Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: June 1985
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00211
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publicatior

Vegetablc Crops Department 1255 lISP Gainc\illc. FL 32611 Telephone 392-213,


Vegetarian 85-6


June 17, 1985


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Drip Irrigation Update
B. Mineral Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms of
Vegetables Crops

C. 1985 Florida Tomato Institute

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Soil Mix Formula for Container Gardens

B. Master Gardener Activities

Note:

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


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I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

June 24 28, 1985. 4-H Horticulture Institute, Camp Cloverleaf,
Sebring.

July 29 August 1, 1985. 4-H Congress, Gainesville
(Horticulture Contests on July 30; Horticulture Workshop on
August 1).

August 21 23, 1985. Fifth Annual Master Gardener Advanced
Training, Gainesville.

September 5 7, 1985. Tenth Annual Joint Tomato Conference.
Mariott's Marco Beach Resort, Marco Island. Tomato Institute
will be held on September 5.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Drip Irrigation Update

The major objective of irrigation is to supply plants with
sufficient water to prevent periods of stress that may result in
reduced yields or quality. The major irrigation types currently used
in vegetable production are seep irrigation and overhead irrigation.
Drip irrigation is gaining in use for several commodities state wide
and is used extensively in vegetables in two locations. Specific
information gaps have been pointed out for the use of drip irrigation
in several parts of the state. In several instances research is
available to answer the perceived gaps, but unfortunately, in other
instances, more research is needed.

To establish statewide drip irrigation cultural recommendations
and identify research needs, a group of researchers from Gainesville
and several agricultural research centers met with state and county
extension faculty at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in
Bradenton in May. The following points were discussed and should be
added to future educational programs for growers interested in drip
production.

Field Preparation
Good soil moisture must be established in the field for
fumigation. This may have to be done with overhead or seep
irrigation. Rainfall is not always timely or adequate.

Drip irrigation should be used before seeding or transplanting to
maintain soil moisture levels. Rewetting dry soil by any irrigation
method is many times very difficult.

Plant Establishment
In some soils during very dry or windy conditions, water in
addition to drip irrigation may be needed for plant establishment.







This may be done by water wagons, overhead or seep irrigation.

Soil-Water Relations
When drip irrigation is used, a percentage of soil moisture must
be maintained either culturally or through other irrigation sources.

Where threat of flooding is not a severe problem, the bed height
should be lowered. High beds will dry out much faster than lower
beds. Lateral wetting patterns are much wider when a degree of soil
moisture is maintained across the entire bed area.

In areas where beds must be high due to historical flooding
conditions, water should be maintained in the seep furrows to supply
this needed bed moisture. The height of the perched water table may
be lowered considerably from what must be maintained for total
irrigation by the seep method.

The percentage of soil moisture needed to be maintained and the
water table needed to maintain it unfortunately have not been entirely
worked out satisfactorily at this time. Obviously it changes due to
soil type and area. Research is going on at this time to establish
this criteria in some major vegetable production areas.

Quantity Needed through drip
The quantity of water that should be injected through drip
varies. Ongoing research indicates it should be at least 1 pan per
covered bed area. Several times during this spring the pan
evaporation was 7cose to .3 inches per day. This is quite high; 2.1
inches of rain or irrigation equivalent would be needed per week to
overcome this deficit. If drip irrigation was used on a 4 foot center
bed with 2 feet of bed being covered, only 1.05 acre inches would need
to be injected. For additional information consult Circular 607,
"Determination of Water Requirements for Florida Vegetable Crops".

Fertigation
Fertilizing through drip irrigation has been recommended for a
number of years. All of the P and minor elements should be
incorporated into the bed before mulch is played. Phosphorus is not
recommended to be injected through drip irrigation tubes due to
clogging problems that have arisen due to water quality and several P
source interactions. Between 10 to 40% of the N & K also should be
incorporated into the bed initially.

Where seep irrigation must be used for field preparation and
plant establishment, the lower rates of N & K should be used to reduce
the salt accumulation at the surface.

The remainder of N & K should be injected through the drip as the
crop grows and produces. The percentage of injected nutrients should
be those found in Circular 606, "Injection of Fertilizers into Drip
Irrigation Systems for Vegetables".








Applications of fertilizers should be made once or twice per
week.

(Stall Veg. 6-85)

B. Mineral Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms of Vegetable Crops.

Often plant appearances can tell us much about its health. Plant
diseases caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies are largely easy to
identify by trained observers because the symptoms are usually quite
characteristic.

There are times, however, when the symptoms may be masked or may
actually be the result of several simultaneous problems. Also, the
nutrient deficiency symptom observed may actually be caused by yet
another problem. An example of this might be phosphorus deficiency
caused by cool soils. In this case, it was not the soil fertilizer
level that was the problem but rather the inability of the plant to
obtain the nutrient from the cool soil.

The table below is meant to be a guide in diagnosing probable
mineral nutrient deficiency symptoms. In order to develop a control
strategy, the underlying cause must be determined. This will involve
information on fertilizer practices, environmental conditions, soil
pH, soil moisture, levels of other interacting nutrients, and
rainfall. Furthermore, consideration must be given to the crop and
even to the cultivar since cultivars of various crop species are known
to differ in mineral nutrient requirements.

In cases where quick visual identification is difficult, soil and
plant tissue analyses must be made. These can be done by the
University of Florida Soil Testing Laboratory in Gainesville. When
sampling, be sure to include a soil sample from near the affected
plants. Also, collect plant tissues and soil samples from normal
appearing plants if possible. These tissue samples should be of the
same physiological age as the diseased plants.


Deficiency symptoms
Stems thin, erect, hard.
Leaves small, yellow, on
some crops (tomatoes)
undersides are reddish.
Lower leaves affected first.


Phosphorus





Potassium


Stems thin and shortened.
Leaves develop purple color.
Older leaves affected first.
Plants stunted and maturity
delayed.

Older leaves develop gray
or tan areas on leaf margins.
Eventually a scorch appears on
the entire margin.


Occurrence
Sandy soils especially
after heavy rain, or
over-irrigation. Also
on organic soils during
cool growing seasons.

On acid soils or
very alkaline soils.
Also when soils are
cool and wet.


On sandy soils follow-
ing leaching rains or
over-irrigation.


Nutrient
Nitrogen


1~








Nutrient
Boron






Calcium


Yellowing of leaves,
stunting of plants.
Onion bulbs are soft
with thin, pale scales.

Distinct yellow or white
areas between veins on
youngest leaves.


On organic soils or
occasional new
mineral soils.


On alkaline soils
(pH above 6.8)


Initially older leaves
show yellowing between
veins, followed by yellowing
of young leaves. Older
leaves soon fall.

Yellow mottled areas between
veins on youngest leaves, not
as intense as iron deficiency.

Pale, distorted narrow leaves
with some interveinal yellowing
of older leaves, e.g. whiptail
disease of cauliflower.

Small reddish spots
on cotyledon leaves of beans,
light areas (white bud) of
corn leaves.

General yellowing of younger
leaves and reduced growth.


On strongly acid soils
or soils where excessive
potassium has been applied
or on leached sandy soils.


On soils with high
pH (above 6.4).


On very acid soils.


On wet, cold soils in
early spring or where
excessive phosphorus
is used.

On very sandy soils,low
in organic matter
especially following
continued use of sulfur-
free fertilizers espe-
ially in areas that
receive little atmos-
pheric sulfur.


Copper


Iron


Magnesium





Manganese



Molybdenum


Zinc


Sulfur


Deficiency symptoms
Growing tips die and leaves are
distorted. Specific diseases
caused by boron deficiency
include brown curd and hollow
stem of cauliflower,cracked stem
of celery, blackheart of beet,
and internal browning of turnip.

Growing point growth restricted
on shoots and roots. Specific
deficiencies include blossom-end
rot of tomato, pepper and water-
melon, brownheart of escarole,
celery blackheart and cauli-
flower or cabbage tipburn.


Occurrence
On soils with pH
above 6.8 or on
sandy, leached soils,
or on crops with
very high demand such
as cole crops.


On strongly acid soils
or soils where exces-
sive potassium has been
applied or during
severe droughts.




-6-


Nutrient Deficiency symptoms Occurrence
Chlorine Deficiencies very rare. Usually only under
laboratory condi-
tions.


Literature

Marlowe, G. A. 1983. Trouble shooting vegetable crops nutritional
disorders. Vegetarian 83:01.

Maynard, D. N. 1978. A key to nutrient disorders of vegetable plants.
HortScience 13(1):28-29.

(Hochmuth Veg. 6-85)


C. 1985 Florida Tomato Institute

The 1985 Florida Tomato Institute will be held at the Mariott's
Marco Beach Hotel, Marco Island, Florida, Thursday September 5.

The Florida Tomato Committee and the Florida Tomato Exchange will
meet Friday and Saturday September 6 & 7.

The topics for the program are listed below.

FLORIDA TOMATO INSTITUTE
Morning Session Moderator: P. R. Gilreath
AM
9:00 Registration and Coffee

9:30 Welcome D. J. Cantliffe, Chairman, Vegetable Crops Department,
Gainesville

9:45 Fertilizer Management: Back to Basics G. J. Hochmuth,
Vegetable Crops Department, Gainesville

10:00 Soil-Borne Diseases of Tomatoes and Their Control- J. P. Jones and
A. J. Overman, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center,
Bradenton

10:15 Design and Maintenance of Drip Irrigation Systems for Tomato
Production A. J. Smajstrla, Agricultural Engineering
Department, Gainesville

10:45 Water Management with Drip Irrigation Systems C. D. Stanley,
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, Bradenton

11:00 Fertilizer Management with Drip Irrigation Systems S. M. Olson,
North Florida Research & Education Center, Quincy

11:15 Statewide Tomato Variety Trial Update P. J. Stoffella,
Agricultural Research & Education Center, Ft. Pierce







11:30 Recent Findings in the IFAS Tomato Breeding Program J. W. Scott,
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, Bradenton

11:45 Questions and Discussion

LUNCH ON YOUR OWN

Afternoon Session Moderator: R. L. Mitchell

PM
1:30 Weed Management in Tomatoes J. P. Gilreath, Gulf Coast Research &
Education Center, Bradenton

1:45 Avoiding Pest Control Entropy: A Review of Sound Integrated Pest
Management Principles for Florida Tomatoes
K. L. Pohronezny, Tropical Research & Education Center,
Homestead

2:00 The Enigma of Tank Mixes T. A. Kucharek, Plant Pathology
Department, Gainesville

2:15 Frost Protection for Florida Tomatoes with Overhead Irrigation or
Row Covers R. Tyson, Dade County Cooperative Extension Service

2:30 Management of Second Crops following Tomatoes A. A. Csizinszky,
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, Bradenton

2:45 Tomato Stem Porosity: Minimizing the Potential for Postharvest Decay
J. A. Bartz, Plant Pathology Department, Gainesville

3:00 Update on Florida: West Mexico Competition in the Fresh Market
Tomato Industry J. J. Vansickle and E. Belibasis, Food &
Research Economics Department, Gainesville

3:15 Tomato Production Practices in West Mexico D. J. Cantliffe,
Vegetable Crops Department, Gainesville

3:45 Questions and Discussion

(Maynard Veg. 6-85)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Soil mix formula for container gardens

The following charts are presented to assist you in advising gardeners
on the right amounts of materials and fertilizer ingredients needed to make
up a synthetic soil mix for growing vegetables in containers. I based this
on the 5:3:3:1 ratio formula presented by Bradenton AREC for Florida Basket
tomatoes.








Chart 1. Amount of ingredients needed to make a Soil Mix based on a 5:3:3:1 formula
(Bradenton AREC tomato formula)


x (.416)
FL Peat (5)


x (.25)
Sand (3)


x (.25)
Vermic. (3)


x (.08)
Perlite (1)


Amt. Mix desired Vol. Used Vol. Used Vol. Used Vol. Used
Cu Yd. Bu G1 Bu G1 Qt Bu Gl Qt Bu Gl Qt Bu Gl Qt
1 25 200 10 80 320 6 50 200 6 50 200 2 16 64

1/2 12.5 100 5 40 160 3 25 100 3 25 100 1 8 32

1/4 6.25 50 2.5 20 80 1.5 12.5 50 1.5 12.5 50 .5 4 16

3.12 25 1.25 10 40 6.25 25 6.25 25 2 8

1.5 12.5 .6 5 20 3.12 12.5 3.1 12.5 1 4

1 8 3.3 13.3 2 8 2 8 .6 2.5

1/2 4 1.6 6.6 1 4 1 4 .3 1.3

1/4 2 .8 3.3 .5 2 .5 2 .6

1 1.6 1 1 .3


Chart 2. Amount of fertilizer to make a Soil
Tomato 5:3:3:1 formula.

Amount of mix Fertilizer


1

1/2

1/4


25

12.5

6.25

3.1

1.5

1.0


Mix based on the Bradenton AREC


Lime


P fast lime


micros


I I Super hydrated
Cu yd. Bu 3al. OSM (8-16-12) Dolomite IPhosphate lime Perk


200

100

50

25

12.5

8.0


- -- 1 1


12 lb.

6 lb.

3 1b.

1.5 Ib.

12 oz.

8.5 oz.


10 lb.

5 lb.

2.5 lb.

20 oz.

10 oz.

6.5 oz.


lb.

.5 Ib.

oz.

oz.

oz.


5 lb.

2.5 lb.

20 oz.

10 oz.

5 oz.


5 lb.

2.5 lb.

20 oz.

10 oz.

5 oz.


. .


. .





Wetting Agents

Hydro Wet
Aqua Gro
Terra Sorb
Surf Side
Triton B 1956


(Stephens Veg. 6-85)


B. Master Gardener Activities

Based on the Field Day concept in other state MG programs,
Florida initiated 2 Field Days this spring for active MGs. The first
was held on April 20 at the Fort Lauderdale Agricultural Research and


Some Commercial Mixes Synthetic Soils (examples)

Medium Synthetic Soils

Pro-Mix BX Peat moss, perlite, vermic, dolomite, NPK, P, Ca,
FTE, Wetting Agent.
Pro-Mix A Same, except no perlite.

Pro-Mix C Same, except no perlite and NPK (has P).

Fertile Bag Same, ready for bag culture (2 cu ft.).

Germinating Mix Fine grind, no perlite, same otherwise.

Jiffy-Mix Peat, vermic, and NPK.

Jiffy-Mix Plus Same, except has Mag-amp (7-40-6).

Metro-Mix 200 Peat moss, perlite, vermic, granite sand, NPK,
wetting agent, pH 5.6 6.5.

Metro-Mix 300 Same, plus bark.

Redi-Earth Peat moss, vermic, wetting agent, macros and
micros.

Farard Growing Peat Mix Peat moss, nitrients, vermic, perlite, and
wetting agent, several formulations.

Peat-Lite Mix Same, no perlite, although some formulations have
it.

Super Soil Called "First Step", developed by U Cal.

Cornell Mix No trade names (mix your own), although
Redi-earth is based on it.




-1U-


Education Center's Open House, followed by tours of the Palm Beach
County Extension Mounts Center botanical gardens. At the Ft.
Lauderdale REC, MGs were greeted with slide shows on the Center's
major areas of research, followed by walking tours on production
areas. Specific research presented included: lethal yellowing
resistance in susceptible palms, effects of growth hormones on plant
growth, use of treated sewage sludge as fertilizer/soil amendment, new
foliage varieties (including the now popular Heliconias), turf
varieties and management, and biological control of water hyacinth
with a beetle. A final interesting project was the mass of
fish-rearing pools where the white amur or grass carp is being studied
as an effective control of hydrilla.

The Mounts Center tour was hosted by Palm Beach Coordinator, Amy
Kellum, and MG Helen Patton. The beautiful gardens of tropical fruits
and plants were enjoyed by MGs from 5 counties who participated in the
Field Day.

Our next Field Day on April 30 involved the descent of 220 MGs
and coordinators on the Apopka area. The day started off with a tour
of Knox's Nursery which specializes in bedding plants. The varied and
enthusiastic tour included propagation and production tips shared by
the staff. The next stop was Hermann Engelmann's Nursery renowned
grower of fine foliage plants. The colorful array of hanging baskets,
potted plants and propagation areas (including the tissue culture
section) made many MGs want to buy one of the many greenhouses on the
tour and start their own business. The intensity of quality control
confirmed, however, the necessity of a strong backup (in capital and
labor) for success.

A visit to the Apopka Agricultural Research Center included
self-guided tours of leather leaf fern shade houses, new foliage
varieties and special chambers to study different environmental
conditions' effects on plants.

The final stop at Florida Cactus provided an outlet to purchase
some of the beautiful cacti on display. Of special interest was the
map of the U.S. with each state represented by different cacti.

On August 21, the Fifth Annual Master Gardener Advanced Training
will commence in Gainesville with 1 1/2 days of classes ranging from
"Low Maintenance Landscapes" to "Freeze Protection of Dooryard
Plants". An Awards Banquet will be held on August 21 at the
University Holiday Inn to recognize those volunteers with exceptional
service records. Tours to eight different University and area
horticultural operations will be given on August 23. Pre-registration
forms are included in this month's "Voluntiller". Active MGs and
coordinators are urged to register as early as possible.


(Delate Veg. 6-85)




-11-



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

Dr. M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


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