Title: Vegetarian
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 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: April 1985
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00209
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publicatior

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 SDDPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Tclcphonle 392-213,


Vegetarian 85-4


April 10, 1985


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar
B. New Personnel
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Value of Florida Vegetables Exceeds One Billion
Dollars Again
B. Vegetable Crops Library
C. Fertigation Equipment and Safety
III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Master Gardener Field Days

Note:
Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


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-2-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar

May 2-3, 1985. Florida Weed Tour. For more information,
contact Dr. Stall.

May 7, 1985. Leesburg AREC. Cucumber and Squash Variety
Demonstration. 4-7 P.M.

May 16, 1985. Gulf Coast REC Field Day, Bradenton. Registration
at 8:45 A.M.

May 20, 1985. Master Gardener Field Day, Ft. Lauderdale Research
Center and Mounts Learning Center, West Palm Beach. 8:30 A.M. -
4:30 P.M.

May 29, 1985. Home Horticulture extension agents In-Service
Training. Camp Ocala.

May 30, 1985. Master Gardener Field Day, Apopka area.
9:30 A.M. 4:00 P.M.

September 5-7, 1985. Tenth annual Joint Tomato Conference.
Mariott's Marco Beach Resort, Marco Island. Tomato Institute
will be held on September 5.

B. New Personnel: Dr. Eduardo Vallejos

Dr. Eduardo Vallejos recently joined the faculty of the Vegetable
Crops Department. Dr. Vallejos, a native of Peru, completed his
graduate studies at the University of California in Davis where
he specialized in vegetable physiology. Afterwards, he worked in
three postdoctoral positions at the University of California-
Davis, Carnegie Institute, and New Mexico State University
respectively. Dr. Vallejos' research program will focus on the
study of tomato plant responses to environmental stresses
including temperature, water and salt stress.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Value of Florida Vegetables Exceeds One Billion Dollars Again

According to the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
the farm value of Florida vegetables exceeded one billion dollars in
the 1983-84 season. The value was set at $1.058 billion, off slightly
from the record $1.092 billion in 1982-83.

Harvested acreage increased from 403,890 in 1982-83 to 416,090 in
1983-84. On the other hand, yields of many crops were lower than the
previous year. The Christmas 1983 freeze is at least partly
responsible for the restricted yield.








As always, prices varied for
bean, lettuce, pepper, squash,
average prices were down, whereas
prices increased in 1983-84.


some commodities in
tomato, watermelon
cabbage, carrot and


Some of the reasons why the 1983-84 value of
deviated (Table 1) widely from 1982-83 follow:
TABLE 1

Value of Florida Vegetable Crops


the two years -
and strawberry
celery average


certain crops


1982-83 & 1983-84


Value ($1,000)

Crop_ 1982-82 1983-84 Change (%)

Snap Bean, Fresh 44,041 38,824 -12
Processing 180 1,125 +625
Cabbage 22,687 40,736 + 80
Carrot 11,550 10,658 8
Celery 54,880 64,546 + 18
Sweet corn 64,745 61,016 6
Cucumber 36,851 33,971 8
Eggplant 8,429 8,713 + 3
Escarole 15,039 14,136 6
Lettuce 46,151 39,210 15
Pepper 89,687 74,833 17
Potato 55,748 70,195 + 26
Radish 27,877 22,989 18
Squash 31,949 30,173 6
Strawberry 52,531 38,842 26
Tomato, Fresh 389,262 366,678 6
Processing 1,350 1,277 5
Watermelon 58,212 62,124 + 7
Other vegetables 81,639 78,620 4

TOTAL 1,092,808 1,058,666 0.3


Cabbage Farm income increased more than $18 million in 1983-84
because of extraordinarily high prices following heavy crop losses in
the Christmas freeze. Even with 3700 fewer harvested acres; an
increased season average price from $3.52 to $8.75 per crate resulted
in an 80% increase in farm value in 1983-84.

Celery An average price per crate increase of $1.67 caused an
18% increase in farm value.







Lettuce Lower prices and yields resulted in a 15% decrease in
farm value.

Pepper Despite 1000 additional harvested acres, restricted
yields and lower prices resulted in a 17% decrease in farm value.

Potato Increased harvested acreage, yield and average price all
contributed to the 26% increase in potato value recorded in 1983-84.

Radish Yields and prices were lower in 1983-84 which caused an
18% reduction in farm value.

Strawberry Lower acreage, yields and prices all contributed to
a 26% decline in farm value in 1983-84 (see Vegetarian 84-10 for
additional information).

The 1983-84 vegetable season in Florida can be best described as
mixed. The biggest factor influencing the industry was the December
1983 freeze. Many growers were severely impacted whereas others were
able to capitalize on the increased prices resulting from restricted
supplies. A similar freeze situation occurred in early 1985 and
continued pressure from Mexican imports is expected during the spring.
(Maynard, Veg. 85-4)


B. Vegetable Crops Library

From time-to-time county extension faculty, growers, and industry
representatives ask about the availability of books relating to
vegetables. The following list includes many books that are useful
references to those interested in vegetables.

A Guide for the Hydroponic and Soilless Culture Grower. 1983. J. B.
Jones, Jr. Timber Press, P. 0. Box 1631. Beaverton, OR. 97075.
$19.95.

Compendium of Corn Diseases, 2nd Edition. 1980. M. C. Shurtleff
(ed.). APS Books, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN. 55121. $17.50.

Compendium of Pea Diseases. 1984. D. J. Hagedorn (ed.). APS Books.
$17.50.

Compendium of Potato Diseases. 1981. W. J. Hooker (ed.). APS Books.
$17.50.

Compendium of Strawberry Diseases. 1984. J. L. Maas (ed.). APS
Books. $17.50.

Diagnosis of Mineral Disorders in Plants. Volume 2, Vegetables.
1983. A Scaife and M. Turner. Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 49
High Holborn, London WCIV 6HB. $19.50.









Greenhouse Tomatoes, Lettuce and Cucumbers. 1979. S. H. Wittwer and
S. Honma. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI. $15.00.

Handling, Transportation and Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. Volume
1, Vegetables and Melons, 2nd Ed. 1979. A. L. Ryall and W. J. Lipton.
The AVI Publishing Co., Inc., 250 Post Rd. E., P. 0. Box 831,
Westport, CT. 06881. $62.50.

Insect Pests of Farm, Garden and Orchard, 7th Ed. 1979. R. Davidson
and W. F. Lyon. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publishers, 605 Third Ave.,
New York, N. Y. 10158. $30.95.

Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers, 2nd Ed. 1980. 0. A. Lorenz
and D. N. Maynard. John Wiley & Sons. $22.50.

Leafy Salad Vegetables. 1979. E. J. Ryder. AVI. $35.00.

Postharvest: An Introduction to the Physiology & Handling of Fruit
and Vegetables. 1981. R. Wills, T. Lee, D. Graham, B. McGlasson and
E. Hall. AVI. $17.50.

Produce Handling, Packaging and Distribution. 1985. K. Peleg. AVI.
$89.50.

Producing Vegetable Crops, 3rd Ed. 1980. G. W. Ware and J. P.
McCollum. Interstate Printers & Publishers, Danville, IL. 61832.
$21.35.

The Greenhouse Environment. 1977. J. W. Mastalerz. John Wiley &
Sons. $38.45.

The Strawberry. 1981. N. F. Childers (ed.). Horticultural
Publications, 3906 N. W. 31st Place, Gainesville, FL. 32606. $21.90.

Tomato Production, Processing and Quality Evaluation, 2nd Ed. 1983.
W. A. Gould. AVI. $57.50.

Vegetable Crop Diseases. 1981. G. R. Dixon. AVI. $35.00.

Vegetable Diseases and Their Control. 1960. C. Chupp and A. Sherf.
John Wiley & Sons. $37.50. (Publisher indicates a new edition will
be available in 1986).

Vegetable Growing Handbook, 2nd Ed. 1984. W. E. Splittstoesser.
AVI. $24.50.

Vegetables in the Tropics. 1983. H. D. Tindall. AVI. $39.50.

World Vegetables. Principles, Production and Nutritive Values. 1983.
M. Yamuguchi. AVI. $37.50.

(Maynard, Veg. 85-4)









C. Fertigation Equipment and Safety

As noted in a previous Vegetarian (85-2), there are many
advantages to the application of fertilizers through the overhead
irrigation system. However, before attempting fertigation it is
imperative that the proper application and safety equipment be
installed.

Basic Fertigation Equipment. The minimum equipment requirements
include the irrigation system, injection pump, water and fertilizer
materials. However, certain properly installed and carefully
maintained safety equipment are required by Florida law.

The most effective irrigation systems for fertigation are the
continuously moving types such as the center pivots or traveling guns
but solid sets and movable pipes also can be used. If possible, it is
a good practice to flush the system with water following the
fertilizer application. This is easy to do with the solid set or
movable pipe system. With the center pivot or gun, it can be done at
the end of a run providing the amount of flushing water is not so high
as to leach previously applied fertilizer from the ground.

Several types of fertilizer injection pumps and systems are
available. For fertilizer injection, the pumps must be made of
non-corrosive material and should be flushed after each use. For a
complete discussion of injection pumps see the Florida Cooperative
Extension Circular 276B. Safety requirements pertaining to the
injection pump are discussed later.

Also needed for fertigation is a non-corrosive fertilizer storage
tank the size of which depends on whether concentrated or diluted
fertilizer solutions will be injected. The tank should be positioned
for easy access by the injection suction line and for easy filling
with fertilizer materials. In-line straining screens (80 mesh) should
be used to filter all fertilizer materials prior to the injection
pump.

Safety Requirements. When properly outfitted with certain safety
equipment and when managed carefully, fertigation can actually result
in less liability risk to the user than other more traditional
fertilizer application methods. There are two main potential sources
of groundwater contamination with overhead fertigation. The first is
the application of too much fertilizer with too much water. This
problem is easily solved by proper management of the system especially
by supplying small amounts of fertilizer in minimum amounts of water
only when the crop requires the nutrients. The second source of
pollution comes from the back flow of fertilizers into the water
source (surface pond or well). This potential problem is alleviated
by the installation of the required safety equipment. Florida State
law requires all irrigation systems used for application of
agricultural chemicals to be equipped with safety (antisyphon) devices
to prevent the backflow of chemicals into the water supply. All new
irrigation systems (those installed after July 1, 1984) are required








to have the safety devices before injections can be made. Previously
existing systems have until December 31, 1985 to be retrofitted with
the required safety equipment. The safety equipment is not required
on systems which will not be used to inject chemicals. The following
is the text of rule 5E-2.30 of chapter 84-338 of the Florida Statutes.
Certain portions of the rule apply depending on whether toxic or
non-toxic chemicals are being injected. For fertigation only, the
grower needs those safety devices for nontoxic chemicals mentioned in
the rule.

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC BACKFLOW PREVENTION EQUIPMENT

REQUIRED FOR FLORIDA IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

5E-2.30 Antisyphon Requirements for Irrigation Systems

(1) Definitions

(a) The term "antisyphon device" means a safety device used to
prevent backflow of a mixture of water and chemicals into the water
supply.

(b) "Toxic Chemical" means any pesticide whose label bears the
signal word "Danger" or "Poison".

(2) Antisyphon Device Systems, General. Any irrigation system
designed or used for the application of chemicals shall be equipped
with the following components:

(a) Functional check valve on the irrigation pipe. This valve
shall be located in the irrigation supply line between the irrigation
pump and the point of injection of chemicals. This valve, when
installed, shall be on a horizontal plane and level. A deviation of
not more than 10 degrees from the horizontal shall be set.

(b) Low pressure drain. Such drain shall have an orifice size
of at least 3/4 inch diameter. It shall be located on the bottom of
the horizontal pipe between the functional check valve and the
irrigation pump. It must be level and must not extend beyond the
inside surface of the bottom of the pipe as shown. (Example, Diagram
3). The outside opening of the drain shall be at least two (2) inches
above grade.

(c) Vacuum breaker. A vacuum breaker shall be installed on the
top of the horizontal pipe between the functional check valve and the
irrigation pump and opposite to the low pressure drain. The vacuum
breaker shall have an orifice size of at least 3/4 inch diameter.








(d) Functional check valves on the chemical injection line. A
check valve shall be installed on the chemical injection line. If
injector pumps are used, they shall be installed so that when water
flow ceases, the injector pumps will not operate. A method shall be
provided for positive shut off of the chemical supply when the
injection system is not in use.

(3) Antisyphon Systems, Specific:

(a) A single antisyphon device assembly (Example, Diagram 1)
shall be used for those systems where nontoxic chemicals such as
fertilizers will be injected.

(b) A double antisyphon device assembly as shown (Example,
Diagram 2) shall be used for those systems where toxic chemicals will
be injected. The functioning of each device in the double assembly
system must be capable of being checked independently of each other to
insure effectiveness of the system.

(4) Chemical Storage Tanks. Tanks shall be constructed and
maintained in a manner to insure containment of the chemical and to
prevent contamination.

(5) Variances.

(a) None of the antisyphon device components shall be altered in
any manner which would render the antisyphon system inoperative or
ineffective.

(b) An irrigation system where only fertilizer is injected into
the irrigation pipes and where surface water is the only water source,
and where both a check valve on the output side of the pump and a foot
valve at water intake is present, will be approved as a variance to
the rule.

(c) Specific variances of equipment not covered by this rule but
which may be in compliance with this rule shall be considered on a
case by case basis by the department.

(6) Maintenance. All check valves, low pressure drains and
vacuum breaker shall be maintained free of corrosion or other build-up
and operative at all times during operation of the system. Cleaning
agents used exclusively to maintain or clean an irrigation system
shall not be subject to the regulations provided for herein.

(7) Diagrams shown are for illustrative purposes only. Other
individual systems that meet the criteria established may be approved.

(8) Penalty. Any person who shall use any irrigation system for
the application of chemicals, without the required antisyphon device
installed or without the antisyphon device in operating condition,
shall be subject to an administrative fine not to exceed $1,000 for
each violation.




DIAGRAM i
SINGLE. ANTISYPHON DEVICE ASSEMBLY


PWC ALL VMLVE
OR
SOLENOID'-**
VM.VE






WNJECTKH PORT
WITH CHCKVALVE


sUCTIoN UNE
TO BULK CHECAL
STORAGE TANK


1 JECTOR
L PUMP


:POWER





TO PUMP AND
WTEr SUPPLY


DIAGRAM 2 -
DOUBLE ANTISYPHON DEVICE ASSEMBLY


DIAGRAM 3S
INSTALLATION OF LOW


PRESSURE DRAIN


INCORRECT Q CORRECT




GRADE
LEVEL MINIMUM 2 INCHES ABOVE GRADE




-10-


Specific Authority: 570.07(23) FS.; Laws of Florida, Ch. 84-338, Sec.
17 (Sec. 487.055(3) FS.)

Law Implemented: Laws of Florida, Ch. 84-338, Sec. 17 (Sec.487.055
FS.)

History New

References
1. Harrison, D. S. and F. M. Rhoads. 1978. Application of
fertilizer through center pivot and self-propelled gun sprinkler
irrigation systems. Agric. Engineering Ext. Report 78-1.

2. Harrison, D. S. 1974. Injection of liquid fertilizer materials
into irrigation systems. Fla. Coop. Ext. Circular 276B.

3. Smajstrla, A. G., D. S. Harrison, W. J. Becker, F. S. Zazueta, and
D. Z. Hamon. 1985. Backflow prevention requirements for Florida
irrigation systems. Agric. Engineering. Ext. Report 84-21.

4. Smajstrla, A. G., D. S. Harrison, J. C. Good, and W. J. Becker.
1984. Chemigation Safety. Agric. Engineering Fact Sheet AE-28.

(Hochmuth, Veg. 85-4)
III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Master Gardener Field Days

A new concept in the Florida Master Gardener program has been
initiated this month Regional Field Days. On April 20, Master
Gardeners can visit the Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center
for their Open House and tours of the facility. Reports on their
current research projects with ornamental plants will be given from
9:00 A.M. to noon. At 1:30 P.M. MG's will tour the Mounts Learning
Center botanical gardens at the Palm Beach County Extension office in
West Palm in the afternoon.

On Tuesday, April 30, MG's are invited to tour several nurseries
and the Agricultural Research and Education Center in Apopka. There
will be bus transportation at a cost of $3.50 per person. We will
also visit the Zellwood Vegetable production area to round out our
horticulture exposure in central Florida.

Additional field days are anticipated in several areas throughout
the state. With the increasing demand for pertinent horticultural
information from Master Gardeners, the Field Days will serve as a
vehicle for interaction between MG's, the horticultural industry and
IFAS field personnel. For additional information, please contact the
Gainesville office.


(Kathleen Delate, Veg. 85-4)




-11-


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor,

Dr. M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


Kathleen Delate
Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor




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