension Program
Responsibilities

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Cucurbita:


A Fascinating Genus


Note:

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sax, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS. UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


AI


1


1 -







I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

1. Sweet Corn Cultivar Trial; Belle Glade, Florida; Fall 1984. Palm
Beach Extension Report 1985-1, by K. D. Shuler and E. A. Wolf.

2. Sweet Corn Cultivar Trial; Belle Glade, Florida; Spring 1985.
Palm Beach Extension Report 1985-3, by K. D. Shuler and E. A.
Wolf.

3. Napa Chinese Cabbage Variety Trials, Everglades Agricultural
Area, 1984-85. Palm Beach County Extension Report 1985-2, by K.
D. Shuler.

4. Commercial Vegetable Varieties for Florida 1984-85. Circular
530-A by George A. Marlowe, Jr.

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

August 21 23, 1985. Fifth Annual Master Gardener Advanced
Training, Gainesville.

September 5 7, 1985. Tenth Annual Joint Tomato Conference.
Mariott's Marco Beach Resort, Marco Island. Tomato Institute
will be held on September 5.

October 1, 1985. Pepper Institute. LaBelle Civic Center,
LaBelle, Florida.

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Weed Update Parthenium hysterophorus

Parthenium hysterophorus called commonly Parthenium, pound cake
weed, Santa Maria, or dog-flea weed, has become a major weed problem
in South Florida. Parthenium is in the sunflower family. It is an
erect and somewhat spreading, taprooted annual with many branches.
This weed is usually to 80 cm tall but can be 1 m or more in height.
The entire plant is covered with stiff to soft grayish hairs. These
hairs are a source of allergens causing contact dermititis in humans
and livestock.

The leaves of parthenium are alternate and are almost sessile or
with a long narrowly winged petiole. The blades are up to 10 cm wide
and 15 cm long and are pinnately or bipinnately divided. The blade
segments are usually quite narrow. The lower leaves form a basal
rosette. The flowers are white and are born in a small cluster or
head on a much branched inflorescence. The branches are spreading and
numerous. The heads are composed of disk and ray flowers. Each head
usually has 5 ray flowers on the outside. The seeds are black and
about 2 mm long. Only the ray pistillatee) flowers are fertile.
Parthenium is an ancient greek name for "virgin", signifying that only
the ray flowers bear fruit. The species name hysterophorus is an old









































2mm


Parthenium Weed
Parthenium hyysterLbophobru








name for a genus used in this case for a species, which also means
"virgin" in the same sense as parthenium.

Parthenium is found in disturbed areas and commonly in cultivated
fields. It is native to the Americas and is scattered throughout
Florida and to as far north as Massachussetts, west to Michigan,
Oklahoma and Texas. From the West Indies and Mexico it extends
through Central America into South America. The weed was introduced
into India in 1956 as a grain contaminant and aggressively covered
large areas. Discovered in Queensland, Australia in 1955, parthenium
began to spread in 1973 and is aggressively covering areas which
receive 200 to 800 mm of rain annually. The weed started to become a
major problem in Dade county in the late 1970's and is still
increasing.

Dispersal seems to be primarily by animals and equipment. Water
transportation is an important dispersal means but wind transport is
effective for only a few meters. The potential for spread of the weed
in Florida seems great.

In addition to the potential for damage to agriculture due to its
aggressiveness and prolific growth, parthenium produces a contact
dermititis and can cause severe allergic skin reactions. Because of
this toxicity it has been called "the scourge of India" and is the
cause of an epidemic involving thousands of adult males.

This dermititis has also been documented in the United States and
Australia. The allergins found in the plant hairs are lactones of
which the major one is parthenin.

Because this weed spreads aggressively and is a source of major
health problems, control measures are imperative.

The E.P.A. files, checked through the National Pesticide
Information Retrieval System indicates no herbicides are registered
for the control of parthenium.

There are published reports on control by the use of 2,4-D.
Recent research has shown that Diquat will control parthenium
postemergence. Paraquat does not provide control. Chevron Chemical
Company is pursuing a 24C label for use of Diquat in tomatoes and
peppers in Florida for the control of parthenium.

There are initial indications that at least one new experimental
herbicide will control parthenium preemergence. Testing of this and
other compounds will continue.
(Stall & David Hall Veg. 7-85)

First Printed in Florida Weed Science Society
Newsletter Vol. 7 No. 2 May 85








III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. 1984 U. S. Fresh Market Vegetable Production Summary

The USDA Crop Reporting Board has released 1984 fresh market
vegetable production data for ten vegetables and melons. Production
increased 5% from 3% more acreage whereas the total crop value of 2.97
billion dollars was only 1% greater than 1983.

The USDA report includes statistics for celery, sweet corn,
honeydew melon, lettuce, onion, tomato, asparagus, broccoli, carrot,
and cauliflower production. Reported vegetable acreage for Florida is
146,750; only about 1/3 of the total reported by the Florida Crop and
Livestock Reporting Service. The USDA, because of budget
restrictions, stopped collecting data on many of the important Florida
vegetables several years ago.


Despite the omission of much Florida production,
continues as the second most important in harvested area,
and value.


the state
production


LEADING FRESH MARKET VEGETABLE STATES IN 1984


HARVESTED AREA PRODUCTION VALUE
PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
RANK STATE OF TOTAL' STATE 'OF TOTAL STATE OF TOTAL

1 CALIFORNIA 44.8 CALIFORNIA 51.2 CALIFORNIA 50.3

2 FLORIDA 12.5 FLORIDA 11.7 FLORIDA 17.4

3 TEXAS 5.9 ARIZONA 6.0 TEXAS 5.6

4 MICHIGAN 5.3 TEXAS 4.6 ARIZONA 4.2

5 NEW YORK 5.0 OREGON 3.9 MICHIGAN 3.1


(Maynard Veg. 7-85)


B. Resistance in Vegetable Pathogens
Chemicals for Plant Disease Control


to Previously


Effective


Most fungi and bacteria that cause plant diseases are naturally
resistant to most pesticides available in the marketplace. Specific
chemicals are employed to control plant diseases. Some chemicals such
as Bravo, Manzate products, Dithane products, etc have some degree of
efficacy across a wide range of fungal diseases. The mode of action
of these types of products also tends to affect a wide range of
physiological activities within the target pest. Resistance within








target pests to these broad-spectrum-type fungicides has been reported
at a low frequency. In recent years, many chemicals developed for
plant disease control have rather specific modes of action and some
are efficacious against a small group of pathogen types. Other
characteristics of some of the new plant disease control chemicals
include slight to strong systemic movement within plants and various
degrees of therapeutic properties. Ridomil products have
"flat-stopped" on-going downy mildew epidemics with the use of a
single application on a crop. As remarkable as these products
perform, one tends to forget that these specific-type chemicals tend
to naturally "select for" those existing segments of the target pest
population which naturally are not sensitive to that chemical mode of
action.

Many years ago Dr. Bob Stall found strains within the population
of bacteria that cause bacterial spot of tomato and pepper to be
resistant to streptomycin products. Those segments of the bacterial
population that are not sensitive to streptomycin still abound.
Resistance within bacterial species or strains to antibiotics is
commonplace and should not be viewed with surprise.

Copper resistant strains of the bacterial spot organism also
abound but can be effectively countered by the addition of a maneb or
mancozeb-type chemical to the spray mix.

Cercospora apii, the causal agent of early blight of celery, has
a segment of its population which is resistant to Benlate. When other
fungicides are used alternately, control is improved but when Benlate,
by itself, is again inserted in the spray program, the rebound
capacity of resistant population dominates and control is inadequate.

Resistance to Benlate and related compounds (e.g. Topsin M)
occurs commonly. For many years we have observed the failure of
Benlate to control the powdery mildew fungus on cucurbits in Florida.
Drs. Ken Pohronezny and Ron Sonoda.documented this phenomenon in 1983.
At one time Benlate was an excellent chemical for powdery mildew
control on cucurbits but such is no longer the case.

Recently, Bayleton was cleared for use on numerous crops in the
United States and its efficacy against powdery mildews has been
excellent. Like Benlate, the mode of action for Bayleton is specific.
Dr. Ken Pohronezny has found that powdery mildew on squash was not
controlled by Bayleton in certain commercial fields in Dade County.
In this situation, Bayleton was highly efficacious against the powdery
mildew species Erysiphe cichoracearum but not the species Sphaerotheca
fuliginea. A similar situation on certain cucurbits exists at the
Leesburg AREC according to Dr. Don Hopkins. Considering these new
developments with Bayleton along with the lack of control by Benlate
and the removal of Karathane from the marketplace, sulfur fungicides
may have to be relied upon for powdery mildew control of cucurbits.
If growers observe a sudden cessation of control of powdery mildew
with Bayleton, sulfur should be inserted into the spray program.







Remember, sulfur fungicides can be somewhat phytotoxic during hot,
sunny days.

Another major concern is the probable resistance to Ridomil MZ 58
by the fungus that causes downy mildew on cucurbits other than
watermelons at the Leesburg AREC. For the past two years, Ridomil MZ
58.appears to have lost its effectiveness against downy mildew on
cucurbits other than watermelons at the Leesburg AREC. Based on
previous experiences, it is possible that this probable resistance may
not exist in growers fields for a few years. However, such could
occur next year. Only mother nature knows for sure. As with the
Bayleton situation, if a grower observes poor to non-existant control
of downy mildew control on cucurbits with Ridomil MZ 58, he should
insert the maneb or mancozeb compounds into the spray program
immediately. Dr. Don Hopkins states that mancozeb products performed
well in 1985 against downy mildew of cucurbits.

(Kucharek Veg. 7-85)


C. Recent Changes in Vegetable Crops Extension Program Responsibilities

Recent additions to the Extension Specialist staff and
reassignment of some responsibilities has led to the development of
the most complete Vegetable Specialist staffs in several years. The
map details the programmatic and geographic responsibilities of the
Vegetable Extension Specialists. The information presented should
help the county faculty identify their contact persons) with greater
ease.

(Hochmuth Veg. 7-85)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Cucurbita: A Fascinating Genus

An article by the above name appeared in The Cornell Plantations,
Vol. 34, No. 3, 1978, written by R. W. Robinson and Paris Trail. It
is reprinted here in an edited version, since numbers of cucurbita
appear so frequently in Florida gardens and so often are subjects for
attempted identification. The wide variety of types and cultivars
leads to much confusion in identification and familarization of
specimens within this genus. Therefore, such an article is helpful to
us all in understanding the squashes.

Cucurbita species are among the most ancient of cultivated plants
in the Western Hemisphere. When Columbus arrived in the New World, he
found cucurbits in profusion. At that time Cucurbita was already
widely distributed in the eastern United States, from Florida to
Canada. But Cucurbita is not native to these regions. Centuries
earlier, despite the difficulties of travel at that time, Indians
brought it across the continent from the Southwest. Cucurbita




VEGETABLE CROPS EXTENSION PROGRAMMATIC RESPONSIBILITIES


L. Cantliffe
M. Delate
D. Gull
J. Hochmuth
N. Maynard
M. Olson
Sherman
M. Stall
M. Stephens


0.7
1.0
0.4
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.4
0.8
1.0


Administration
Youth Work & Master Gardener
Postharvest Handling-District I
Soil & Fertilizer Management
Variety Recommendations
Small Farm Management
Postharvest Handling
Weed Management
Home Vegetable Gardening, Urban Gardening, and
Youth Work


DISTRICT I


S. M. Olson
0.6 FTE
North Florida
Research & Education
Center

D. D. Gull
0.4 FTE
Gainesville
Postharvest Handling


DISTRICTS II & III


G. J. Hochmuth
0.8 FTE
Gainesville


DISTRICT IV


D. N. Maynard
1.0 FTE
Gulf Coast Research
& Education Center


DISTRICT V

W. M. Stall
0.8 FTE
Gainesville








traveled widely in prehistoric times, for it is believed to have
originated in Mexico.

Cucurbita has been cultivated for centuries, and many of the
squash, pumpkin, and gourd varieties grown today were developed by
Indians in pre-Columbian times. Squash varieties such as 'Crookneck'
and 'Scallop', pumpkins like 'Connecticut Field', and the ornamental
gourds were known to the Indians before 1492. Squash was an important
food for the American Indian. The ability of its fruit to be stored
through the winter months and the even longer storage life of its seed
and strips of squash dried in the sun made it available when other
food was scarce.

Several species of Cucurbita are cultivated. The words squash,
pumpkin, and gourd really have no meaning in a botanical sense, since
each may be used for more than one species. All summer squash is
Cucurbita pepo, but winter squash may be C. maxima, C. moschata, C.
mixta, or C. peo. The traditional pumpkin of Halloween is C. ep
but C. maxIma and C. moschata are also used by processors f6orcanned
pumpEkTn. The small ornamental gourds are C. pepo, but the fruit of C.
ficifolia and Lagenaria, Luffa, and other genera are also called
gourds.

Cucurbita maxima can be distinguished from the other species by
its fleshy, often corky peduncle (fruit stem), its soft, round stem,
and its rounded leaves with soft hairs. Leaves of C. peo are more
prickly and more deeply lobed, and peduncles of this species are hard
and sharply angular. The peduncle of C. moschata is also hard, but it
is smoothly grooved and flares at the point of attachment to the
fruit. Cucurbita mixta is similar in appearance to C. moschata, but
some C. mixta varieties are distinguished by a hard, corky peduncle
that"is not flared at the fruit attachment. For many years C. mixta
was not recognized as different from C. moschata, but they do not
cross readily and are distinct species. Cucurbita ficifolia, the
Malabar gourd, is easily recognizable by its large watermelon-shaped
fruit, with spotted light and dark green skin and white flesh. It
grows at high elevations in Central and South America and is used for
food by natives there. In Europe and Japan it has been used as a
rootstock to provide exceptional vigor and resistance to soil-borne
diseases when grafted to cucumber.

The Cucurbita species with the longest history of domestication
is C. pe~7 Remnants of its fruit dating back as far as 7000 B.C.
have been identified in Mexican caves that were populated by
prehistoric Indians.

Its long history of cultivation is one reason C. pepo is such a
variable species. Different fruit colors and shapes that arose by
mutation over the centuries were preserved for their novelty or
utilitarian value, and today as a legacy we have a rich assortment of
diverse varieties. Bicolored, wanted, pear-shaped, and numerous other
kinds of gourds; orange-skinned pumpkins, ranging from small-fruited
varieties such as 'Small Sugar' to the large 'Connecticut Field', the
vegetable marrow of England; bush summer squash varieties such as








target pests to these broad-spectrum-type fungicides has been reported
at a low frequency. In recent years, many chemicals developed for
plant disease control have rather specific modes of action and some
are efficacious against a small group of pathogen types. Other
characteristics of some of the new plant disease control chemicals
include slight to strong systemic movement within plants and various
degrees of therapeutic properties. Ridomi I products have
"flat-stopped" on-going downy mildew epidemics with the use of a
single application on a crop. As remarkable as these products
perform, one tends to forget that these specific-type chemicals tend
to naturally "select for" those existing segments of the target pest
population which naturally are not sensitive to that chemical mode of
action.

Many years ago Dr. Bob Stall found strains within the population
of bacteria that cause bacterial spot of tomato and pepper to be
resistant to streptomycin products. Those segments of the bacterial
population that are not sensitive to streptomycin still abound.
Resistance within bacterial species or strains to antibiotics is
commonplace and should not be viewed with surprise.

Copper resistant strains of the bacterial spot organism also
abound but can be effectively countered by the addition of a maneb or
mancozeb-type chemical to the spray mix.

Cercospora apii, the causal agent of early blight of celery, has
a segment of its population which is resistant to Benlate. When other
fungicides are used alternately, control is improved but when Benlate,
by itself, is again inserted in the spray program, the rebound
capacity of resistant population dominates and control is inadequate.

Resistance to Benlate and related compounds (e.g. Topsin M)
occurs commonly. For many years we have observed the failure of
Benlate to control the powdery mildew fungus on cucurbits in Florida.
Drs. Ken Pohronezny and Ron Sonoda documented this phenomenon in 1983.
At one time Benlate was an excellent chemical for powdery mildew
control on cucurbits but such is no longer the case.

Recently, Bayleton was cleared for use on numerous crops in the
United States and its efficacy against powdery mildews has been
excellent. Like Benlate, the mode of action for Bayleton is specific.
Dr. Ken Pohronezny has found that powdery mildew on squash was not
controlled by Bayleton in certain commercial fields in Dade County.
In this situation, Bayleton was highly efficacious against the powdery
mildew species Erysiphe cichoracearum but not the species Sphaerotheca
fuliginea. A similar situation on certain cucurbits exists at the
Leesburg AREC according to Dr. Don Hopkins. Considering these new
developments with Bayleton along with the lack of control by Benlate
and the removal of Karathane from the marketplace, sulfur fungicides
may have to be relied upon for powdery mildew control of cucurbits.
If growers observe a sudden cessation of control of powdery mildew
with Bayleton, sulfur should be inserted into the spray program.




-1i-


'Zucchini'; and winter squash borne on vines of the 'Table Queen' or
'Acorn' variety all these are members of the same species, Cucurbita
pepo. The 'Vegetable Spaghetti' is still another interesting variety
of C. pepo.
Cucurbita moschata has also been cultivated for centuries, but it
is not as diverse as C. pepo. The most popular variety of C. moschata
today is 'Butternut'.

Cucurbita maxima is a relative newcomer to America. Unlike the
other cultivated Cucurbita species that originated in Mexico, C.
maxima is native to South America. It was introduced to the United
States around 1827. The 'Hubbard' cultivar was developed in
Marblehead, Massachusetts, about ten years later, and New Englanders
have been noted for their fondness of winter squash ever since.

A recent introduction, the 'Melon-squash', has attracted
considerable attention. It is not from a cross between squash and
melon, of course, because such a cross is impossible. Its name is
derived from its reputed muskmelonlike flavor when eaten raw.
'Butternut' has a similar flavor and texture when eaten raw. Although
'Melon-squash' is described in a seed catalog as being "the sweetest
squash of the century," in tests its sugar content was nearly
identical to that of 'Butternut'. It is claimed that the flavor of
the 'Melon-squash' improves during postharvest storage. This may well
be, for storage at fifty to sixty degrees Fahrenheit is known to bring
about conversion of starch to sugar in winter squash. The
'Melon-squash' is a good keeper.

'Melon-squash' fruits are large, up to thirty pounds, and the
vine growth rank and unsuitable for a small garden. 'Melon-squash'
fruit is larger than that of 'Butternut' but is similar in having a
small seed cavity in the base of the fruit and a neck entirely fleshy.

Although the 'Melon-squash' has been reported to be botanically
related to Cucurbita maxima, it lacks the fleshy peduncle and other'
characteristics of that species. Isozyme tests indicate that it
belongs to C. moschata. The consumption of uncooked squash may be
centuries oT.T In fact, the word squash is derived from the Indian
word askutasquash, meaning "eaten raw or uncooked". But the Indians
also cooked squash by boiling or broiling, and charred remains of
squash thousands of years old have been found in Mexican caves.

Possibly the Indian word for squash is derived from the use of
uncooked seeds. The flesh of wild Cucurbita species is so bitter that
it is inedible, and seeds were likely the first part of squash to be
used by humans for food.

Cucurbita seeds are an excellent source of protein and oil. The
Mexicans have long been fond of squash seeds, but the hard seed coats
of most varieties limits their popularity in this country. Now C.
pepo varieties such as 'Lady Godiva', 'Eat All', 'Sweetnut', an-h
9'Hul-less' are available. The seeds of these varieties are tender




- LL-


since they lack the tough seed coat of normal squash seed, and they
are delicious uncooked or roasted.

Gardeners growing 'Lady Godiva' or other "naked-seeded" varieties
do not need to worry about isolating these plants from other squash to
prevent cross-pollination. Honeybees will probably cross-pollinate
'Lady Godiva' with summer squash, pumpkin, or other varieties of C.
pepo, but the seed in the 'Lady Godiva' fruit will still not have a
tough seed coat. The seed coat is entirely maternal tissue and is not
affected by cross-pollination. But home gardeners should not try to
save seed from 'Lady Godiva' for planting, because the next generation
will not breed true for naked seeds if cross-pollinated.

Cucurbita has been under investigation at Cornell University
since 1888, when Liberty Hyde Bailey crossed different varieties of
Cucurbita pepo. The original purpose of his experiments was to
determine if the immediate effect of foreign pollen on fruit of the
maternal parent (xenia) exists in Cucurbita. He found that it does
not, for fruit of each variety was exactly the same, regardless of
which variety provided the pollen. The effect of cross-pollination
was not- evident until the next, or F generation. But the renowned
Liberty Hyde Bailey did not stop there, when he had the answer t9 the
question that prompted his experiments. He went beyond, to the F and
succeeding generations. He observed an extraordinary extent of
segregation for fruit size, shape, color, and other characters. in
the next ten years he grew some thirty acres of cucurbits (a word,
incidentally, coined by Bailey) and produced over a thousand kinds of
squash, each different from any ever seen before.

Bailey had a remarkably long and productive career. In 1943,
fifty-five years after going to Cornell, he greatly enriched our
knowledge of Cucurbita by naming and meticulously describing nine new
species and devising useful keys to distinguish Cucurbita species.
Five years later he named still more species of Cucurbita, making him
the most prolific of all discoverers of Cucurbita species.

Bailey also made interspecific and intergeneric pollinations with
cucurbits. He quickly dispelled the idea that squash will cross with
cucumbers and melons. He also proved that different species of
Cucurbita do not readily cross, but he did succeed in crossing C.
moschata and C. pepo the first interspecific cross of Cucurbita ever
made. SinceThen much valuable information has been accumulated by
other workers about the compatibility relationships of Cucurbita
species. Numerous interspecific hybrids have been obtained, with
varying degrees of difficulty and of consequent sterility.

Although these studies have been invaluable in their
contributions to our knowledge of the phylogeny and origin of
Cucurbita species, this basic information has not yet been put to much
practical use by plant breeders. Squash varieties derived from
interspecific matings are just now being developed. Recently H. M.
Munger of Cornell University introduced a compact version of the
'Butternut' type that was developed from a cross of a bush summer








squash with the viny 'Butternut'. The parental species were C. pepo
and C. moschata, the same cross made by Liberty Hyde Bailey many years
before.
(Stephens Veg. 7-85)





Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


kOnPbO




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