Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00191
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: December 1983
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00191
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

Vegetarian%201983%20Issue%2083-12 ( PDF )

Full Text




A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department* 1255 HSPP

Vegetarian 83-12

Gaincsville. FL 32611* Telcphone 392-2131

December 8, 1983



New Publications
Vegetable Crops Calendar
West Mexico Vegetable Industry Tour


A. Fertility Management Using Irrigation Systems
B. Fertilizer Management For Overhead Irrigated Tomatoes


A. Extending Gardening Information via Videotext

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.

-- -- --I




A. New Publications

Howe, T. K., J. W. Scott and W. E. Waters. August 1983. Fresh
Market Tomato Variety Trial Results for Spring 1983. Univ. of
Fla., IFAS Bradenton AREC-Res. Rept. BRA1983-20.

Prevatt, J. W., C. D. Stanley and G. A. Marlowe, Jr. September
1983. Microcomputers: A Potential Tool for Agricultural Producers.
Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Bradenton AREC Res. Rept. BRA1983-21.

Gilreath, J. P.
for Gypsophila.

September 1983. Preliminary Herbicide Screening
Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Bradenton AREC Res. Rept.

Gilreath, J. P. September 1983. Preliminary Herbicide Screening
for Statice. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Bradenton AREC Res. Rept.

The above listed reports are available from Bradenton AREC, 5007
60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 33508.

Everett, P. H. and Karen A. Armbrester. August 1983. Staked
Tomato Variety Trial Results Fall 1982. Univ. of Fla., IFAS,
Immokalee ARC Res. Rept. IMM83-2.

Everett, P. H. and Karen A. Armbrester. August 1983.
Tomato Variety Trial Results Spring 1983. Univ. of
Immokalee ARC Res. Rept. IMM83-3

Fla., IFAS,

The above listed reports are available from Immokalee ARC, Rt.
1, Box 2G, Immokalee, FL 33934.

Cucurbit Variety Evaluation-1983 by G. W. Elmstrom, Research
Report LBG83-4 is available from Leesburg ARC, P.O. Box 388,
Leesburg, FL 32748.

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

1. Florida Weed Science Society

The Seventh Annual Meeting of FWSS will be held February
28th and 29th in Gainesville.

2. Southern Weed Science Society

The 37th Annual Meeting of the SWSS will
17, 18, 19, 1984 at the Arlington Hotel,
The theme this year for the meetings is:
Weed Science.

be held January
Hot Springs Arkansas.
Biotechnology and


3. Weed Science Society of America

Florida is hosting WSSA February 8-10, 1984 at the Hyatt
Regency Hotel, Miami.

4. Immokalee Field Day

April 18, 1984 1 pm Immokalee ARC.

C. West Mexico Vegetable Industry Tour

Norman F. Oebker, Prof. of Horticulture, Univ. of Arizona is
planning a study tour of the vegetable industry of the west coast
of Mexico. The date set for the trip is February 26 to March
2, 1984.

Those interested in the tour should contact Norm for more


A. Fertility Management Using Irrigation Systems

"Soil Fertility Management for Tomatoes Using Seep Irrigation
and Plastic Mulch" was republished in last months Vegetarian.
This month we continue the series with the following article
on overhead irrigation by S. J. Locascio. These articles were
originally published in VC 83-3, Florida Tomato Institute.


B. Fertilizer Management For Overhead Irrigated Tomatoes

Successful tomato production is closely related to rate and
composition of fertilizer, its placement and to water management.
Because of the potential value of mulched tomatoes, producers
often over fertilize to minimize risk of production loss due
to infertility. Although tomatoes are more tolerant to soluble
salts than most vegetables, best growth is obtained when tolerant
levels of fertilizer salts are used and soil moisture concentration
is maintained at or just below field capacity. If the soil in
the bed under the mulch is allowed to become dry, salts are concentrated
and reductions in growth may occur. This potential injury can
be minimized by proper fertilizer management.

With overhead irrigation, water is generally applied at 1
to 1.5 inches per week. Water falling on the tomato plants is
funneled into the plant hole and results in salt movement downward
and away from the plant. In contrast, with subsurface irrigation,
water is applied from below the bed and salts movement is upward
and accumulate at the highest point on the bed. Salt injury
can be easily minimized with proper fertilizer management with
overhead irrigated tomatoes.

Nutrient requirements. Flatwoods soils typically used for tomato
production are natively poorly drained, extremely acid (pH 3.5
to 4.0) and must be limed to 6.0 to 6.5 for best tomato production.
At low pH levels, Al, Fe and Mn are more soluble and their toxicity
reduces tomato plant growth. After liming, risk of toxicity
of these elements is reduced. Also, organisms transform organic-
nitrogen to ammonium-nitrogen and nitrification from ammonium-
nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen proceed rapidly. The quantity and
source of lime depends on soil test results. Dolomitic limestone
is applied or Mg is added to the fertilizer where soil Mg is
below 10% of the soil's exchangeable cations. With high annual
rainfall and low exchange capacity of these soils, soluble nutrients
such as N and K do not accumulate from season to season and must
be applied for each tomato crop. In some acid soils, applied
P can be leached and in others are rapidly fixed to unavailable
forms. Fertilizers generally must supply 90 to 95% of the crops
N needs and 75% or more of the P, K, and micronutrient requirements.
Marl and rock soils have high pH levels in contrast to those
of virgin flatwood soils but they are also infertile so that
plant deficiencies of all elements except Ca may occur without

Rate. Fertilizer rates for tomatoes should be related to length
and rate of crop growth. Rates that have provided maximum tomato
production are as follows:

For 2 harvests: 160-240-240 Ib/acre N-P205/K20

For 3 or 4 harvests: 220-240-330 Ib/acre N-P205/K20

On newly planted soils or where micronutrients are known
to be deficient, apply about 2.0 lb/acre Mn and Zn, 5.0 lb/acre
Fe, and 1.0 lb/acre Cu and B. Micronutrients from several sources
including oxides and sulfates have been equally effective and
should be applied with the fertilizer.

Tomato production during the cooler period of winter occurs
with lower light intensity and shorter days than occur in the
spring which results in reduced plant growth rates. Under these
conditions, fertilizer rates for N-P-K should be about 80% of
those listed above.

Placement. Fertilizer should be placed in the bed in a location
to minimize plant injury and to maximize nutrient uptake. With
overhead irrigation, nutrient movement will be downward and away
from the plant hole in the polyethylene mulch and soluble salt
injury will not be as great a problem as with subsurface irrigation.
At the lower rates of fertilizer listed above used with 4 to
5 feet bed centers, maximum tomato production has been obtained
with 100% broadcast application of the fertilizer or combinations
of broadcast and banded fertilizer. With higher fertilizer rates
and wider bed spacing, 100% broadcast placement may.result in
reduced yields due to soluble salt injury and therefore a combination
of broadcast and band placement results in best production. For
the combination placement, 30 to 40% of the N and K and 100%


of the P, and micronutrients are broadcast and incorporated in
the bed. The remaining N and K is applied in a band 6 to 8 inches
to the side of the tomato seed or transplant and 2 to 4 inches
deep. Location of the band at this depth in the soil is essential
for maximum nutrient utilization. The soil should be moist when
the mulch is applied as it is difficult to wet soil in the bed
after the mulch is applied on a dry soil.

Nutrient sources: Tomatoes grown with overhead irrigation can
be grown successfully with N from soluble sources including
NH4NO3, KNO Ca(NO ) or part of the N from slow released N
sources suc as sul ur coated urea (SCU) and isobutylidene diurea
(IBDU). A minimum of 25% of the N should be in the N03-N form.
The use of urea and (NH.) SO should be minimized. Potassium
can be supplied form KCL,K SO or KNO In areas where the irrigation
water is of medium to low quality, low salt index sources should
be used to minimize salt injury from the fertilizer.


A. Extending Gardening Information via Videotext

The Florida Cooperative Extension Service, with inputs from
the Vegetable Crops Department, helped launch a two-way electronic
information and marketing system called videotext. This was
the first use of such system in the United States. The new computerized
technology has the potential for revolutionizing the way Americans
receive information and buy home products.

Videotext is the generic name for the home communications
system invented in England in 1976. The system makes available
to the television viewer large amounts of graphic and textual
information, through the use of a decoder and storage unit connected
to a home television set. The viewer simply picks up a control
unit similar to a hand held calculator and presses a few buttons.
Instantly a menu (list) of general topics such as news, shopping,
health, entertainment, and gardening is displayed, from which
an item of interest is selected for the latest facts and figures.

The system with which the Florida Extension Service has been
associated is called Viewtron, the trademark name belonging to
the Viewdata Corporation of America, Inc., a subsidiary of the
Knight-Ridder Publishing Co. Viewtron represents a 26 million
dollar first-year investment project in the world of videotext
for the company that owns The Miami Herald.


The Viewtron system was tested in 1980 in Coral Gables with
204 households receiving the service free. Based on positive
reactions from homes using Viewtron, Knight-Ridder began a market
test in September of 1983, linking 5000 subscribers in Dade,
Broward, and Palm Beach Counties. Normally, the system terminal
costs $900, but has been offered in this 1983 test to subscribers
for around $600. In addition, Viewtron estimates another $25
to $30 as a monthly service fee (split between Viewtron and the
local telephone company.)

IFAS provided Viewtron with information in the areas of nutri-
tion, foods, and home gardening, along with some other topics,
for the current pilot project. Home vegetable gardening was
one of the topics included.

Much of the gardening information was already written in
fact sheets, circulars, and bulletins, but had to be adapted
to the videotext format. The vegetable crops specialist worked
with a specially assigned journalism professional to develop
the vegetable gardening programs. Step-by step procedures for
garden planning, soil preparation, planting, and garden care
were outlined with emphasis on South Florida conditions. Also,
a 12-month calendar of gardening events was included, along with
individual crop information.

As an example of the usefulness of the system to the viewer,
the user who wanted to know the variety of tomato seeds to purchase
had merely to select from the menu the subject gardening, then
the sub-topic tomato. The information an tomato culture including
recommended varieties would be retrieved by the computer and
presented, possibly even graphically, on the television screen.

An additional component of the IFAS input is the "Ask the
Expert" segment. Subscribers call in horticultural questions
on their computer systems, the Dade County Extension staff pre-
pares a reply, and these are displayed to all subscribers.

As others have pointed out, most of what videotext has to
offer is already more efficiently provided by magazines, news-
papers, TV advertising, catalogs, and other publications. There-
fore, as the author of "Vidoetext Journalism" stated, "as long
as the services it is intended to replace remain relatively cheap,
videotext will be an elite medium and not a mass medium." And
that is precisely the criticism most frequently expressed by
most extension workers hearing of the concept for the first time-
that we are not reaching the masses but a small class of affluent
citizens, instead. However, America is heading for new electronic
dimensions based on computers. The question is not whether it
will happen, but how best to get a piece of the action. As Dean
App has said, "they're going to get their information from us
or from someone else, so it might as well be us; in-fact, it
should be us."

(Stephens-Veg 12-83)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D. N. Maynard

G. A. Marlowe

M. Sherman
Associate Professor

J. M. Step
Associate Prc

S. P. Kovach
Assistant Professor

S. M. Olson
Assistant Professor

W. M. Stall
Assistant Professo Q

h ens


Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. When-
ever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute
a recommendation of the product.

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$184.71 or 32 per copy for the purpose of communicating current
technical and educational materials to extension, research and
industry personnel.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs