Title: Vegetarian
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 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: April 1984
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00196
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


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VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HSPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134
IIIII1


Vegetarian 84-4


April 17, 1984


Contents


I. NOTE OF INTEREST


New Faculty
Vegetable Crops Calendar
Vegetable Crops Department
and Field Day


Open House


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Section 18 for Bayleton on
and Cantaloupes


Squash, Cucumbers,


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Selecting an Irrigation System for a Vegetable
Crop in Florida: Part I, Water and Supply
Systems

IV. HOME GARDENING

A. Summary First Five Years (and current status)
of the Florida Master Gardener Program
(1979-1983)

NOTE:

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not neces-
sarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Faculty

On March 23 Kathleen Delate joined the staff of the Vegetable
Crops Department, as Visiting Extension Agent. While working toward
her degree of Master of Science in agriculture, Kathleen will be
assisting Jim Stephens in the coordination of the Florida Master
Gardener program and in various youth projects relating to vegetables.
For the past five years Kathleen has been a plant inspector with the
Division of Plant Industry, FDACS, at Naples. Welcome aboard,
Kathleen.


B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

1. April 10-11 Florida Weed Tour.

2. April 13 State FFA Vegetable Contest. University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL.

3. April 18 Vegetable Field Day. 1:00 pm, ARC, Immokalee, FL.

4. April 24 Hastings ARC, Vegetable Field Day, 1:30 p.m.

5. April 26 Belle Glade AREC Vegetable Field Day.

6. May 1 Cucumber/Squash Field Day. 4:00-7:00 pm, AREC,
Leesburg, FL.

7. May 9 Vegetable Field Day, 9:00 am, Vegetable Crops
Department, Gainesville, FL.

8. May 25 Vegetable Gardening Field Day. FAMU, Tallahassee,
FL.

9. May 31 Master Gardener Agents Advisory Committee Planning
Conference. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

10. June 6 Watermelon Field Day, 1:30-5:00 pm, AREC, Leesburg,
FL.

11. June 18-22 4-H Horticultural Institute, Cloverleaf, FL.

12. June 26-28 Vo-Ag Teachers Horticultural Update Conference,
Gainesville, FL.

13. July 24 State 4-H Horticultural Judging and Demonstration
Contests. 4-H Congress.

14. August 29-30 Master Gardener Advanced Training. University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL.






-3-


C. Vegetable Crops Department Open House and Field Day

The Vegetable Crops Department will be holding on Open House and
Field Day, May 9, 1984. The Open House will start at 9:00 a.m. with
presentations of work in the various areas that are being accomplished
in the department. A tour of the facilities will take place directly
after the presentations.
A Dutch-treat Barbeque will be held at the Horticultural Unit at
noon with a tour of the field plots ending the afternoon.
A listing of the program follows:

Vegetable Crops Open House

9:00 a.m. Registration and coffee 1304 HS/PP
Work Area Presentations D. N. Maynard
9:15 a.m. Opening Remarks Dr. A. F. Wood
9:30 a.m. Vegetable Breeding and Genetics M. J. Bassett
9:45 a.m. Vegetable Production S. J. Locascio
10:00 a.m. Vegetable Physiology D. J. Cantliffe
10:15 a.m. Postharvest Physiology D. D. Gull
10:30 a.m. Extension J. M. Stephens
10:45 a.m. Teaching M. B. Lazin

11:00 12:00 Tour of Vegetable Crops Facilities

Field Day

12:00 12:30 p.m. Travel to Horticultural Unit
12:30 1:30 p.m. Barbeque
1:30 3:00 p.m. Tour of Field Plots


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Section 18 for Bayleton on Squash, Cucumbers and Cantaloupes.

A section 18 specific exemption for the use of Bayleton to
control powdery mildew on squash, cucumbers, and cantaloupes has been
granted by the EPA. The exemption is in effect until December 20,
1984. A maximum of 2 ounces of active ingredient per acre per appli-
cation may be used. A maximum of 8 ounces a.i. per acre may be
applied per season. There is a 3 day preharvest interval.

Protective clothing (including gloves) must be worn during all
mixing, loading, and applications.

Please read the label for all restrictions and instructions.


(Stall Veg. 84-4)









III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Selecting an Irrigation System for a Vegetable Crop in Florida:
Part I, Water and Supply Systems.

Introduction

In order to attain maximum yields, one of the most important
production inputs is an optimum level of soil moisture. At times
during the growing season, rainfall distribution and quantity may not
be sufficient to maintain an optimum level of soil moisture. During
periods of inadequate rainfall, supplemental irrigation is required
during part or all of the growing season.

This is the first of a three part series of articles dealing with
the parameters involved in the planning and selection of an appro-
priate irrigation system for a particular vegetable farming operation.
An inventory of the resources available to the farm is necessary to
determine the production potential of a crop under irrigation, and the
physical and operational constraints of various irrigation systems.
The first two articles discuss the physical resources (water supply,
soils, topography and climate), while the third is concerned with
other resources such as available labor and energy, marketing poten-
tials, economic conditions, a grower s preference, and his financial
condition during this selection process.

Farm Irrigation Systems

1. Drip (Trickle)

2. Subsurface

3. Sprinkler

a. Permanent/solid-set
b. Mechanical-move
1. Center pivot
2. Cable-tow Traveler
3. Hose-drag Traveler
4. Truck Mounted Travelling Gun


Physical Factors that Influence the Selection of an Irrigation System

1. Farm Water Supply

a. Source (Surface or Subsurface)

When wells are used the well yield, height of lift and
friction loss to the irrigated area, and the reliability of
the ground water source on a long-term basis must be deter-
mined.







-5-


b. Water Quantity

Any limiting physical conditions such as the discharge
capacity of the well, low flow periods, limited volumes
stored in ponds, and/or any legal restrictions on water with-
drawals may hamper either the flow rates, or the seasonal
volume of water available for irrigation. The available flow
rate from the water source needs to be adequate to supply the
water needed for the proposed crops during their peak con-
sumptive use period.

c. Water Quality

Water quality is important due to its effect on plants in
regards to salinity, permeability of the soil, and toxicity
(sodium, chloride, and boron). Water quality is also impor-
tant in terms of its affect on the irrigation system. Some
chemical constituents in the water can cause corrosion prob-
lems with certain types of metals in the irrigation systems.
The sediment load in the water can affect the system design,
especially increased filtration for drip systems. Also,
water with sediment will increase wear and reduce the life of
pump impellers and sprinkler nozzles.

The best index for deciding the advisability of using
irrigation water is the water s total dissolved solids.
These solids are determined by measuring the water s specific
conductance.

The following critical maximum values are for total dis-
solved solids (TDS) for water used in various types of irri-
gation systems:

Type of Irrigation Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
(ppm)

Permanent Overhead 800-1,000
Travelling Gun 1,200-1,500
Trickle 1,500-2,000
Subsurface 2,000

Vegetable tolerance to water containing 700-2,100 ppm TDS
is considered good to injurious, with 2,000 ppm TDS being
injurious to unsatisfactory for vegetable production. Water
with more than 2,000 ppm should not be used even for subsur-
face irrigation.







-6-


The following chemical factors are important in regards
to clogging hazard of drip systems with the buildup of bac-
terial slimes:


Chemical Factor


pH
Iron (ppm)
Hydrogen Sulfide (ppm)


Clogging Hazard
Slight Moderate Severe


<7.0
<0.1
<0.5


7.0-8.0
0.1-1.5
0.5-2.0


>8.0
>1.5
>2.0


d. Layout (Shape) of the Irrigated Area

The following table gives the appropriate shape of field
for various irrigation systems:


Type of System

Sprinkler Center Pivot
Permanent and Solid-set
Cable-tow
Hose-drag
Drip


Shape of Field

Circular, Square or Rectangular
Any Shape
Rectangular
Rectangular
Any shape


e. Uses of the Irrigation System Other than for Irrigation


Consideration must
systems other than for

Type of System

Sprinkler, Permanent
& Solid-set


Center Pivot


Cable-tow


Hose-drag


Drip


be given to uses of various irrigation
irrigation:

Other Uses for the System

Cooling & Frost Protection
Chemical & Fertilizer Application
Liquid Animal Waste Distribution

Chemical & Fertilizer Application
Liquid Animal Waste Distribution

Same as Center Pivot


Same as Center Pivot


Chemical & Fertilizer Application


-Kovach (Vegetarian 4-84)-









-7-


IV. HOME GARDENING

A. Summary First Five Years (and current status) of the Florida
Master Gardener Program (1979-1983)

Florida Master Gardeners are adult volunteers recruited and
trained at the county level by Cooperative Extension Service person-
nel. After 48 hours of intensive instruction on various horticulutral
subjects, the unpaid volunteers become certified MGs qualified to re-
turn 50 hours of service to their community through assistance with
Extension home horticulture activities and projects.

Florida began the program in 1979, basing it upon the MG program
of Washington, the state where the concept originated in 1972. The
history of the program development in Florida began in the pilot
counties of Brevard, Dade, and Manatee. Since then 26 counties had
trained and graduated at least one class of MGs by the end of 1983,
totalling 868 MGs who promised to serve 45,350 hours with the
Extension Service (Table 1).

Counties have kept incomplete records of the amount of time the
volunteers have spent in actual service to their communities. How-
ever, records that are available indicate most MGs either served
their committed time or exceeded, some three or four-fold.

After serving one year, a third or more of the MGs re-enlisted
for additional one-year terms of service. Again, no firm figures are
available to document this additional service to the program.

Most of the counties (96%) utilized MGs in the office, answering
the phone (92%), talking to walk-ins with gardening problems, or doing
clerical tasks (77%). Plant clinics were staffed by MGs in many
counties (81%). Other popular ways the MGs assisted Extension were:
conducting or helping to conduct meetings (69%), demonstrations (58%),
and exhibits (50%). Various other activities rounded out the service
record in other counties.

1984 and the Future

The fast, furious pace of the Florida Master Gardener program s
growth and activity continues into the sixth year, 1984. Highlands
County became the 27th county, graduating its first class which actu-
ally began training in December, 1983. Other first time counties
which started training this spring are Escambia, Collier, and
Flagler. A total of 16 counties will have classes in training during
the spring of 1984. In addition to those just mentioned, the others
are Brevard, Dade, Charlotte, Lee, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pinellas,
Leon, Osceola, Martin, St. Lucie, and Palm Beach. Several other
counties have expressed an intent to begin the program sometime later
this year. Currently, there are approximately 600 MGs active state-
wide. Nationally 33 states have the program.









-8-


New State Coordinators

Jim Stephens, IFAS Extension Vegetable Specialist, Department of
Vegetable Crops, who compiled this report, assumed the role of State
Coordinator in September 1984. He will be assisted in this endeavor
by Kathleen Delate who will work concurrently toward a graduate
degree.

Conclusion

Certainly no other program has contributed more significantly to
the overall productivity of Extension within the broad area of home
horticulture in the past 25 years than the Florida Master Gardener
Program. Its benefits to the urban and suburban sector are beyond
accurate calculation. MGs are ambassadors of good will for Extension
and IFAS. They make friends for us all at all levels of community
life. Yet, the greatest benefit perhaps is due to the more subtle
manner in which these lay volunteers enable more of our horticultural
educational thrust to focus on the more crucial and key target
audience-our commercial producers of horticultural products and those
that consume them.

Table 1. Florida Master Gardener First Five Year Status, 1979-1983.

No. Counties Graduating at Least One Class ...................26
No. County-Classes Trained ....................................48
No. County-Classes Trained Alone ...............................27
No. County-Classes Trained with Other Counties ..................21
No. Training Sessions Held ......................................33
No. Single-County Training Sessions ............................27
No. Multi-County Training Sessions .............................. 6
No. Counties Training With Others at Least Once .................18

No. MGs Trained .......................................... ........ 868
No. Service Hours Contracted By New MGs ....................45,350
No. MGs Re-enlisting for Subsequent Terms (Insufficient data)
No. Hours Served (Insufficient data)

-Stephens (Vegetarian 84-4)-

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D. N. Maynard S. P. Kovach
Chairman Assistant Professor

G. A. Marlowe S. M. Olson
Professor Assistant Professor

M. Sherman W. M. Stall
Assistant Professor Associate Professor

J. M. Stephens
Associate Professory 4




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