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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: May 1985
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00210
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Full Text

INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

VeSptable Crops department 1255 HIPP Gainesville. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 85-5


May 10, 1985


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Estimated Effectiveness of Recommended
Herbicides on Selected Common Weeds in Florida
Vegetables

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Injecting Fertilizers into Irrigation Systems,
Part III. Calculations

B. Selection of Vegetable Varieties for Use in
Florida

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Contest for Largest Vegetable


Note:


Anyone is free to use the
Whenever possible, please


information in this newsletter.
give credit to the authors.


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
4.9- the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.








The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


_I _








I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

May 16, 1985. Gulf Coast REC Field Day, Bradenton. Registration
at 8:45 A.M.

May 20, 1985. Master Gardener Field Day, Ft. Lauderdale Research
Center and Mounts Learning Center, West Palm Beach. 8:30 A.M. -
4:30 P.M.

May 29, 1985. Home Horticulture extension agents In-Service
Training. Camp Ocala.

May 30, 1985. Master Gardener Field Day, Apopka area.
9:30 A.M. 4:00 P.M.

September 5-7, 1985. Tenth annual Joint Tomato Conference.
Mariott's Marco Beach Resort, Marco Island. Tomato Institute
will be held on September 5.


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Estimated Effectiveness of Recommended Herbicides on Selected
Common Weeds in Florida Vegetables

Successful weed control is essential for economic production of
vegetable crops in Florida. Weeds reduce vegetable yields by
competing for moisture, nutrients, and light during the growing
season, harbor insect and disease pest and also interfere with
harvesting. Control of weeds in vegetables involves good management
practices in all phases of production. The use of herbicides,
cultivation, crop rotation, cover cropping, using crop competition
and/or mulching may have to be combined to suppress many difficult to
control weed species.

Identifying the weed problems and selecting appropriate weed
control methods are essential steps in designing or modifying a weed
control program. Knowing the weed species that infest the fields is
also important in selecting the correct herbicide that is effective
for your specific weed problems. Generally, for preplant and
preemergence applications, the weed problem must be anticipated since
weeds have not emerged at the time of application. This can be done
by observing the field in the previous season and recording those
weeds which are present and in what areas of the field they occur.
These "weed maps" can be very useful the next season in refreshing
your memory and making decisions on which herbicides to purchase.
Once your weed problems have been determined the following table can
be helpful in determining the herbicide which is most effective for
those problems.

The following tables on page 2 and 3 estimating the effectiveness
of control of certain herbicides was developed from research data,








ESTIMATED EFFECTIVENESS OF RECOMMENDED HERBICIDES
ON SELECTED COMMON WEEDS IN FLORIDA VEGETABLES


C C
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Broadleaf Weeds


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Cocklebur
(Xanthium pensylvanicum) P F G-E P E P F P P-n P P P G-E
Sicklepod (coffeeweed)
(Cassia obtusifolia) P E F-G P P F-G P P F-G I F P F-C
Florida beggarweed
(Desmodium tortuosum) E G -F P P P F G IP P P F-G
Florida pusley
(Richardia scabra) -E E E E F-G G-E G F F-G G G-E E G
Lambsquarter
(Chenopodium album) F E E F-G G G G-E G G-E G G-E G-E
Morningglories
(Ipomoea sp.) P G G P G F-G P P F-G P F P G
Nightshade, Black
(Solanum nigrum) F G G P F-G Ni G P-F Ni P P-F P P
Pigweed (Carelessweed)
(Amaranthus sp.) E E E F-G G G-E G G G G G F-G -L
Purslane
(Portulan) G E E F G G E G G G G E G-E
(Portulaca oleracea)
Ragweed, Common
Ragweed, Common F E E P E F G P G P F P G-E
(Ambrosia artemisiifolia) E E P P F P G-E
Southern sida
SG E G-E P G G F-G F F-G P G P P-F
(Sida acuta)

Grass Weeds (from seed)
Crabgrass
Crabgrass E E G-E G P E F-G G G E E E G-E
(Digitaria sp.)
Goosegrass
(Eleuse da) E E G-E G P E F-G C G E E E G-E
(Eleusine indica) 11 1 1 E
Johnsongrass (seedlings)F E F
(Sorghum halepense) E -G G P E F-G Ni F G E E G
Signalgrass or Alexandergrass
(Brachiaria sp.) G E E P P G F-G P F P G G G
Texas panicum
(Panicum texanum) P G-E F-G F-G P G-E Ni F P-F F F E G

Perennial Sedges
Purple nutsedge
(Cyperus rotundus). P P P P P P P P F-GP G
Yellow nutsedge
(Cyperus esculentus) F G P P G-E P P P F-G P G


Key to Symbols: E = Excellent; G


= Good; F = Fair;


P = Poor Control;


Ni = No


infor-


nation based on research of extension information from southeast U.S.


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ESTIMATED EFFECTIVENESS OF RECOMMENDED HERBICIDES
ON SELECTED COMMON WEEDS IN FLORIDA VEGETABLES


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Broadleaf Weeds


Cocklebur
P G P P P P P Ni P (Xanthium pensylvanicum)
Sicklepod (coffeeweed)
P G P P P P P Ni P (Cassia obtusifolia)
Florida beggarweed

F-G G-E P F P P P Ni P .(Desmodium tortuosum)
Florida pusley

G-E G-E E G G G E F-G E (Richardia scabra)
Lambsquarter

F G-E G-E E E E E F-G G-E (Chenopodium album)
Morningglories
P G P F P P P' Ni P (Ipomoea sp.)
Nightshade, Black

F-G P P P P Ni P F-G P (Solanum nigrum)
Pigweed (Carelessweed)

E E G-F G C -E G G-E F-G G-E (Amaranthus sp.)
Purslane
G G G G E G E G-E E (Portulaca oleracea)

SRagweed, Common
F C Ni F E -G P F-G P (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)
Southern sida

G G-E Ni G P F-G P Ni P (Sida acuta)

Grass Weeds (from seed)
Crabgrass
E G-E E F E E E F-G E- (Digitaria sp.)
Goosegrass
E G-E E F E E E F-G E (Eleusine indica)
Johnsongcass (seedlings)

F G F P G G E Ni E (Sorghum halepense)
Signalgrass or Alexandergrass
G G F P G G G F-G G (Brachiaria sp.)
Texas panicum
P G P P 2-E P G-E F-G G-E (Panicum texanum)


S.Perennial Sedges


Purple nutsedge
(Cyperus rotundus)


iYellow nutsedge
(Cyperurs esculcntus)


cQ:



C-

t-a
*a =


i i I-'I- -- l -- I 1. I t"
Key to Symbols: E = Excellent; G = Good; F = Fnir; P = Poor Control; Ni = No informil-
Lion based on resca;rrch of ext tr :l onU information from snoutl.en;;st U.S.








herbicide labels,and the experience of research and extension workers
from Florida and the southeast United States.

The wide range of soil types, temperatures, rainfall application
methods and rates found in Florida all affect the activity and
effectiveness of the herbicides. Consult the herbicide label for
specific information relating to crop use and expected response of the
herbicide under your conditions.

The herbicide listings and the use of trade names in this
publication is solely for the purpose of providing information. It is
not a guarantee or warranty of the products named and does not signify
that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable
composition.
(Stall Veg. 5-85)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Injecting Fertilizers into Irrigation Systems, Part III.
Calculations.

The purpose of this article is to provide some guidelines for
calculating the amounts of fertilizers to be injected into various
irrigation systems. Before proceeding with calculations, it is
necessary to present some basics pertaining to crop growth that will
determine amounts and frequency of injection. Keep in mind that very
little research has been conducted on vegetables to determine
fertigation amounts and frequency although a couple cases are
presented.

Using some basic concepts of plant growth rates, nutrient demand
and the required fertilizer rates needed (from a soil test) coupled
with the information from parts I and II of this 3-part fertigation
series, the grower should be able to begin experimenting with
fertigation. With guidance from the local Extension agent, begin
working with fertigation on a trial basis until confidence with the
system is increased.

Crop Growth. Plant growth normally follows a sigmoidall" curve, i.e.
growth begins slowly at first, then proceeds through a period of rapid
development finally leveling off. For fertilization convenience,
there are basically 3 periods: early, plant establishment period;
middle, rapid growth phase and; late, plant maturity phase. The onset
and duration of these periods will vary, often drastically, depending
on the crop and also on the time of year. To make most effective use
of fertigation, these points must be borne in mind, since the
objective is to apply the precise amount of fertilizer to the crop
when the crop requires it. This will result in efficient fertilizer
management with reduced hazards to groundwater pollution.

Fertilizer application. Most of the work done on fertigation has been







done with nitrogen on field corn. For Florida, both nitrogen and
potassium could be used in a fertigation program. The most
appropriate crops to receive fertigation are those grown on sandy
soils in relatively high populations e.g. leafy greens, snap beans,
and sweet corn, among others.

In work with squash and sweet corn, the minimum effective
application rate of nitrogen seems to be 20 pounds per acre (6). In
this experiment, the applications of nitrogen to squash was begun 2
weeks after planting and continued with 20 pounds N per acre applied
weekly for 4 additional weeks (6). In the sweet corn work (5), N was
applied at 20-25 pounds per acre beginning at 3-4 weeks after planting
(depending on year of the work). In work with field corn, yield
decreased as the number of fertigations increased from 6 to 12 when
the total N applied was held constant (4). This supports the idea
that there is a minimum amount of fertilizer that can be applied
effectively by fertigation.
In watermelons, fertigation did not increase early or total yields
over irrigation alone (2).

Calculations. The following calculations are provided as examples for
various types of irrigation systems. For specific directions, consult
the equipment operator's manual.

1. Center pivot nitrogen fertigation. (Example from Irrigation
Intelligence, Valmont Industries).

Table 1. Amount of various nitrogen fertilizers required to give
20, 30 and 40 pounds of available nitrogen per acre.

Wt. (lb.) Rate of N per acre, lb.
Kind of fertilizer % per gal. 20 30 40
solutions Nit. at 600F. gal/ac gal/ac al/ac
Urea-Ammonium Nitrate 28 10.65 6.7 10.0 13.4
Urea-Ammonium Nitrate 32 11.06 5.7 8.6 11.4
Ammonium Nitrate 21 10.73 8.9 12.4 17.8
*This sample calculation is to be used as an example only. Refer to
the chemical manufacturer's recommendation for application and the
system Operator's Manual for specific data.

Table 2. Computing number of acres irrigated per revolution of
center-pivot sprinklers with various length systems.

Center-Pivot Acres irrigated/revolution
Sprinkler End Sprinkler OFF End sprinkler ON End sprinkler ON
Length (radius) ft. all the time in corners all the time

400 12 14 16
500 18 20 23
600 26 31 33
700 35 41 43
800 46 52 55
900 58 65 69
1000 72 80 83




-6-


(Table 2 continued)

Center-Pivot Acres irrigated/revolution
Sprinkler End Sprinkler OFF End sprinkler ON End sprinkler ON
Length (radius) ft. all the time in corners all the time


1100
1200
1300*
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900


87
104
122
141
162
185
208
234
260


95
114
130
153
175
195
221
247
275


100
117
136
157
180
200
227
253
282


*One-fourth section size Circle inside of 160 acres


CALCULATION STEPS:

Step 1 Decide on amount of nitrogen you
want to apply per acre . .
Step 2 Decide on the kind of nitrogen
fertilizer you want to apply (Table 1). .
Step 3 Determine the number of gallons
of fertilizer solution needed per acre


EXAMPLE:


Your field


30 Ibs. of N/ac

sol. 32% N


(Table 1). . .. . . 8.6 gal/ac
Step 4 Determine the number of acres
irrigated per revolution of center pivot
(Table 2) . . . . 130 ac.
Step 5 Multiply gal/acre of fertilizer
solution times acres irrigated per revolu-
tion (Step 3 times Step 4) . .1,118 gal/rev
Step 6 Determine the amount of time for
center pivot sprinkler to make one revolu-
tion. See center-pivot Manufacturers
Operator's Manual and recommendation for your
soil and crop . . . 33.3 hrs.(.50"
Step 7 Calculate the rate of flow of
fertilizer solution into the irrigation
system. Divide gallons of fertilizer
solution needed per revolution (Step 5) by
total time in hours per revolution (Step 6). .33.6 gal/1


water)


2. Traveling gun fertigation (after Harrison (3)).

Use the formula: GPH = 1OOxSxLxN
43,560xPXW
GPH = gallons per hour of liquid fertilizer to inject
S = Rate of sprinkler movement, feet per hour
L = distance between sprinkler lanes in feet
N = actual nitrogen to be applied in pounds per acre
P = percent nitrogen in liquid fertilizer (Table 1)
W = weight of 1 gallon of fertilizer (Table 1) in pounds per gallon


hr








Suppose a grower, using a gun moving 100 feet per hour with 240 feet
between lanes, wants to apply 20 pounds of actual nitrogen per acre using a
32 percent nitrogen fertilizer. This injection rate would be:

100 x 100 x 240 x 20 = 3.1 gal. per hour
43560 x 32 x 11.06

Literature

1. Anonymous. 1982. Irrigation Intelligence. Valmont, Industries.

2. Elmstrom, G. W., S. J. Locascio, and J. M. Meyers. 1981. Watermelon
response to drip and sprinkler irrigation. Proc. Fla. St. Hort. Soc.
94:161-163. 1981.

3. Harrison, D. S. and F. M. Rhoads. 1978. Application of fertilizer
through center pivot and self-propelled gun sprinkler irrigation
systems. Agric. Engin. Extension Rept. 78-1.

4. Rhoads, F. M. and R. L. Stanley, Jr. 1981. Fertilizer scheduling,
yield, and nutrient uptake of irrigated corn. Agron. J. 73:971-974.

5. Smittle, D. A., E. D. Threadgill, and W. E. Seigles. 1981. Sweet
corn growth, yield, and nutrient uptake responses to tillage systems.
J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 106:49-53.

6. Smittle, D. A. and E. E. Threadgill. 1982. Response of squash to
irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and tillage systems. J. Amer.
Soc. Hort. Sci. 107:437-440.

(Hochmuth Veg. 85-5)


B. Selection of Vegetable Varieties for Use in Florida

With the 1984-85 growing season more than half over, growers will be
turning their attention to planning for next season soon. One of the most
important parts of the planning process involves the choice of varieties to
be grown. Each year seed companies and experiment stations release dozens
of new varieties to compete with those already available. Glowing
descriptions, tempting photographs, and sometimes exaggerated claims
accompany the release of each new variety.

Growers should evaluate some new varieties each year on a trial basis
to observe performance on their own farms. Plant only those that show real
promise based on IFAS, industry or grower trials. A limited number of new
varieties should be evaluated so that observations on plant performance and
characteristics and yields can be noted and recorded. It is relatively
easy to establish a trial but very time-consuming to make all of the
observations necessary to make a decision on adoption of the new variety
for large scale production.








Some factors to consider before adopting a variety are:

Yield The variety should have the potential to produce crops at least
equivalent to those already grown. Harvested yield is usually much less
than potential yield because of market restraints.

Disease Resistance The most economical and effective means of pest
management is through the use of varieties with genetic resistance to
disease. When all other factors are about equal, it would be prudent to
select a variety with needed disease resistance.

Horticultural Quality Characteristics of the plant habit as related to
climate and production practices and of the marketed plant product must be
acceptable.

Adaptability Successful varieties must perform well under the range of
environmental conditions usually encountered on the individual farm.

Market Acceptability The harvested plant product must have
characteristics desired by the packer, shipper, wholesaler, retailer and
consumer. Included among these qualities are pack out, size, shape, color,
flavor and nutritional quality.

All of these considerations, and perhaps others will be involved in
selection of varieties to be grown in the 1985-86 season.

(Maynard Veg. 5-85)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Contest for Largest Vegetable

From time to time an Extension Agent may have to advise gardening
groups on how to set up and run a contest wherein the largest
vegetable is selected as a prizewinner. The task is not as simple as
it may sound. Determining the largest watermelon in a stack of
watermelons is not difficult, but how do you compare the largest
watermelon with the largest tomato. I have worked out a table of
comparative weights that will help you do just that. Using the table,
you can select a single winner from a number of contestants bringing
in an assortment of large vegetables. Here are the guidelines.

Rules

1. Only the 20 vegetables listed are eligible for the contest.

2. The vegetable displayed must have been grown by the exhibitor.

3. Special rules about displaying are written for each kind of
vegetable.

4. All vegetables should be clean, dry (shake off excess moisture),
and free of any extra materials that could add weight.







5. A vegetable must meet the minimum weight listed to be considered
for awards. If no vegetables meet the minimum, generally it is
best not to continue the contest.

6. Contestants must follow all special rules of entry such as
deadlines, as are established by the contest committee.

7. To determine a winner, just multiply the weight of a specimen in
ounces by the points per ounce. The largest score is the
automatic winner.

Vegetable World Record Ave. Minimum Super Pts./oz.

1. Beet (garden) 12 oz. 24 oz. 48 oz. 1.3
Rules: Top trimmed 1 inch. Tap root
trimmed 1 inch. No sugar beets.

2. Cabbage 123# 32 oz. 64 oz. 128 oz. .5
Rules: Stem trimmed 1 inch. All leaves O.K.

3. Carrot 11f 6 oz. 16 oz. 32 oz. 2
Rules: Top trimmed 1 inch.

4. Cucumber 13# 12 oz. 24 oz. 48 oz. 1.33
Rules: Common cucumbers only. No armenian.

5. Eggplant 16 oz. 32 oz. 64 oz. 1
Rules: 1" stem.

6. Gourd 196# 5# 10# 20# .2
Rules: No peto, moschata, or maxima.

7. Muskmelon 41# 32 oz. 64 oz. 128 oz. .5
Rules: 1 inch stem allowed.

8. Onion 6# 10 oz. 20 oz. 40 oz. 1.6
Rules: Tops trimmed to 1 inch. No doubles allowed.

9. Pepper -8 oz. 16 oz. 32 oz. 2
Rules: Stem trimmed to 1 inch.

10. Potato, Irish 18# 12 oz. 24 oz. 48 oz. 1.33
Rules: No multiple tubers.

11. Potato, Sweet 22# 12 oz. 24 oz. 48 oz. 1.33
Rules: No multiple roots.

12. Pumpkin -10# 20# 40# .1
Rules: Stem trimmed to 2 inches.

13. Radish, Summer 4 oz. 8 oz. 16 oz. 4
Rules: Tops trimmed to 1 inch. Round
only no longs.




-10-


Vegetable World Record Ave.

14. Radish, Winter 25# 24 oz.
Rules: Tops trimmed to 1 inch.

15. Squash, Summer 20 oz.
Rules: YCN, YSN, or scallop only.

16. Squash, Winter 513# 40 oz.
Rules: Acorn, butternut, turban,
hubbard, delicious, and buttercup.

17. Squash, Zucchini 19# 24 oz.
Rules: Must grow on a bush. No vine
squash.

18. Tomato 6# 10 oz.
Rules: Trim stem to 1 inch. Mature
or immature.

19. Turnip 30# 12 oz.
Rules: Trim top and bottom to 1 inch.
No swedes.

20. Watermelon 200# 20#
Good Luck!

(Stephens Veg 5-85)


Minimum

48 oz.


40 oz.


80 oz.


Super Pts./oz.

96 oz. .67


80 oz. .8


160 oz. .4


48 oz. 96 oz. .67



20 oz. 40 oz. 1.6



24 oz. 48 oz. 1.3


30#


40#


.067


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe Kathleen Delate
Chairman Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor

Dr. M. Sherman Dr. W. M. Stall
Assistant Professor / Associate Professor

J. M. Stephens Dr. D. N. Maynard
Associate Professor Professor







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