Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: February 1984
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00194
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publicatior

vegetable Crops Department 1255 IHPPC Gainesville. FL 32611* Telephone 392-213


Vegetarian 84-2


February 10, 191


Contents


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


New Publications
Vegetable Crops Calendar


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Oxyfluorfen (Goal 1.6E) Labeled on Onions

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Herbicide Selection for Watermelon Production
B. Alternatives to EDB and D-D for Vegetable Nematode
Control in 1984

IV. HOME VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Master Gardener Update and Spring Training


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


SW,'








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I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications

Tomato Research 1982, Quincy Res. Rept. 84-1 by S.M. Olson

Cole Crops Research 1982, Quincy Res. Rept. 84-2 by S.M.
Olson

Selected Vegetable Budgets North Florida 1984, Extension
Report 84-101 by S. M. Olson and M. A. Eason.

Available from Quincy AREC, Route 3, Box 638, Quincy, FL
32351.

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


1. February 18 4-H and FFA Horticultural Judging and
Identification Contest, Florida State Fair, Tampa.

2. April 4-5 Symposium: Bacterial Diseases of
Vegetables. Orlando, FL.

3. March 10 State FFA Vegetable Contest Training Event.
University of Florida, Gainesville.

4. April 13 State FFA Vegetable Contest. University of
Florida, Gainesville.

5. April 18 Vegetable Field Day. 1 pm, ARC Immokalee.

6. May 1 Cucumber/Squash Field Day. 4:00-7:00 pm, ARC
Leesburg.

7. May 25 Vegetable Gardening Field Day. FAMU,
Tallahassee.

8. May 30-31 Master Gardener Agents In Service Training
and Planning Conference. University of Florida
Gainesville.

9. June 6 Watermelon Field Day 1:30-5:00 pm ARC Leesburg.

10. June 1-22 4-H Horticultural Institute, Cloverleaf.







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11. June 26-28 Vo-Ag Teachers Horticulturzl Update
Conference.

12. July 24 State 4-H Horticultural Judging and
Demonstration Contest. 4-H Congress.

13. August 1-2 Master Gardener Advanced Training.
University of Florida, Gainesville.


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Oxyfluorfen (Goal 1.6E) Labeled In Onions.

Goal 1.6E has been labeled for postemergence application to
direct seeded and transplanted onions for early postemergence
control of certain broadleaf and grass weeds. Initial spray ap-
plication should be made when the onions have two (2) fully de-
veloped true leaves. On onion transplants spray as soon after
transplanting as practical.

The herbicide can cause necrotic lesions, twisting, pigtail-
ing or stunting of the onion plants. Injury will be more severe
if applications are made during cool wet weather and/or if appli-
cations are made prior to full development of two true leaves on
the onion plant.

Applications are to be made at 0.12 lb ai per acre (0.6 pt)
to seeded onions and up to 0.5 Ib ai (2.5 pts) for transplanted
onions.

Read the label for specific instructions and precautions.


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Herbicide Selection for Watermelon Production

Control of weeds in watermelons involves good management
practices in all phases of production. Watermelons have a long
growing season and for the effective control of weeds a combina-
tion of weed control methods such as herbicides, deep plowing,
cultivation, etc. must be employed.

The suggested herbicides for use on watermelons in Florida
are paraquat, bensulide (Prefar), naptalam (Alanap) and ethal-
furalin (Sonalan).

Paraquat controls emerged weeds only and has no residual
activity.






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Bensulie and naptalam may be tank-mixed for additional weed
species control than that achieved if only one was applied.

Ethalfluralin has recently received labeling for use on
watermelons.

The following table gives the estimated effectiveness of
bensulide, napalam and ethalfluralin on selected weed species.
This table was developed from research data, herbicide labels,
and the experiences of research and extension personnel. This
list is not a guarantee or warranty of the products named.

Knowing the weed species that infest a field and selecting
the proper herbicide for the problem is essential in a weed con-
trol program. The following table can be helpful in determining
the most effective herbicide for the problem weeds encountered.


p P P Sicklepod
F P P Fla. Beggarweed
G E E Fla. Pusley
E F-G G-E Lambsquarter
P P P Nightshade
G F-G F-G Pigweed (Amaranthus)
G F E Purslane
F P P Ragweed

F G E Crabgrass
F G E Goosegrass
P P G Signalgrass
P F-G E Texas panicum
_____I_____ ________________


P= poor, F= fair,


G= good, E= excellent


(Stall)


B. Alternatives to EDB
in 1984.


and D-D for Vegetable Nematode Control


Florida farmers cannot use ethylene dibromide (EDB) soil
fumigants in any way in 1984. Shell Chemical Co. will no longer.
make or sell D-D Soil Fumigant after this March; supplies are
limited and probably most is already spoken for. Therfore,
growers have lost two nematicides which were widely used in pre-
vious years.

Fumigants have usually been superior to non-fumigants for
control of root-knot nematodes, the most common nematode pests of








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vegetables. Most of the multi-purpose fumigants are combinations
of the' active ingredient of Telone II with chloropicrin or a sim-
ilar tear-gas. The additive is meant to control some soil-borne
fungi; it also adds to the cost of the product and total cost/
acre for nematode control. Note that the width of row effective-
ly treated by injection from a single chisel with Vorlex is 6-8
inches and with Vapam is 5 inches; at least two chisels/row,
spaced accordingly, should be used to treat sufficient row width
with these products for most vegetables.

There may be a strong temptation to switch to non-fumigant
nematicides on crops for which they are registered, since their
prices are now competitive with those of fumigants. However,
they have often been less effective than fumigants, so consider
the severity of nematode pressure in your fields and the chance
of unacceptable losses if nematode control is poor. Vegetables
are often especially sensitive to nematodes because even a little
nematode injury may be enough to delay maturity in some or all of
a field, reducing the chances of making an early and uniform har-
vest. Compare for efficacy, availability, cost/acre, and compat-
ibility with the rest of the farming operation before deciding
which nematicide (s) to use.

Table 1 presents estimates of costs per acre of several
nematicide treatments, based on widest :anges in product prices
obtained by telephone recently, and application patterns and
rates considered most likely to be used. The extra demand for
the remaining fumigants caused by loss of EDB and D-D has created
some local shortages of Telone II, etc. and has caused some price
increases. It may pay to shop for prices on fumigants, since the
prices vary widely. When comparing these costs, keep in mind
that the multi-purpose fumigants should control some soil-borne
diseases also provide significant control of some insects.

For many years, Florida vegetable growers have had an as-
sortment of effective and versatile nematicides which helped them
overcome the adverse effects of growing too many susceptible
crops in too few years on a field. The least costly, highly ef-
fective products were the simple fumigant nematicides such as
formulations of DBCP, EDB, and D-D; of this group, the only sur-
vivor is Telone II. A more expensive and difficult to handle re-
lative is methyl bromide, used extensively in our "high-
technology" vegetable industry for crops grown on full-bed plas-
tic mulch. The future is not clear, but it is possible that we
may also lose either or both of those materials in the foresee-
able future.

Clearly, we must learn to manage the remaining products,
(Vapam and related fumigants, Telone II and derivative products,
and non-fumigants) to get the best possible nematode control/dol-
lar from them. Since most are less effective than fumigants








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against high populations of ,oot-knot nematodes, management practices which
minimize development of higl nematode populations are now more important.
Crop rotation and stubble destruction can reduce nematode reproduction and
improve the level of control from any nematicide. A frequent reason for
failure of non-fumigants is premature loss of active ingredient form the
root zone; water and nematicide management practices which controlleaching,
such as may be possible with low-volume irrigation systems in some situa-
tions, may enable us to get much better crop responses from less of these
materials than we now achieve. In the meantime, use the remaining nemati-
cidal products as carefully as possible, to minimize the kinds of incidents
and publicity which could make it increasingly difficult to keep them.


Table 1. Nematicides: estimated costs per acre for treatments felt most
likely to be used. Based in part on a similar table prepared by W.D.
Thomas, Columbia Co. Extension Director.

**************************************************************************


Product


Appproximate
cost/unit


Rate/acre, 42" rows
1 chisel 2 chisels


Multipurpose Fuaigants
Telone C-17 $10.50-13.73/gal 5.1-6.9
Vapam 6.50-6.75/gal -----
Vorlex* 6.95-16.00/gal 5.7-6.7*

Fumigant Nematicides
D-D $ 7.80-10.25/gal 9-10
Telone II 8.50-10.25/gal 4.5-6.0


5.8-9.7
10-25
11.5-13.4


11.5-14.2
6.8-8.6


Approximate $/acre
1 chisel 2 chisels


$54-95

40-107*


$70-103
38-62


$61-133
65-169
80-215


$90-146
58-88


Non-fumigant Nematicides (broadcast or banded in-row per labels)
Estimated Rates/acre Est'd. cost/acre
cts Cost/unit Broadcast 42" rows Broadcast 42" rows
------------------------------ --------- ---------- ---------- --------


Counter 15G
Furadan 15G
Mocap 10G
Mocap 6EC
Nemacur 15G
Vydate L**


$1.35-1.54/lb
1.35-1.56/lb
0.80-1.01/lb
42.00-44.50/gal
2.30-2.87/lb
36.00-42.00/sal


40 lb
60-80 lb
1-1.3 gas
40 lb


6.2-12.4 lb
11.4 lb $54-63
14.9-17.4 lb 48-81
0.9-1.1 gt 42-58
8.6-17.1 lb 92-115
0.5 + 0.5 gal ---


* Chisel spacing for Vorlex is 6-8 inches when using 2 or more chisels.
Use of at least 2 chisels/row is strongly recommended for Vorlex.

** Foliar spray twice/season, 2-4 weeks apart, at 1/2 gal/acre, beginning
2-4 weeks after planting; application rates and timing vary among crops, so
consult label for details for each crop.


(R.A. Dunn, Ext. Nematologist)


Produ


$ 8-19
15-18
12-18
10-13
20-49
36-42








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IV. HOME VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Master Gardener Update and Spring Training

New classes of Master Gardener volunteers are scheduled for
14 counties in Florida for the spring of 1984. Most of these
counties were previously in the program. Those conducting their
first classes ever will be Collier, Escambia, and Flagler. When
their classes are graduated, the number of counties participating
in The Florida Master Gardener program will be an even 30.

Table 1. Counties Training Master Gardeners, Spring 1984

County Location Date Begin No. MGs Agent in Charge
Brevard Cocoa Jan ? Syl Rose

Charlotte Punta Gorda 4/6 ? Dave Lambert

Collier Ft. Myers 2/14 10 Charlie Lowery

Dade Miami 3/20 ? Lisa Hardin

Escambia Pensacola 1/25 24 Ken Schwartz

Flagler Bunnell 1/10 5 George Newbury

Hillsborough Seffner 2/9 50 Sydney Brown

Lee Ft. Myers 2/14 60 Victor Yingst

Leon Tallahassee 1/10 30 Dave Marshall

Manatee Palmetto 2/9 10 Jackie Duray

Martin Ft. Pierce 2/8 8 Bob Whitty

Osceola Kissimmee 4/20 ? Elanor Foerste

Palm Bch. W. Palm Bch. 2/22 25 Amy Kellum

St. Lucie Ft. Pierce 2/7 35 Jim Cummings








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Fall, 1983, classes Seven counties have just completed
training which began in the fall of 1983.


Table 2. Counties Training Master Gardeners, Fall 1983


County Site No. MGs Agent in Charge

Alachua Gainesville 16 Gary Brinen
Clay Jacksonville 15 Roy Zerba
Duval Jacksonville 22 Harold Jones
Marion Ocala 16 Bonnie Adams
Putnam Jacksonville 6 Austin Tilton
St.Johns Jacksonville 7 Jim Dilbeck
Volusia Deland 33 Mike Harmon


By the end of 1983 over 800 Master Gardeners have been
trained in Florida, to date, over 900 have been graduated and
pressed into service. Several other counties in the state have
expressed interest and an intent to start a program this year.

(Veg 84-2 Stephehs)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


D.N. Maynard
Chairman

G.A. Marlowe
Professor

M. Sherman
Assistant Professor


S.P. Kovach
Assistant Professor

S.M. Olson
Assistant Professor

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


NOTE:

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
constitute a recommendation of the product.




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