Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1984
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00201
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 IISPP Gainesville. FL 32611* Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian q_-


September 14, 1984


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications
B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Commercial Management for Increased Pest Conrol
in Tomatoes


III. HOME VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Safety in the Vegetable Garden


B. The Fourth Annual Florida Master
Training


Gardener


Note:

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


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I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. New Publications

1984 Florida Tomato Institute. W. M. Stall (Ed.) Vegetable Crops
Extension Report VEC 84-4.

Vegetable Crops Weed Control Trials (1984). W. M. Stall (Ed.)
Vegetable Crops Research Report VEC 84-2.

Foliar Applied Nutrient Sprays on Tomatoes. A. A. Csizinszky.
Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA 1984-9.

Sweet Corn Cultivar Trial, Belle Glade, Florida. K. D. Shuler
and E. A. Wolf. Palm Beach County Extension Report 1984-2. June
1984.

Radish Variety Trials, Everglades Agricultural Area. 1983-84.
K. D. Shuler. Palm Beach County Extension Report 1984-4. August
1984.

Radish Spacing Trials. Everglades Agricultural Area. 1983-84.
K. D. Shuler. Palm Beach County Extension Report 1984-6. August
1984.

Results of Fungicide Trials on Radishes, Everglades Agricultural
Area. 1983-84. K. D. Shuler and D. F. Myers. Palm Beach County
Extension Report 1984-5. August, 1984.

Napa Chinese Cabbage Variety Trials. Everglades Agricultural
Area. 1983-84. K. D. Shuler. Palm Beach Extension Report 1984-8.
August, 1984.

Fresh Market Tomato Variety Trial Results of Spring 1984. T. K.
Howe, J. W. Scott and W. E. Waters. Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA 1984-10. August, 1984.

To obtain copies of the above listed publications notify the authors
or request from Publications Distribution Center, Building 660,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

1. October 2-4 National Agricultural Plastics Association -
Grove Park Inn Asheville, North Carolina.

2. November 4-7 FSHS Meeting Doral Hotel Miami Beach, FL.








II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Commercial Management for Increased Pest Control in Tomatoes

The importance of cultural control and sanitation as an integral
part of pest control in tomato production was made very clear through
several presentations at the 1984 Florida Tomato Institute, held
September 6, 1984 at Marco Island, Florida.
As A. J. Overman pointed out, migration and rotation practices to
escape nematodes, soil-borne diseases, insects, and weeds are
gradually being surplanted in modern tomato production by use of soil
fumigation. When virgin land was easily available, appropriately
located, and cheaply prepared for crops, soil fumigation was rarely
needed. Growers migrated from one location to another routinely.
Today new land is rare, old land is expensive, and the high cost of
tomato production demands maximum marketable yield per unit of land
managed.
J. B. Jones and K. Pohronezny in their presentations on the
survival and in-fields spread of the bacterial spot pathogen in
Florida pointed out that the bacteria will survive long periods of
time on volunteer tomato plants in and around the fields.
Experimental results also show that when these infected
volunteers are disced down, the bacteria may survive in the buried
residue up to 3 months.
Discing the fields periodically in the off season eliminated the
volunteers. Fields that were disced once and planted to sorghum had
volunteer tomatoes present in the field when the next tomato crop was
planted. Bacterial spot was associated with the volunteers.
Wind driven rain has been known to spread bacterial spot from
diseased to nearby healthy plants for many years. Hand thinning and
pruning are also implicated in spreading the disease down the row.
Recently bacteria have been shown to be dispersed long distances
aerially. This can happen two ways. One is in an aerosol form during
or after rains. The other is the aerial dispersal of bacteria over
crops during dry, sunny periods. When the bacteria land on the
tomato plant, they may survive as epiphytes on the surface of
apparently healthy leaves. When the conditions then become favorable,
the bacteria can multiply and disease then appears.
In a tomato monoculture system a cultural management system that
includes the following is indicated.

1. Destruction of crops immediately after harvest. Disease
organisms, nematodes, insects and weed seeds increase with time.
Disease organisms, insects and weed seeds can spread to
surrounding fields.

2. Fallow cultivate between tomato crops. This eliminates the
volunteer tomato plants in the field and reduces nematodes and
weeds. Herbicide fallowing does not effectively control the
nematode population.
A combination of herbicide & cultivation fallowing may be best to
control difficult weed pests such as nutsedge.







3. Cover Crops. Several agronomic crops surpress specific nematode
and weed species. The fast growing grasses are some of the best.
Volunteer tomato plants may survive in a cover crop, however. If
cover crops are used, they should be disced under far enough
ahead of planting to allow complete crop residue breakdown.
(Stall Veg. 84-9)


III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Safety in the Vegetable Garden

Under normal circumstances, growing vegetables at home is a
fascinating and rewarding hobby for many Floridians. However, the fun
and benefits are quickly ended by careless gardening practices which
result in accidental injury, poisoning, pain, or suffering. Like
garden insects and diseases, accidents in and around the garden are
better prevented than treated. Accidents waiting to happen are
present through the gardening season, but can be prevented with
common good sense and simple precautions.
The following are just some of the various situations wherein
gardeners may find possible hazards lurking among their gourds and
zucchinis.

1. Using a knife:
a) Pruning and suckering
b) Cutting potato seed pieces, separating root clumps, or
cutting cassava canes
c) Cutting strings, plastic, or opening bags
d) Harvesting vegetables such as cabbage, lettuce, celery, okra,
and eggplant. Consider using snips rather than a knife where
possible.
e) slicing watermelons always cut down toward the table

2. Using other sharp instruments:
a) Hoeing wear heavy shoes
b) Mole traps don't set where children might play with them,
and be careful to avoid the tines when you set the trap.
c) Pitchforking this is one of the sharpest tools, so be extra
careful.
d) Staking never use sharp pointed stakes such as rods for row
ends or plant support; someone might stumble or fall onto
one.
e) Sharp tools always keep them sharp but be especially
careful when filing or grinding.

3. Leaving tools on the ground or in the garden
a) Rakes turn tines down, even temporarily.
b) Hand tools left in the garden may be stepped upon when the





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weeds grow up around it.
c) Hoes step on one, and you could get bonked in the snoot.

4. Improper physical work
a) Stooping kneel or bend your knees to pull weeds or work at
the soil level to avoid back strain
b) Lifting always follow the rules for proper lifting. Be
especially careful with heavy bags of fertilizer, lime,
mulch, and compost. Remember, watermelons, squashes, and
pumpkins may weigh over 50 pounds each.
c) Spading learn to use your leg as a leverage point when
turning sod or shoveling.
d) Push-plowing be sure you are strong enough physically to
push a wheel hoe before attempting it.
e) Chopping and use of grubbing hoe both are physically
demanding, and could lead to cutting injury.

5. Land Clearing
a) Thorny vines and palmettos stalks of the common paletto are
very thorny with saw toothed edges which can rip your hands
when grasped. Likewise, the thorny smilax vines are
difficult to remove without gloves.
b) Stump removal have the proper equipment or seek
professional help.

6. Mechanized equipment
a) Roto-tillers and shredders use precautions. Always turn
off engine before unfouling.
b) Garden tractors are you skilled enough to use them without
accident?

7. Power lines never locate your garden beneath low-hanging power
lines or where you might touch them with a water line or long
handled tool.
8. Venomous pests
a) Snakes watch out for them. Don't dig around under mulch
with bare hands, especially around foundation of house where
coral snakes like to hide. Keep weeds down in and around the
garden. Turn vining vegetables, such as cucumbers, with a
stick to search for fruit.
b) Ants -
c) Spiders black widows like old tin cans which you might find
useful in your garden chores.
d) Bees and wasps they hang around blossoms.
e) Squash bugs when squashing a squash bug, never get your
eyes too close, as the juice may squirt you in the eye with
great discomfort.







9. Use
a)
b)

c)
d)
e)

f)
g)


of pesticides, fertilizer, and lime
Read labels and follow directions
Wear protective clothing gear such as rubber gloves and eye
goggles.
Avoid windy days
Store in original labeled containers
Keep away from children and other irresponsible people and
animals.
Turn head aside when releasing pressure from tank.
Lime and sulfur -being dusty, they can blow into your eyes.
Wear goggles and gloves.


10. Eating vegetables
a) Unknown types always know the vegetable you are eating.
Few vegetables are poisonous, but what you think is safe may
be something else. Never eat a wild mushroom.
b) Unwashed vegetables always wash the vegetable before you
eat it, especially if it has been sprayed.

11. a) Lightning seek shelter
b) Heat don't work too long in the boiling sun.


Make gardening fun and safe.
(Stephens Veg. 84-9)




B. The Fourth Annual Florida Master Gardener Advanced Training

The fourth Annual Florida Master Gardener Advanced Training course was
held August 29 and 30 in the Reitz Union. Certified Master Gardeners from
22 counties participated in the program with registration numbers totalling
167. Ten specialists from IFAS offered classes on topics ranging from
Intergrated Pest Management to Native Plants. Emphasis was placed on
hands-on material during the second day of concurrent sessions. Tours to
various horticultural and botanical labs and of interest areas were given
following the classes. An awards ceremony and bar-b-que prepared by the
U.F. Poutry Science Club was held on August 29 in the Livestock Pavillion.
Various department chairmen and extension directors attended the program.
Dean Woeste distributed the awards and spoke to the Master Gardeners on the
subject of their responsibility as official Extension representatives.
A highlight of the conference was Dr. Bill Becker in a bathing suit
demonstrating the wrong way to mow the lawn for his "Safety" program.
Although it was not planned, it was exactly what was needed to open eyes at
the 8 a.m. session. Additional training sessions in other areas of the
state are currently being discussed.


(K. M. Delate Veg. 84-9)





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Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


D. N. Maynard
Chairman

G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professor

M. Sherman
Assistant Professor


6OA)"113


Kathleen Delate
Visiting Extension Agent I


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

W. M. Stall
Associate Professor




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