Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1984
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00200
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIOA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


V-p

VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publicatior


VT-etable Crops Department 1255 THSP Gainesville.


Vegetarian 84-8


FL 32611 Telephone 392-213


August 8, 1984


Contents


I. VEGETABLE CROPS CALENDAR

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Fresh Market Vegetable Production

B. Herbicide Families and Symptoms of Injuries

IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. 4-H Horticulture Identification and Judging
Contest
B. 4-H Horticulture Demonstrations

NOTE:


Anyone is free to
Whenever possible,


use the information in this newsletter.
please give credit to the authors.


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not neces-
sarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex. or national origin..
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


I _qaf


- I


I --









I. VEGETABLE CROPS CALENDAR

1. August 29-30 Master Gardener Advanced Training. University of
Florida,Gainesville, FL.

2. September 6 Florida Tomato Institute Marriott's Marco Beach
Resort, Marco Island, FL.

3. October 2-4 National Agricultural Plastics Association Grove Park
Inn Ashville, North Carolina.

4. November 4-7 FSHS Meeting Doral Hotel Miami Beach, FL.


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

Pendimethalin labelled on Dry, Snap and Lima Beans.

Pendimethalin (Prowl) has received a national label for the control
of certain weeds on dry, snap and lima beans.

The herbicide is labelled for 1.0 to 1.5 pints (.5 to .75 Ibs ai) per
acre applied as a pre-plant incorporated treatment in sandy soils.

Pendimethalin has been .in herbicide trials on snap beans in Gaines-
ville the past four years.

The results of the trials warrents the herbicides being added to the
recommended list for this commodity.

(Stall Veg. 84-8)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Fresh Market Vegetable Production

The USDA Crop Reporting Board recently released the 1983 Vegetables
Summary. Data for nine principal fresh market vegetables and melons
are included: broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, celery, sweet corn,
lettuce, honeydew melon, onion, and tomato. Obviously these data do
not include many of our important crops such as bean, cabbage, cu-
cumber, pepper, potato, radish, squash, and watermelon. Unfortun-
ately, acquisition of national data on many of these crops was
eliminated a few years ago due to budgetary restrictions. It is not
possible, therefore, to make state by state comparisons of the total
vegetable industry.

For those crops on which comparative data is available, Florida
ranks a solid second in harvested area, production and value.










LEADING FRESH MARKET VEGETABLE STATES IN 1983


: HARVESTED AREA : PRODUCTION VALUE
RANK : : PERCENT: : PERCENT: : PERCENT
: STATE : OF TOTAL: STATE : OF TOTAL: STATE : OF TOTAL


1 : CALIF 45.7 :CALIF 51.5 :CALIF 49.0

2 : FLA 13.4 : FLA 12.4 : FLA 19.0

3 : TEX 6.7 : ARIZ 6.5 : ARIZ 5.2

4 : ARIZ 5.4 : TEX 5.6 :TEX 5.1

5 :N Y 5.1 :MICH 3.4 :N Y 3.5



The nine reported vegetables were harvested from 941 thousand acres,
a 2% increase over 1982 and had a value of $2.91 billion, an 11%
increase over the previous year.

Data for strawberry production is also included in the report.
Florida ranks third in area harvested (5400 acres) behind California
(12,000 acres) and Oregon (6900 acres), second in yield/acre (190 cwt)
behind California (520 cwt), second in production (1026 1000 cwt)
compared to California (6240 1000 cwt), and second in crop value
($52.5 million) compared to California ($279.3 million).

These data reemphasize the importance of Florida as a fresh market
vegetable producing state. When season of production is considered,
the importance of Florida production becomes even more apparent.
During the fall, winter, and spring seasons there are times when
Florida production represents virtually all of the domestic supply of
certain vegetables.

(Maynard Veg. 84-7)

B. Herbicide Families and Symptoms of Injuries.

We are finishing the classifications of herbicide families started in
the June and July Vegetarian. It may be of benefit to combine the
articles and place them in a position where they can be referred to at
the same time as the "Herbicide Injury Symptoms and Diagnosis"
publication from North Carolina State.








Family: Phenoxys

Mode of Action and Symptoms: These herbicides have auxin-like
properties which result in excessive cellular growth and symptoms
appear as abnormal growth of the plant. They are usually foliar
applied and are translocated to terminal meristems of leaf, shoot and
root. The first symptom of injury is usually stem twisting followed
by strapping, or cupping and twisting of the leaves.

Herbicides:

Common Name Trade Name
2,4-0 Several Products
2,4-DB Butoxons, Butyrac
2,4-DP Several Products
2,4-DEP Falone
MCPA Several Products
MCPP Several Products
Silvex Several Products
2,4,5-T Several Products


Family: Diphenyl ethers

Mode of Action and Symptoms: Symptoms are generally expressed on the
foliage as a contact herbicide resulting in necrosis. Most of these
do not translocate. They are foliar applied. Cells are killed
through the rupture of cell membranes. They may also inhibit photo-
synthesis. Broadleaf weeds are affected to a greater degree than
grasses.

Herbicides:

Common Name Trade Name
a cifluoren Blazer
bifenox Modown
diclofop methyl Hoelon
fluoradefen Preforan, Soyex
nitrofen Tok
oxyfluorfen Goal

Family: Thiocarbamates

Mode of Action and Symptoms: These herbicides act primarily by
inhibiting growth of shoots of emerging seedlings. Uptake occurs
through seeds, shoots, or roots. The herbicides are relatively
volatile. The major symptom in grasses is the failure of the leaves
to emerge properly from the coleoptile. The leaves may remain rolled
and emerge from the base of the coleoptile. When this occurs, the
leaf tip often remains in the coleoptile and the growing leaf forms a
loop. In broadleaf plants the seedling leaves often stick together or
may be cupped or crinkled with necrotic edges.











Herbicides:


Common Name
butylate
CDEC
cycloate
diallate
EPTC
molinate
pebulate
triallate
vermolate


Trade Name
Sutan
Vegedex
Ro-Neet
Avadex
Eptam, Eradicane
Ordram
Tillam
Avadex BW
Vernam


Family: Triazines

Mode of Action and Symptoms: These herbicides are photosynthetic
inhibitors. Symptoms are generally leaf chlorosis followed by
necrosis. The initial chlorosis may be veinal, interveinal or on the
leaf margin. Triazine injury on corn causes yellow leaf margins and
tips which then turn brown. In beans, injury sometimes appears as
yellowing of outer leaf margins. In tomatoes, the younger leaf turns
yellow, with veins remaining somewhat green, often being confused with
iron deficiency.


Herbicides:


Common Name
ametryne
atrazine
cyanozine
hexazinone
metribuzin
prometon
prometryn
propazine
simazine
terbutryne


Trade Name
Evik
Aatrex, Atrazine
Bladex
Velpar
Lexone, Sencore
Promitol
Caparol
Milogard
Princep
Igran


Family: Ureas and Uracils

Mode of Action and Symptoms: These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis
in much the same manner as triazines. They are also relatively
nonselective at high rates. Injury symptoms in corn and beans are
very similar to triazines. In many cases however, chlorosis is first
noticed in the leaf veins and later spreads to the interveinal areas.







-6-


Herbicides:


Common Name
choloxuron
diuron

fenuron
fluometuron
linuron
monuron
norea
siduron
tebuthiuron

bromacil
terbaci 1


Trade Name
Norex, Tenoran
Karmex, Diuron, Fasco,
Cordi
Dybar
Cotran, Lanex
Lorox
Telvar
Herban
Tripersan
Graslan, Spike

Hyvar X, Hyvar XL
Sinbar


Family: Post Grass Materials


Mode of Action and Symptoms: These herbicides are classed in several
families but are similar in action. These are relatively new her-
bicides and are extremely active on grasses at relatively low rates.
Many can be applied to most broadleaf crops with little risk of crop
injury. The herbicides are translocated from.the point of uptake to
the meristem. In some cases soil activity has been documented at high
application rates. They are most effective when applied to rapidly
growing grass weeds. Antagonism and reduced control has been noted
when tank-mixed with other herbicides.


Herbicides:


Common Name
fluazifop

sethoxydim
norflurazon
oxadiazon


Trade Name
Fusilade
Assure
Poast
Zorial
Ronstar


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Results-State 4-H Horticultural Identification and Judging Contest.

The state contest was held at Gainesville during state 4-H Congress.
Twelve counties, involving 46 individuals, participed with teams of
three (plus an alternate in some cases).

Contestants identified 35 vegetables, 35 fruits, 35 woody orna-
mentals, and 35 flowering ornamentals. In addition, they judged
fruits, vegetables and ornamentals. The winning team was from St.
Johns County, which included the high individual scorer, Pam Solano.









-7-


The top team won the right to represent Florida in Grand Rapids,
Michigan, at the national contest, October 26-29, 1984.

4-H HORTICULTURE IDENTIFICATION AND JUDGING CONTEST 1984

JULY 24, 1984

J.M. Stephens, Bob Black, Jim Ferguson, and Kathleen Delate


UUN I TY:
ST. JOHN'S (1)
1 Solano, Pam 011
2 Robinson, Amy 012
3 Grady, Michell 013
4 Smith, Eric 014


Fruits and
Vegetables


305
315
290
150


Ornamentals


335
335
330
140


Judqinc


182
167
141
176
St. Johns


Total
Individual
Score


822
817
761
466*
2400"


COUNTY:
Hillsboro (20
16 Hart, Steve 051 255 270 187 712* 12
17 Hart, Rob 052 255 330 184 769 7
18 Hinton, Teki 053 280 325 196 801 3
19 Hinton, Shani 054 265 285 178 728 10
CHillsborough 2T9! -2"
COUNTY:
Marion (3)
Brady, Kely 101 295 335 170 800 4
36 Lane, David 102 225 275 179 679 17
37 Theus, Joanna 103 180 205 168 553* 31
38 Perryman, Laury 104 270 335 190 795 5
Marion 227 '7
COUNTY:
Brevard (4)
39 Makela, Cindy 111 260 295 171 726 11
40 Makela, Larry 112 220 295 164 679 18
41 Woodward, Jon 113 220 265 165 650 21
42 Selig, Dorthy 114 235 295 176 706 13
Brevard 2111 4
COUNTY:
Alachua (5)
9 Bays, Bubba 031 170 150 147 467 37
10 Waldoy, Mark 032 265 335 181 781 6
11 Deadrick, Lee 033 280 300 179 759 9
Alachua 2007- 5
* Low score not added


Placi nqs


_Onaen tals-














COUNTY:
DeSoto (6)
12 Albritton, Creacia 041
13 Blosser, Gina 042
14 Blosser, C. W. 043
15 Lewis, Ken 044


Fruits and
Vegetables


195
210
175
250


Ornamentals


215
295
155
245


Total
Individual
Judqinq Score


167
178
168
181
DeSoto


577
683
498*
676
19T36


COUNTY:
Duval (7)
43 Wilburn, Myra 121 210 230 158 598 24
44 Hudgins, Cindy 122 200 210 181 591 25
45 Penders, Donna 123 225 280 177 682 16
46 Wikinson, Rodney 124 240 145 181 566* 28
Duval i187T -7
COUNTY:
Sarasosta (8)
28 Schivimel, Joe 081 220 230 177 427 43
29 York, Sean 082 240 255 173 668 20
30 Hernaudez, Eric 083 240 210 188 638 22
Sarasota 17J5M -
COUNTY:
Volusia (9)
31 Hartman, Sandra 091 225 220 181 626 23
32 Morton, Ann 092 185 125 153 463* 39
33 Gibson, Nina 093 155 150 179 484 36
34 Chick, Karen 094 195 200 158 553 30
Volusia 1SM -9
COUNTY:
Osceola (10)
24 Hareilson, LauraLu 071 280 220 184 684 14
25 Carnes, Dorris 072 185 165 161 511 34
26 Murphy, Suzie 073 135 120 187 442 40
27 Keene, Gina 074 160 120 162 370* 41
Osceola 16-T7- T
COUNTY:
Taylor (11)
20 Ambererombie 061 175 195 176 546 32
21 Williams, Aneline 062 135 130 176 441 42
22 Smith, Monica 063 135 85 150 370* 45
23 William, Carla 064 180 220 191 591 26
Taylor 137i 11
COUNTY:
Martin (12)
5 Harrison, Renee 021 210 145 186 541 33
6 Power, Susan 022 130 130 151 411 44
7 Bush, Kelly 023 230 190 139 559 29
8 Bush, Pat 024 115 90 138 343* 46
Martin T51 T2
* Low score not added
(Stephens Veg. 84-8)


Placinqs


_^I____









-9-


B. Results State 4-H Horticultural Demonstrations

On July 26, Fifield Hall was the site of the 1984 4-H Congress
Horticultural Demonstrations event coordinated by Kathleen Delate and
attended by twenty-five participants, their agents and leaders. As an
experiment, members entered the state contest this year directly from
their counties without the traditional district eliminations. This
led to increased participation in Gainesville, at times to the dismay
of the three judges (Steve Kostewicz Vegetable crops, Kathy Taylor -
Fruit Crops and Ed Duke Ornamental Horticulture) who patiently
critiqued the 13 individual and 6 two-person team demonstrations over
a 4 hour period.

After much discussion winners were chosen from the array of
excellent demonstrations: Maggie Keys and Kim Liddell of Indian River
County First Place with their "Selecting Healthy House Plants;"
Paula Bergin and Lori Warren of Levy County Second Place with
"Preserving Flowers" and Prem Subrahmanyan of Leon County Third
Place with "Orchids." Nineteen counties were represented with talks.
ranging from "Terrariums" to "Grafting"; the majority concerned with
ornamental topics.

Winners of the contest will now.participate in the National
Junior Horticulture Association's convention in Michigan in October.

(Delate Veg. 84-8)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D. N. Maynard J. M. Stephens
-Chairman Associate Professor

G. A. Marlowe S. M. Olson
Professor Assistant Professor

M. Sherman W. M. Stall
Assistant Professor Associate Professor




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