Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: July 1984
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00199
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HSPP Cainebville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


N*


July 12, 1984


Contents

1. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. 1984 Tomato Institute
B. Vegetable Crops Calendar
C. To Your Health

2. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Herbicide Families and Symptoms of Injuries
B. Productivity Growth in the Florida Fresh Winter
Vegetable Industry

3. HOME GARDENING
A. Yellow-margined Leaf Beetle Pest on Crucifers


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


Vegetarian 84-7







I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. 1984 Tomato Institute

The 1984 Florida Tomato Institute will be held September 6, 1984
at the Marriott's Marco Beach Resort, Marco Island, Florida.
The Tomato Institute will again proceed the Joint Tomato
Exchange/Committee meetings September 7 & 8. Those wishing to reserve
rooms at the Marriot should contact the Tomato Committee by August 1.
The preliminary program for the Institute follows:

1984 Florida Tomato Institute

Registration and coffee

Welcome D. N. Maynard, Chairman, Vegetable Crops Department,
Gainesville, FL

The 1983-84 Tomato Season Wayne Hawkins, Florida Tomato
Exchange/Committee, Orlando, FL

Frost Protection of Tomatoes J. D. Martsolf, Fruit Crops
Department, Gainesville, FL

Foliar Applied Nutrient Sprays on Tomatoes A. A. Csizinsky,
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton, FL

Biostimulants -- Timing and Response on Tomatoes H. H. Bryan,
Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL

Advances in IFAS Tomato Breeding Program J. W. Scott, Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton, FL

Financial Considerations for Tomato Growers in the 80's J. W.
Prevatt, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton, FL

Spectrum of Activity of Trigard and Avid Against Tomato Insect
Pests D. J. Schuster, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center,
Bradenton, FL

Survival of Bacterial Spot in Florida J. B. Jones, Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center, Bradenton, FL

Spread of Bacterial Spot in Tomatoes in Florida K. Pohronezny,
Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL

Special Review of Certain Pesticides R. P. Clark, Chief,
Pesticides and Toxic Substances Branch, EPA, Atlanta, GA

Update of Fumigants and Alternatives for Nematode Control A. J.
Overman, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton, FL




-3-


Potential for Expansion of the Florida Tomato Processing Industry
R. F. Matthews, Food Science and Human Nutrition Department,
Gainesville, FL

A Years Experience with the 40 x 30 cm MUM containers for Florida
Tomatoes M. Sherman, Vegetable Crops Department, Gainesville,
FL

Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Tomatoes D. D. Gull,
Vegetable Crops Department, Gainesville, FL

B. VEGETABLE CROPS CALENDAR

1. July 24 State 4-H Horticultural Judging and Demonstration
Contest. 4-H Congress, Gainesville, FL

2. August 29-30 Master Gardener Advanced Training. University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

3. September 6 Florida Tomato Institute Marriott's Marco
Beach Resort, Marco Island, FL.

4. October 2-4 National Agricultural Plastics Association -
Grove Park Inn Ashville, North Carolina.

5. November 4-7 FSHS Meeting Doral Hotel Miami Beach, FL.


C. TO YOUR HEALTH

Two areas of increasing concern of the consuming public are
general health/weight-control and cancer prevention. Fresh produce
can be a vital link in alleviating many of these problems.
The National Cancer Institute is preparing to issue detailed
dietary recommendations for cancer prevention. The main thrust of
these recommendations will be to persuade the public to eat more
fruits, vegetables and whole grains, and smaller amounts of almost
everything else. The dietary recommendations to the U.S. public for
prevention of cancer will be:

Dietary fiber: Increase the current average intake of 10 15
grams a day to 25 -30 grams a day. To do this, the public is advised
to eat four servings of fruit and/or vegetables a day. The top fiber
foods (produce) are bananas, oranges, apples, cantaloupe, corn, pota-
toes, spinach, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, carrots, celery and squash.
Vitamin A (carotene): Diets low in foods containing vitamin A
or carotene are associated with cancers of the lung, bladder and
larynx. All dark green leafy vegetables and yellow-orange fruits and
vegetables contain carotene, which the body converts to vitamin A.
Vitamin C: This vitamin may help protect the body from stomach
and esophagal cancer. The diet experts recommend that consumers get
vitamin C from fresh fruits and vegetables instead of a pill. A large
number of fruits and vegetables are high in vitamin C, including







citrus, melons and berries, tomatoes, green vegetables and cauli-
flower. Research shows that cruciferous vegetables, from the cabbage
family, strengthen the body's natural defenses against cancer-causing
chemi calls.
Fat: Fat levels of the U.S. diet are indicated in both cancer
and heart disease incidence. The diet experts suggest choosing
low-fat versions of favorite foods, such as lean beef, skim milk and
ice cream. To cut down on fat further the diet experts recommend
eating fresh fruits and vegetables as snacks.

In The Packer's 1983 "Fresh Attitudes" survey, 92% said nutrition
value was important to their decision to buy a given produce item, and
71% considered calorie content an important consideration. Most
fruits and vegetables have a low calorie content. Some of the vege-
tables may not top the list in vitamin content but provide a deli-
cious, low-calorie, high-fiber diet. Listed is the actual calorie
content (per 100 g. edible portion) for a number of fruits and
vegetables:


Item Calories
Avacado 167
Lima Bean 123
Corn 96
Banana 85
Potato 76
Grape 69
Apple 58
Orange 45
Carrot 42
Green Bean 32


Item Calories
Broccoli 32
Cauliflower 27
Spinach 26
Cabbage 24
Tomato 22
Celery 17
Radish 17
Cucumber 15
Lettuce 13


Nutritional content of a given vegetable must be considered in
relation to the quantity consumed. Broccoli, spinach, Brussel sprouts
and lima beans all have high relative nutritional values but are not
the most important "contributors" because of the low amounts consumed.
The potato is low in vitamin C but we eat a lot of them so they are
major "contributors". Listed below are three rankings of fresh pro-
duce based on their contribution to health:


Item
Carrot
Sw. Potato
Tomato
Cantaloupe
Peach
Orange
Spinach
Corn
Lettuce
Pepper


Vitamin A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10


Item
Range
Potato
Tomato
Grapefruit
Cabbage
Corn
Pepper
Cantaloupe
Apple
Banana


Vitamin C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10


Item
Tomato
Orange
Potato
Lettuce
Corn
Banana
Carrot
Cabbage
Cantaloupe
Pepper


From a nutritional standpoint the tomato is one of the most
important vegetables having a high vitamin content, fiber, but low in


Overall
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10








calories. We are all consumers and many are involved in the produc-
tion and marketing of fruits and vegetables. A heightened awareness
of the nutrition benefits of fresh produce consumption, combined with
enhanced knowledge of the nutrient composition of different produce
varieties, paves the way for increased sales of fresh fruits and
vegetables AND better health to all.

(Gull Vegetarian 84-7)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Herbicide Families and Symptoms of Injuries

Last month three herbicide families (Amide, Acetanilides and
Arsenicals) were listed as to symptoms of injury and common herbicides
in that family. This month we continue with the classifications. The
last group (Phenoxys through Ureas) will be published in August.

Family: Benzoics

Mode of Action and Symptoms: These herbicides are one of several
groups of herbicides described as growth hormone herbicides. These
herbicides have auxin-like properties which result in excessive cellu-
lar growth. Symptoms generally appear similar to the phenoxy herbi-
cides but often exhibit more epinasty (leaf-cupping). Benzoics move
from leaves to terminal meristems and also move in the transpiration
stream. They may be soil applied.

Herbi ci des:

Common Name Trade Name
chloramben Amiben, Vegiben
dicamba Banvel
2,3,6 TBA Several products


Family: Benzothiadiazoles

Mode of Action and Symptoms: This herbicide kills broadleaf weeds and
nutsedge by photosynthesis inhibition. It differs from other photo-
synthesis inhibitors (triazines and ureas) in that very limited trans-
location takes place.

Herbicides:

Common Name Trade Name
bentazon Basagran

Family: Bipyridyliums

Mode of Action and Symptoms: These are primarily contact herbicides
when applied to green plant tissue. The herbicides are nonselective.


-b-







Chloroplasts, oxygen and light are required for maximum symptom devel-
opment. The herbicides disrupt cell membranes resulting in rapid
dessication of the treated areas followed by necrosis. Plants treated
in the dark will not express full sypmtoms development until placed in
the light. Very little translocation takes place within treated
plants. The herbicide molecules carry strong positive charges and
absorb very tightly to soil colloids, resulting in virtually no soil
activity.

Herbicides:


Common Name
diquat
paraquat


Trade Name
Ortho Diquat, Aquacide
Gramoxone, Ortho paraquat


Family: Carbanilates


Mode of Action and Symptoms: The carbanilates (often referred to as
carbamates) are similar to acetanilides in that they are meristematic
inhibitors that translocate. Members of their group are applied both
preemergence and to emerged weeds. When soil applied, they are ab-
sorbed through shoots and roots.

Herbicides:


Common Name
asulam
phenmidipham
barban
propham
chlopropham


Trade Name
Asulox
Betanal
Carbyne
Chem-Hoe
Furloe


Family: Dinitroanilines


Mode of Action and Symptoms: these herbicides are primarily root
growth inhibitors. Shoot growth may be inhibited if the herbicide is
absorbed by the shoot or may be indirectly affected by reduced root
growth. Symptoms are generally associated with inhibition of lateral
root growth resulting in short, stubby, and/or swollen roots.

Herbicides:


Common Name
benefit
butralim
dinitramine
fluchloralin
isopropalin
oryzalin
pendimethalin
profluralin
trifluralin


Trade Name
Balan
Amex 820
Cobex
Basalin
Paarlan
Surflan
Prowl
Tolban
Treflan




Family: Nitriles

Mode of Action and Symptoms: Dichlobenil acts primarily on the grow-
ing points of shoots and roots and usually results in swelling or
collapse of stems, roots and leaf petioles. In certain cases martinal
leaf chlorosis may also be observed. Bromoxynil acts as a photosyn-
thetic and respiratory inhibitor and results in rapid dessication and
necrosis of treated plants.

Herbicides:

Common Name Trade Name
bromoxynil Buctril; Brominal
dichlobeni Casoron


Family: Phenols

Mode of Action and Symptoms: These herbicides are often considered as
respiratory inhibitors; however, on hot sunny days they act primarily
on contact and result in destruction of cell membranes. The symptoms
on the treated parts of the plant appear dessicated and then necrotic.

Herbicides:

Common Name Trade Name
denoseb (DNBP) Premerge 3, Dow General
Dow Selective, Basanite

(Stall Vegetarian 84-7)

B. Productivity Growth in the Florida Fresh Winter Vegetable
Industry

One measure of the economic health of an industry is its rate of
productivity growth. In simple terms, productivity growth measures
the change over time in real cost per unit of output. For example,
although the cost per acre of growing a crop may increase over time,
technological improvements may lead to increases in yield to the
extent that cost per unit actually declines. The rate at which this
occurs over time is directly related to the rate of productivity
growth.
Over the 1969-1970 to 1981-82 period, Florida fresh winter vege-
table producers have exhibited substantial productivity growth (Table
1). Average annual rates of productivity growth range from about 1.7%
per year for squash production in Dade County to 8.3% for pepper pro-
duction in Palm Beach County. Productivity growth in tomato produc-
tion over the 1969-70 to 1981-82 period varied from 3.3% in Dade
County to 5.6% in the Manatee-Ruskin area.
The sources of this productivity growth are broad-based.
Improved plant varieties with resistance to extreme weather conditions
and/or pests, improved cultivation practices and increased efficiency
in performing current production practices have contributed to the
productivity gains realized.







Whether or not these substantial rates of productivity growth
will continue through the current decade and beyond is difficult to
determine. The broad-ranging determinants to productivity growth make
such projections little more than mere guesses. What can be said,
however, is that such continued growth in productivity will require
continued and close cooperation between scientific researchers, exten-
sion personnel and producers to ensure that the broad base of innova-
tions necessary to obtain such productivity gains continues to be
available and utilized.

Table 1. Estimated average annual rates of productivity growth
for selected Florida vegetables, 1969-70 to 1981-82

Crop Area Productivity Growth
------percent-----
Tomato Manatee-Ruskin 5.56
(0.610)a

Tomato Dade County 3.36
(0.920)

Tomato Immokalee-Lee 4.81,
(0.930)

Squash Palm Beach 4.64
(1.350)

Squash Dade County 1.67
(0.310)

Squash Immokalee-Lee 5.84
(0.700)

Pepper Immokalee-Lee 6.61
(1.590)

Pepper Palm Beach 8.32
(1.79)

Cucumbers Immokalee-Lee 4.77
(0.990)

aStandard errors are in parentheses.

III. HOME GARDENING

A. Yellow-margined Leaf Beetle Pest on Crucifers

Most of the damage done to vegetables by insects in the Florida
garden is due to common well-known pests. Occasionally we run across
an insect that is seldom considered to be a pest or is rarely encount-
ered. One such insect pest recently brought to my attention was found
feeding on cabbage and other crucifers in a garden in Lake County by






Extension agent Russ Swanson this spring. Entomologists at the
Division of Plant Industry, FDACS, identified the insect as Microtheca
ochroloma stal., a South American beetle pest of crucifers.
Since the beetle may become a pest of more widespread distribu-
tion, the following article by Robert E. Woodruff of Florida DPI is
summarized to make everyone aware of this pest.
According to Woodruff, the beetle was first recorded in the U.S.
in Mobile, Alabama in 1947 where it was found on turnip, cabbage,
collard, mustard and radish. Later, in 1962, its distribution was
listed as 22 counties in 4 states. Its first sighting recorded in
Florida was April, 1972, at Tampa. There it appeared on watercress.
I have no record of how many times it has been found in Florida since
those early findings.

Description: This is a typical leaf beetle (Chrysomelidae), about 5mm
long, bronzy black to dark brown, with yellowish to white margins
around the elytras(chitenous forewings). There are 4 prominent rows
of punctures on each elytron. The larva is yellow-brown, pubescent,
with a dark head. The mature larva spins a peculiar blackish network
around itself prior to pupation.

Damage: Both the adults and the larvae feed on the leaves, often
defoliating the plants. Larvae work in groups to strip the stems.

Commercial production of watercress in the Lake County area may
want to be on guard since these beetles have been reported to be
associated with this crop. Unless it becomes a pest of more wide-
spread concern, gardeners around the state should not be concerned at
this time.

(J. M. Stephens Vegetarian 7/84)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Specialists

D. N. Maynard J. M. Stephens
Chairman Associate Professor

G. A. Marlowe S. M. Olson
Professor Assistant Professor

M. Sherman W. M. Stall
Assistant Professor r c Associate Professor

K. M. Delate
Visiting Extension Agent I

NOTE:

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose
of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a recom-
mendation of the product.




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