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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1985
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00208
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Full Text
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HSPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 85-3


March 18, 1985


Contents
I NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications
B. Vegetable Crops Calendar
II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Small Plot Weed Control Demonstrations for
County Agents
III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Horticulture Contest Tampa State Fair
B. Vegetable Gardening Survey Palm Beach County

Note:

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


__


I E







I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications

1. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 1983.
D. N. Maynard. (ed). Circular S-314.

2. Nematode Pests of Watermelons and Cantaloupes, by R. A. Dunn.
Nematology Plant Protection Pointer NPPP-24. Available from
author.

3. Strawberry Production In Florida, By E. E. Albregts and
C. M. Howard. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 841.

4. Florida Vegetable Cultivar and Germplasm Releases. D. N. Maynard
(ed). Vegetable Crops Research Report VEC 85-1.

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

April 18, 1985, 1:30-4:30 P.M. Central Florida R.E.C. Field Day,
Sanford, FL.

April 19, 1985. State FFA Vegetable judging and identification
contest. Gainesville.

May 16, 1985, 9:30 A.M. Vegetable Field Day. Gulf Coast REC,
Bradenton, Florida.

May 29-31, 1985. Home horticulture extension agents In-Service
Training. Camp Ocala.

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Small Plot Weed Control Demonstrations for County Agents

Small plot weed control demonstrations can be a very effective
extension tool. The following material was distributed at the
Vegetable Crops In-Service Training January 1985, at Homestead.

For those county agents who were not In attendance, this article
should be a help in establishing small plot tests in a number of
crops. A few of the reasons that county extension personnel may wish
to establish small plot weed control experiments are:

1. Demonstrate new weed control methods, application techniques
or herbicide to growers.

2. Establish efficacy of a herbicide program for specific weeds
under local conditions.







(Small Plot Weed Control Continued)

3. Evaluate herbicide phytotoxicity on crops at different rates.
This can demonstrate the need for precise calibration and
application techniques.

4. Increase ones expertise in weed control, establish grower
confidence in recommendations and increase general knowledge
of weed science through exchange of the data collected.

The demonstration must include careful planning, execution and
follow-up in order to assure success. This is no different from any
extension program.

A CO backpack sprayer provides constant pressure for herbicide
applicat ons. These units are light-weight, compact and have a
minimum of moving parts. The choice of nozzles and accessories are
very similar to large grower sprayers.

For single nozzle band application, an even-spray flat fan nozzle
is preferred. For wider broadcast sprays, regular tapered-edge flat
fan nozzles that provide for pattern overlap should be used.
Depending on the gallons per acre to be applied, nozzles with flow
rates between 0.2 and 0.4 gallons per minute are best. Calibrated
8003 (LF3-80) nozzles at 20-25 psi, travelling at 3 MPH will deliver
approximately 20 GPA. Care must be taken to keep nozzle strainers and
other parts clean and operable. The use of check-ball strainers will
minimize nozzle dripping at the end of each sprayed plot.

There are many choices of boom designs and nozzle types. Consult
the sprayer manufacturer and the catalogs of Spraying Systems Company
and Delavan, Incorporated for additional information. The sprayer
calibration should be checked each time it is used.

Calibration of Small Plot Sprayers

The performance of any pesticide depends on the correct amount of
material uniformly applied over the plot area. There are three
variables that influence calibration accuracy:

1. The ground speed of the sprayer
2. The nozzle flow rate
3. The effective spray swath per nozzle.

Of these three factors, the most important is maintaining a
constant ground speed. Next check for uniformity and volume of flow
from each nozzle across the boom. The spray swath has been set by
accurate nozzle spacing and height.

Walking Speed

First check for uniformity of walking speed at 3 MPH. This is a
comfortable and easy to maintain speed.







(Continued)


Since 3 MPH equals 4.4 feet/second, measure out a course of 44
feet and practice walking that distance in 10 seconds.

Nozzle Flow Rate

The nozzle flow rate may be determined by the same method as
calibrating a large field sprayer. The 1/128th of an acre sprayer
calibration method works well. Consult additional fact sheets for
details on these methods. Always be sure that the variation in flow
rate between nozzles does not exceed +5%. The following chart has
reduced the flow check time to 15 seconds and expresses the volumes
required in milliliters. A 250 ml or 500 ml graduated cylinder works
best for this procedure.
FLOW RATES FOR 3 MPH

Milliliters of Liquid to Collect From Each Nozzle in 15 Seconds
Nozzle Spacing
Desired
GPA 18-inch 20-inch 24-inch

10 86 96 115
15 129 143 172
20 172 191 229
25 215 239 287
30 258 287 344
35 302 335 402
40 344 382 458
50 430 478 574

Herbicide Rate Calculations

With the sprayer and the operator calibrated, the amount of
herbicide to be applied must be determined. The small amount of
material required is usually measured in milliliters or grams. Even
though slide rule rate calculators are available, some of the new
chemistry requires that the amount needed for a given application be
calculated for increased precision. The following equations are the
easiest for small volume application.

Liquid Formulations

Rate desired lb/A ai x 3785 ml/gallon = ml of formulated product/
lbs/gallon ai GPA applied 1 gallon water

Example:

2 Ib/A Lasso x 3785 = 94.6 ml Lasso 4 EC/
4 EEC 2iT-GA 1 gallon water




-4-


(Herbicide Rate Calculations continued)

Dry Formulations

Rate desired Ib/A ai x 454 grams/lb = grams of wettable powder/
% active ingredient GPA applied 1 gallon water

Example:

2 Ib/A Atrazine x 454 = 56.75 grams Atrazine 80 WP/
.80 WP 20 GPA 1 gallon water

Note be sure to put a decimal point in front of the % active
ingredient figure.

Multiply these answers times the volume desired if other than a
1-gallon mix is needed.
(Stall & Curry Veg 3-85)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Horticulture Contest Tampa State Fair

A combined 4-H/FFA Horticulture Identification and Judging
Contest was held February 16 at the Tampa State Fair. Extension
Horticulture Specialists Bob Black-OH, Jim Ferguson-FC and Kathleen
Delate-VC set up the contest consisting of 30 specimens from each
category. The judging section included one category each from
vegetables and fruits and two from ornamentals.

35 teams of 120 FFA (from 14 different counties) members and 8
teams of 29 4-H'ers from 6 counties participated in the morning
contest. Awards were presented in the afternoon (trophies for the top
five teams and high individual in each group).

The following winners are congratulated for their efforts, along
with all participants and their teacher/leader coaches. Thanks is
extended to FFA personnel, Florida State Fair, Women's Garden Club and
Extension personnel and volunteers assisting with the contest.

4-H Category

Placing County Names Score
(out of possible 330)

1st Leon Ann Eberly 271
Chad Warmech
Joe Judge
Buddy Barber







(4-H Category Continued)


Score
(out of possible 330)


St. John's



Sarasota


Osceola



Hillsborough


Joe Burchfield
Dana Robinson
Jan Worthington
Jennifer Dingfelder

Sean York
Eric Hernandez
Sheri Troglen

Laura Lee Harrelson
Doris Carnes
Crysti Wood
Suzy Murphy

Robert Hart
David Jimenez
Suzy Hart


High Individual

FFA Category

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
High Individual


Robert Hart/Hillsborough County
(out

Plant City Senior
Chamberlain
Countryside High School
Dade City Senior
Tarpon Springs Senior
Richards-Brandon
(out
(Delate Veg. 3-85)


95
of possible 110)


287
271
268
258
258
101
of possible 110)


B. Vegetable Gardening Survey Palm Beach County

Palm Beach County Urban Horticulture Agent Gene Joyner asked
homeowners who attended his recent fall gardening classes about their
gardens. His survey sheds some interesting light on the subject of
growing vegetables in an urban environment. Out of 400 surveys
distributed,39 percent or 155 surveys were returned. From these, he
was able to tabulate the following information.

When reviewing these data, keep in mind that they do not necessarily
represent all of the gardening public of that area, and certainly not
the state. However, it is probable that most of the information would
fit most urban situations in Florida.


Sex: 91 male
60 female


Age: 0 under 21; 19-21 to 30; 26-31 to 40;
4T 41 to 50 -28 51 to W; 41 over 60.


Placing


County


Names


2nd


3rd


4th


246



224



221



220


5th








(Vegetable Gardening Survey Continued)
Housing: Urban (incorporated area) Rural (unincorporated)

94 single family 29 single lot
6 condominium 18 acreage
3 apartment 3 condo
1 mobile home 3 ranchette
1 mobile home
1. Is this your first time vegetable gardening? 46 yes; 106 no.
If no, how many vegetable gardens in past 5 years?

14-(1); 21-(2); 15-(3); 5-(4), and 34-(5).
2. Do you intend to grow any vegetables in containers this year?

75 yes; 71 no.

3. What vegetables will you probably grow in containers?

60 tomatoes 5 parsley 3 carrots 3 melons
19 peppers 4 lettuce 3 strawberry 3 beans
12 herbs 4 radish 3 cucumber 2 squash
5 onions 3 broccoli

4. What size garden will you have? Average size 419 sq. ft.
ranging from 2'x2' to 50'x75'. Note: average size U.S. garden is
approx. 600 sq. ft.
5. Will you add soil amendments? 135 yes; 7 no.
What will you use?

78 animal manure 17 compost
73 peat moss 13 sawdust
71 topsoil 12 grass clippings

6. Do you plan to pre-treat the soil for nematode control before
planting?

91 yes; 30 no.

7. Which of the following types of fertilizer will you use most in
your garden?

92 dry (granular fertilizer)
25 liquid or soluble type
11 combination of both

8. Approximately what percent will be started by:

Seeds

47 (75-100%) 38 (50-70%) 25 (5-40%)




-I-


(Vegetable Gardening Survey Continued)

Purchased Transplants


38 (75-100%)


85 (50-70%)


45 (5-40%)


9. List 12 favorite
preference.


tomatoes
bush beans
lettuce
cucumber


vegetables you usually buy seeds for in order of


pepper
radish
carrots
squash


10. Transplants?


100
52
18
17


- tomatoes
- peppers
- herbs
- eggplant


cabbage
onions
broccoli
strawberry


11. What type of irrigation do you plan to use?

59 hand watering
45 sprinkler
19 hand and sprinkler
9 drip
3 hand and drip

12. How will you use your produce?


101
12
69
6


(80-100% fresh)
(10-50% canned)
(10-70% frozen)
(3-10% dried)


13. Respondents


120
92
55
54
28
18
16
10
5


Persons will be fed produce


said
said
said
said
said
said
said
said
said


14. Are you using any printed Extension vegetable gardening
information?

Yes 62
No 71


onions
corn
peas
beets


cucumber
lettuce
collard




-8-


(Vegetable Gardening Survey Continued)

15. Are you using any vegetable recipes offered by Extension?

Yes 12
No 119

Summary

Urban vegetable gardeners who attended this meeting in Palm Beach
County appear to be mostly experienced male gardeners under 50 years
of age living in single family dwellings. Gardens are small, many in
containers, where primarily tomatoes are grown. Soils are amended,
fumigated, fertilized with dry fertiizer, and irrigated by hand or
sprinklers. Most vegetables are started from seeds, but many
transplants mostly tomatoes and peppers are also purchased. Most
produce is used fresh to feed at least two from the garden. Gardeners
are split on their use of Extension gardening guides, and are not
likely to use Extension recipes.

Thanks to Gene

Again, thanks to Gene Joyner, Extension Urban Horticulture agent
in Palm Beach County for conducting this timely survey upon whose
results this report is based.
(Stephens Veg. 3-85)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe Kathleen Delate
Chairman J Visiting Ext. Agent I

Dr. G. J. Hochmu v Dr. S. M. Olson
Assistant Profes rr Assistant Professor

Dr. M. Sherman Dr. W. M. Stall
Assistant Professor Associate Professor

J. M. Stephens Dr. D. N. Maynard
Associate Professor Professor







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