Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1983
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00185
Source Institution: University of Florida
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FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETA IAN
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publicatiof

Vegetable Crops Department *1255 IHPP* Gainesville, FL 32611 Tclephone 392-213.


Vegetarian 83-06


June 6, 1983


CONTENTS

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Mailing List Update

B. New Publications
C. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Irrigation Water Management-Quantity/Irrigation

III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. "Buggy Whip" Disorder in Sweet Corn
B. Urban Gardening Harvest Fair


C. Vegetable Gardening Field Day -


D. St. Johns Garden


Tallahassee


Contest


The Institute of Food and Agripultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


I







-2-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Mailing List Update

State regulations require that we update newsletter mailing
lists annually. A card has been attached for this purpose. If
you wish to continue receiving the Vegetarian, please complete
and return the card promptly. The Vegetable Crops Department re-
serves the right to determine who may receive this newsletter.

(Stephens)

B. New Publications

The following publications are available from the Agricultural
Research and Education Center, 5007 60th Street East, Bradenton,
Florida 33508:

(a) Results of a Tomato Fruit Size Study in Florida 1982-83, VEC
Extension Report 83-1 by G. A. Marlowe, Jr. and J. A.
Cornel 1.

(b) 35th Vegetable Field Day, May 19, 1983. Res. Rept. BRA
1983-9, by J. P. Jones, G. A. Marlowe, Jr., and W. E.
Waters.

(c) Strawberry Budget Analysis for West Central Florida. Res.
Rept. BRA 1983-10, by J. W. Prevatt.

(d) Broccoli Variety Trial Results for Winter-Spring 1983.
Res. Rept. BRA 1983-11, by A. A. Csizinszky.

(e) New Chemicals for Control of Leafminers on Tomato. Res.
Rept. BRA 1983-12, by D. J. Schuster and P. H. Everett.

(f) Fresh Market Tomato Variety Trial Results for Fall 1982.
Res Rept. BRA 1983-13, by T. K. Howe, J. W. Scott and W. E.
Waters.

(g) Progress Report of the 1982-83 Cauliflower Trial at the
AREC-Bradenton. Res. Rept. BRA 1983-14, by T. K. Howe and
W. E. Waters.

(h) Effects of Magnesium on Bacterial Leaf Spot of Pepper.
Res. Rept. BRA 1983-15, by S. S. Woltz, J. B. Jones and J.
P. Jones.


(Stall & Maynard)










C. Vegetable Crops Calendar

(1) Homeowner Horticulture In-Service Training, June 28 30,
1983, Orlando

An inservice training conference for Extension agents and
para-professionals working with home gardeners will be held
June 28-30, 1983, in Orlando, University of Central Florida,
Humanities and Fine Arts Building, Room 129. Contact your
Extension District Director if you wish to attend.

PROGRAM

June 28 (Tuesday)


Moderator:

1:OOPM

1:10PM

1:20PM

2:45PM

3:OOPM

5:00PM

June 29 (Wed

Moderator:

8:00AM -
12:00Noon


Moderator:

1:OOPM


2:00PM

3:00PM

3:15PM

4:00PM

5:00PM


Tim Crocker

Welcome Don Maynard

Introductions Jim Stephens

Citrus on the home grounds Larry Jackson

BREAK

Home production of deciduous fruits Tim Crocker

Adjourn session

nesday)

Steve Ryan

Planning home horticulture extension programs and evalua-
ting their impact Steve Ryan, Bill Summerhill, and
Cliff Taylor

Bob Black

Turfgrass maintenance in the home landscape Charles
Peacock

Woody ornamental plant maintenance Tom Yeager

BREAK

Care of plants in the home Bob Black

Growing annual flowers in the home landscape Benny Tjia

Adjourn session







-4-


June 30 (Thursday)

Moderator: Jim Stephens

8:00AM Growing vegetables in home and community gardens -
Jim Stephens

9:30AM BREAK

10:00AM Kinds and varieties of vegetables Jim Stephens

11:00AM Panel Special projects on gardening

Master Gardener Ann McDonald
Urban Gardening Mike Daniels
Community Gardening Lowell Parrish
1890 Program James Edwards

11:45AM Wrap-Up

12:OONoon Adjourn conference

(Stephens)


(2) Third Annual Advanced Master Gardener Course, August 3-4,
1983, Gainesville

(McDonald)


(3) 4-H Horticulture Institute, June 13-17, 1983, Camp Clover-
leaf, Lake Placid.

The first ever Florida 4-H Horticulture Institute will begin
on Monday, June 13th. 4-Hers from across the State will
have the chance to participate in a week's worth of excel-
lent educational program that includes a one day field trip
to the EPCOT Land Pavilion and Disney's horticulture support
facilities. These members should have plenty of material to
share with other county 4-Hers when they return home.

(McDonald)


(4) Florida 4-H Congress, July 25-29, 1983 Gainesville, Florida.

The State 4-H Congress is approaching very rapidly. The two
horticulture events will be taking place on Tuesday, July
26. Both events will be held here in the Horticultural










Science/Plant Pathology Building. Each District may enter a
team or individual demonstration in the Horticultural Demon-
stration Contest, and each county may enter a 3 or 4 person
team in the Horticultural Identification and Judging Con-
test. I encourage all of you to participate. Resource
materials for training is available through this department
and Editorial.

(McDonald)


(5) Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Workshop, June 21, 1983, Semi-
nole County Agricultural Center, 4320 South Orlando Drive,
Sanford.

PROGRAM

9:00 AM Greenhouse Vegetable Production Systems
Dr. M.B. Lazin, Horticulturist

9:35 AM Chemical and Non-Chemical Control of Greenhouse
Vegetable Diseases
Dr. T. Kucharek, Extension Plant Pathologist

10:10 AM Chemical and Non-Chemical Control of Greenhouse
Vegetable Insects
Dr. G. Leibee, Entomologist

10:45 AM Heating and Cooling Greenhouses
Bruce Barmby, Extension Agent, Multi-County

11:20 AM Greenhouse Vegetable Management Techniques
Dr. G.A. Marlowe, Extension Vegetable Specialist

(Stall)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Irrigation Water Management-Quantity/Irrigation

The quantity of water applied/irrigation depends upon the
following factors:

(1) Crop rooting depth:

The rate at which soil moisture is extracted from the
soil is a function of root concentration and decreases with
the depth of the rooting zone. Approximately 40% of the
soil moisture is extracted from the top quarter of the root
zone, 30% from the second quarter, 20% from the third quar-
ter, and 10% from the bottom quarter.










Rooting depths for some of the vegetables are presented
in Table 1. In Florida, the rooting depths listed in Table
1 may not apply in areas where the soil profile (organic or
hard pans) and/or the water table depth influences the root-
ing depth. For example, the tomato rooting depth as listed
in Table 1 is >48 inches under non-restrictive conditions.
Whereas, the maximum rooting depth for tomatoes grown under
the gradient-mulch system will be 18 inches when the water
table is maintained at 18 inches.

(2) Level of soil moisture (soil water suction) at which an
irrigation is started:

Moisture in the soil is held with a suction or tension
and energy must be expended to remove the water. The soil
suction with which the water is held to a soil particle de-
pends upon the amount of water surrounding the soil parti-
cle, the smaller the amount of water the greater the suction
required to extract the moisture. A common unit to measure
the suction or tension with which water is held to a soil
particle is the bar (1 bar is approximately equal to 14.5
psi). Soil water suctions at which water should be applied
for maximum yields for various vegetable crops are presented
in Table 2.

Some of the soil water suction values listed in Table 2
for certain vegetable crops should not be used to schedule
irrigations for crops grown on sandy soils. Due to limited
available water in sandy soils, irrigation should be sche-
duled when soil water suctions are between 0.20-3.0 bars.
For sandy soils, water is readily available for plant growth
in the range of 0.06-0.3 bars.

Table 1. Rooting Depths for Various Vegetablesa.

ROOTING DEPTH CATEGORY AND ACTUAL ROOTING DEPTH (INCHES)
SHALLOW MODERATELY DEEP DEEP
(18 24 IN.) (36- 48 IN.) (MORE THAN 48 IN.)
Cabbage Bean, bush and pole Tomato
Celery Cucumber Watermelon
Corn Pepper
Lettuce
Potato
Strawberries

aFor a more detailed listing of rooting depths for vege-
tables see 0. A. Lorenz and D. N. Maynard. 1980. Knott's
Handbook for Vegetable Growers, John Wiley and Sons, New
York. p. 139.











Table 2. Soil water suctions for various vegetables at
which irrigation should take place for maximum
yields.a


CROP
Beans (snap, lima)
Broccoli, early
Broccoli, postbud
Cabbage
Cantaloupe
Carrots
Cauli flower
Celery
Lettuce
Onions, early
Onions, bulbing
Potatoes
Strawberries
Sweet Corn
Tomatoes


SOIL SUCTION (BARS)_
0.75 2.00
0.45 0.55
0.60 0.70
0.60 0.70
0.35 0.40
0.55 0.65
0.60 0.70
0.20 0.30
0.40 0.60
0.45 0.55
0.55 0.65
0.30 0.50
0.20 0.30
0.50 1.00
0.8 1.5


aAdapted from Taylor, S. A. 1965. Managing irrigation
water on the farm. Amer. Soc. Agr. Eng. Trans. 8:433-436.

bThe soil water suction values presented in the table per-
tain to vegetable crops grown in deep, well drained soil
fertilized and managed for maximum production. A range of
soil water suction values are given for each crop with the
lower value being used when the evaporative demand is high
and the higher value when it is low.

(Kovach)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. "Buggy Whip" Disorder in Sweet Corn

In late May of 1983, a home gardener in St. Johns Coun-
ty reported an entire planting of 1/2 acre of sweet corn was
afflicted by a leaf-growth disorder of unusual appearance.
A close look at the plot revealed the characteristic symp-
toms of a common yet seldom encountered non-parasitic dis-
order known as "buggy-whipping".

The upper plant portion, including the leaves and the
tassel, were fused together to form a tube. The outer leaves
had failed to unfurl, thus sticking to and trapping the in-
ner leaves and tassel. Each plant was twisted grotesquely
in its attempt to grow out of the condition.


p


-- --


--







-8-


Publications on corn maladies describe the condition
and provide insight into some possible causes, all of which
appear to result in similar symptoms.

Calcium deficiency Although rarely occurring in corn, cal-
cium deficiency described by Maynard (unpublished) Hambidge
(1941), and others, indicates an inability of leaves to un-
fold so that the tips stick together giving a ladder-like
effect.

Herbicide injury causes "onion leaf", where leaves remain
unwrapped in a tall spike. However, this condition is
usually associated with other symptoms such as fasciation,
brittleness, and curling of the brace roots.

Genetic furling appears more frequently in certain inbred
lines and would not likely appear in a commonly grown culti-
var such as 'Golden Queen'.

Pathogenic both bacterial stripe and crazy top cause a
similar condition under certain conditions.

Fertilizer bud-burn The disorder described in the begin-
ning of this article has been observed May 1983 in Gaine-
sville by Locascio. The condition resulted following the
topdressing of dry fertilizer directly over the corn plants,
with some of the fertilizer lodging in the whorl or bud.
The injured leaves stuck together, trapping the innermost
leaves and tassel.

Conclusion several factors from time to time may injure
the developing whorl of leaves so that they stick together
rather than unfolding naturally. In all instances the re-
sults is the buggy-whip effect.

Solution once the disorder is discovered, little can be
done to correct it unless the plot is small and the plants
are few. Home gardeners might manually unfold the leaves,
allowing the tassel to escape and the plant to resume normal
growth.

(Stephens)

B. Urban Gardening Harvest Fair

The Jacksonville Urban Gardening project, a federally
funded program, highlighted the spring harvest season with a
gala harvest fair and exhibit day on May 20. The event was
held in the downtown square, providing ideal visibility to
the Extension run program.










What had started out to be a bleak prospect for garden-
ers to have any produce to show due to the unusually pro-
longed cool and wet spring, ended up on a highly prolific
note. Over 30 tables were chock full of good looking vege-
tables, many still immature to be sure, along with a lot of
'record' size biggies such as turnips and zucchinis. While
the exhibit classes were open to the general gardening pub-
lic, most of the garden produce was shown by the program
participants. Exhibitors could enter one plate of each kind
of vegetable grown, with prizes and awards being given to
exhibitors with most total points scored.

In addition to the gardening exhibits, other events of
interest to the fair goers were a scare crow contest, can-
ning products contest, cow milking, bull petting, and poul-
try display. Also on hand were a country string band, an
arts and crafts show, and a variety of activities for
children.

The city of Jacksonville cooperated greatly with Exten-
sion in holding the event by providing close-in parking,
access to the square, and security. It is estimated that
over 3,000 visitors and participants enjoyed the harvest
fair.

C. Vegetable Gardening Field Day Tallahassee

The sixth Annual Vegetable Gardening Field Day was held
May 27th at Florida A & M University. The 1890 program
event was conducted jointly by Extension staff from FAMU and
the University of Florida. The field day is primarily an
inservice training opportunity for extension agents and
aides working in such programs as the 1890 project and urban
gardening.

Demonstrations were shown of new and old vegetable
varieties for North Florida, a limited space garden includ-
ing dwarf varieties, a mulching demonstration, and a model
garden. Perhaps the most prominent demonstration was a col-
lard variety trial which included a combination of 10 new
and old varieties of this popular and nutritious Florida
cooking green.

(Stephens)


D. St. Johns Garden Contest

Extension in several counties in Florida annually hold
a vegetable garden contest of some sort for the gardening
public or some special segment such as 4-H or garden club.







-10-


One such event held May 24, was a county wide vegetable gar-
den contest in St. Johns County, both for adults and 4-H.

Twenty-two prized gardens which had come through the
chaotic weather of the spring were visited and judged by ex-
tension personnel. By and large, gardens were in excellent
shape despite the lateness of the spring. Particular excel-
lence of quality was noted for beans, southern peas, and
edible-podded peas, along with collard, beets, carrots, and
onions. Tomatoes and sweet corn were only fair, but were
making good recovery and growth. Almost everyone had pro-
ductive squash and cucumbers galore.

Major problems starting to show up were such insects as
aphids, flea beetles, corn ear worms, and cabbage worms,
along with such diseases as bean rust, cabbage black rot,
and tomato late blight. One particular garden had severe
herbicide damage to about 1/3 of the garden due to high
water washing it in from the fence line application zone.

The winning garden in the medium-size category was an
entire back yard planted in containers of almost every size
and description barrels, boxes, buckets, raised beds, and
novel hanging baskets.

(Stephens)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists
D.N. Maynard S.P. Kovach
Chairman Assistant Professor
G.A. Marlowe M. Sherman
Professor Assistant Professor
W.M. Stall J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor Associate Profesor
A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County "


NOTE:

Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose
of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a recom-
mendation of the product.

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $176or
25 4 per copy for the purpose of communicating current technical and
educational materials to extension, research and industry personnel.




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