Title: Vegetarian
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 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: May 1983
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00184
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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I, Ak-


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publicatior


egetable Crops Department 1255 HSI P Gainesville.


Vegetarian 83-05


CONTENTS


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Canadian EBDC Tolerances on


FL 32611 Telephone 392-213'


May 5, 1983


Snap beans


B. Portable Field Testing Meter for pH and Soluble
Salts

C. Irrigation Water Management


III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Tepary Bean


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


\ AIT


I I


I









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

(1) Potato Production in Florida, Extension Circular 118 by W.
M. Stall and M. Sherman is available from the Publications Dis-
tribution Center, University of Florida, Building 660, Gaines-
ville, Florida 32611.

(2) South Florida Pepper Production Information, Belle Glade
AREC Research Report 1983-3 by H. Y. Ozaki, D. W. Landers and R.
S. Griffis is available from Belle Glade AREC, P. 0. Drawer A,
Belle Glade, Florida 33430.

(3) The following publications are available from the Bradenton
Agricultural Research Center, 5007 60th Street, East, Bradenton,
FL 33508:

(a) List of Publications Dealing with Vegetable Crops and Agron-
omy Written During 1982, Bradenton AREC Res. Rept. BRA1983-6, by
W. E. Waters.

(b) Broccoli Variety Trials in Florida, Fall, 1982, Bradenton
AREC Res. Rept. BRA1983-8, by A. A. Csizinszky.

(c) Evaluation of Cauliflower in West Central Florida During
1981-82, Bradenton AREC Res. Rept. BRA1983-5 by T. K. Howe and
W. E. Waters.

(Maynard)

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

(1) Sanford AREC Open-House and Research Update

Tuesday, May 17, at 1:30PM. Faculty will be available to discuss
current research field trials. All interested persons are invi-
ted. For more information, contact Bill Llewellyn, Seminole
County Extension Service, (305) 323-2500, ext. 178.

(Sherman)

(2) Vegetable Crops In-Service Training and Planning Conference

The Commercial Vegetable Crops In-Service Training will be held
June 6-8, 1983, in Tallahassee, Florida. The Commercial Vege-
table Crops Extension Planning Conference will be the afternoon
of June 8 at the same location. The sessions are open to Florida
Extension agents and specialists, and designed for those with









commercial vegetable crops responsibilities. The Planning Com-
mittee has put together a good program this year, based on the
requests of the planning session the previous year.


An outline of the programs is as follows:

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE CROPS IN-SERVICE TRAINING

June 6 Leon County Extension Office


12:00PM
1:30PM
1:45PM
2:45PM
3:00PM
3:15PM
3:30PM
3:45PM
4:00PM
4:15PM
4:30PM
6:30PM


Box Lunch and Welcome
Welcome and Remarks John D. Stiles
Methodology of Marketing Dr. Elmer Close
Marketing Information Jack Varick
BREAK
State Farmers' Markets W. 0. Whittle
Fair Treatment in the Marketplace Glenn Bissett
Market Development Paul Newell
International Marketing Tony Fendrick
Discussion
ADJOURNMENT
Dinner sponsored by Florida Fruit and Vegetable Asso-
ciation


Leon County Extension Office


8:00AM Introduction John J. VanSickle
8:15AM Principles of Marketing Timothy Hewitt
9:00AM Developing Production Cost Budgets Timothy Taylor
9:45AM BREAK
.O:OOAM Developing Price Expectation John J. VanSickle
.0:45AM Risk and Enterprise Selection John Holt
1:30AM Wrap-up and Discussion John Stiles and John J.
VanSickle
2:00PM Box Lunch (Dutch Treat)
2:00PM Thomasville Farmer's Market
4:OOPM Tour of Commercial Vegetable Production J. C. Russell
and S. M. Olson
6:00PM Tour of Vegetable Plots at Quincy AREC S. M. Olson
7:00PM Dinner with Vegetable Crops Faculty and Industry Hosts
Sponsored by Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association


8:30AM
to 12:30PM


Visit to the Bureau of Fertilizer, Seed and Pesticide
Laboratories, Division of Chemistry, Tallahassee


June 7




1
1
1


1


June 8







-4-


COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE CROPS EXTENSION PLANNING CONFERENCE

June 8

1:30PM Discussion of County Plans of Work bring copies of
your plan of work and be prepared to discuss your ideas
on these subjects
3:00PM Discussion of needs for Cultivar Demonstrations G. A.
Marl owe
3:30PM In-Service Training Planning for Next Year S. P.
Kovach
4:00PM Herbicide Weed Control Demonstrations W. M. Stall
4:15PM Conference Evaluation and Election of Next Year's Com-
mittee

(Stall)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Canadian EBDC Tolerances on Snapbeans

A number of fresh green bean shipments originating in
Florida and exported to Canada were found to contain residues of
Ethalenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). Canada considers vegetables
with residues of EBDC greater than O.lppm to be adulterated and
several shipments have been returned.

W. George Fong, Chief, Chemical Residue Bureau, FDACS in a
letter to Dean Woeste reported that his laboratory has analyzed
eight (8) snap bean samples since October 1982. No EBDC residues
were found on six (6) of the samples, one contained O.16ppm and
another O.15ppm EBDC. Tolerances for Maneb and Zineb on fresh
beans in this country are 10.OOppm and 7.00ppm, respectively.
Therefore, the last two samples would be legal in Florida and the
US, but considered adulterated by the Canadian government if ex-
ported there.

Florida growers should be aware of the differences in toler-
ances if they wish to export to Canada. Growers wishing to ex-
port to Canada may wish to switch from the use of EBDC to other
effective fungicides. Refer to Plant Protection Pointer No. 6
for the control of specific diseases by labelled compounds.


(Stall)







-5-


(B) Portable Field Testing Meters for pH and Soluble Salts

County Extension Agents, fertilizer fieldmen, crop consul-
tants and growers frequently have need for a rapid assessment of
the pH and/or total soluble salts of the soil solution. This
need may be part of a routine monitoring process or for field
diagnosis of a particular crop problem in which pH or salt con-
centration may be suspected. Portable meters of rather high pre-
cision are available and their cost is within easy price range of
most serious crop consultants, fieldmen and growers. The meters
are simple to use, give repeatable and accurate readings within
one minute or less, and are small and lightweight for easy trans-
port.

Well water samples can be read directly on most of the por-
table meters. Soil samples of moderate moisture should be di-
luted with equal volumes of water, dry soils with one and one
half volumes of water to 1 volume of soil. Greenhouse "soil" or
media should be diluted with twice as much water (1 volume media
and 2 volumes of media) as "soil". These suspensions should be
stirred for about 15 to 20 seconds, allowed to stand for approxi-
mately 30 seconds, and the liquid portion poured into the test
cell of the instrument or the probe should be inserted into the
container holding the soil water mixture.

These portable meters work on the same principle of measur-
ing conductivity as the laboratory models. Most of these instru-
ments measure total dissolved solids and are referred to as TDS
meters. A small degree of accuracy may be sacrificed, and these
meters are not meant to replace their more sophisticated counter-
parts. Many meters read directly into a parts per million scale;
whereas, other meters read in mhos (the reciprocal of electrical
resistance the OHM).

In order to convert this volume to volume relationship to a
weight to volume relationship of true soil moisture, all readings
of soil (moist and dry) and media should be multiplied by a fac-
tor of 5. For example, a well water sample reading 800 would be
800 ppm of total disolved salts. A soil moisture of 800 ppm mul-
tiplied by 5 would be a true reading of 4000 ppm.

pH readings are handled in much the same way. Dilution fac-
tors seem to be less critical with pH readings than they do with
salts.

Some meters measure pH and salts in the same cells which
further reduces the amount of equipment needed to make the read-
ings. Distilled water should be used at all times. The test






-6-


cells should be rinsed thoroughly between samples, and frequent
testing of known sample concentrations should be made. Meters
with pH cells should be checked with known pH standard solutions.

Most of the meters available are battery operated and with
care will last many years with only a yearly change of batteries.
Some meters have a very limited pH and total dissolved solids
range while others provide a wide scan of values. For Agricul-
tural purposes a range of 0 to 5000 ppm total soluble salts is
adequate. If desired, an extended scale can be added or extra
sample dilutions can be made. A pH range of from 3 to 10 is
adequate for most trouble shooting purposes.

We do not endorse any particular equipment. Interested per-
sons can purchase single purpose or multi-purpose portable meters
through major agricultural supply houses in various parts of the
state.

In full bed mulched vegetables a series of samples across
the bed at various depths may be needed to assess a nutritional
problem. A "profile" of the bed can be constructed in less than
an hour.

These meters do not tell what "salts" may be in excess or
deficit, or the cause of a specific pH reading. They do serve a
very valuable field diagnostic role by quickly indicating if the
field has insufficient or excess salts at various depths, or if
the pH is seriously out of balance.

(Marlowe)


C. Irrigation Water Management

I. Introduction

Irrigation water management is the process of controlling or
regulating irrigation water applications in a manner that will
satisfy the water requirements of the crop without wasting water.
A proper water management program involves applying water in ac-
cordance with crop needs, in amounts that can be held in the
soils so that the crop can use it, and at rates that meet the in-
take characteristics of the soil.

II. The Plant

Water, gas exchange (carbon dioxide and oxygen), light and
essential elements are all necessary for plant growth. Water










comprises 75-95% of the fresh weight of stems and leaves and
85-95% of the fresh weight of fruits. It is estimated that a
plant uses less than 5% of the total water which passes through
it. The remaining 95% of the water is lost from the plant
through the process of transpiration. Transpiration being the
evaporative loss of water vapor from the leaves through pores in
the leaves called stomates (see Figure 1).


STOMATE
OPEN


STOMATE
CLOSED


,E CLOSED


FIGURE 1. DIAGRAM OF AN OPEN AND CLOSED STOMATE.


When the stomates are open they may occupy only 1% of the leaf
area. Usually there are more stomates on the underside of the
leaf than on the upper part of the leaf. For example, a tomato
plant may have 1200 stomates on the top of the leaf and 13,000 on
the bottom of the leaf.


PORE






-8-


Transpiration is a very important plant process. When a
plant transpires water, nutrients are brought from the soil via
the xylem and the roots (root hair zone) to the leaves, and
leaves are cooled by evaporative cooling (Figure 2).










LEAF H 0
AREA 2

LSTOMA E

U XYLEM LEAF
STOMATE



STEM
AREA

______XYLEM

PLANT
BED
ROOT AIRS



ROOT 4:k SOIL
AREA


ROOT HAIR

FIGURE 2. WATER MOVEMENT FROM SOIL TO PLANT TO THE AIR BY THE PROCESS OF TRANSPIRATION.






-9-


III. The soil
The soil serves as the reservoir for moisture to be used by
the plant. The amount of moisture that is available for use by a
plant depends upon the texture of the soil. Soil texture refers
to the proportion of the stone, gravel, sand, silt and clay in
the soil. The following terms are used to express soil moisture
(Figure 3).










OO ,

HYGROSCOP C PC
WATER FREE
(GRAVITATIONAL)
UNAVAILABLE IDESIRABLY (GRAVITATIONAL)
WATER AVAILABLE I
WATER
PERMANENT I __FIELD CAPACITY
WILTING
POINT


FIGURE 3. THE CLASSES OF SOIL MOISTURE. (ADAPTED FROM BONNER AND GALSTON, PRINCIPLES
OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, FREEMAN, SAN FRANCISCO, 1952).







-10-


A. Field Capacity

The field capacity of a soil refers to the maximum amount of
moisture that is left in the soil after surface water is drained
and after the water that passes out of the soil by gravity (free
water) is removed. The time it takes for the moisture content of
a soil to reach field capacity usually is 1-2 days and is depen-
dent on the soil texture.

B. Permanent Wilting Point

The moisture content of the soil when plants wilt permanent-
ly.

C. Available Soil Moisture

The amount of soil moisture between field capacity and the
permanent wilting point. Water holding capacity and available
soil moisture varies according to soil texture. Soils with small
soil particles (clay soil) have more total surface area in a vol-
ume of soil and more available soil moisture than soils with
large soil particles (sandy soil).

(The remaining portion of this article will be published in
next months Vegetarian.)

(Kovach)

III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Tepary bean

Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, var. latifolium
Freeman.) is known also by such other names as tepari, yori mui,
pavi, and Texas bean.

This bean is little grown in Florida even in home gardens
due to its adaption to more arid climates. It originated and
still grows wild in Mexico and the Southwestern U.S. It was
taken to Africa where plant selections were made for that area.

Wild tepary beans are viny, up to 3 m high, which reportedly
run up desert shrubs. The cultivated varieties are bush types,
or sometimes semi-viny, growing an average of about 30 inches
high.




-11-


The trifoliate leaves are pointed and about the size of lima
bean leaves. The pods are short, about 3 inches long, slightly
hairy, green at first drying to a light straw color. Seeds,
usually 5 or 6 per pods, vary in color but commonly are buff
colored, flat, resembling a small butterbean or navy bean.

Tepary beans are best suited as dry beans. The plants are
drought tolerant, but do need ample moisture for seed germination
and early growth. If grown with irrigation, yields may be in-
creased even further over non-irrigated culture.

In North Florida observation trials, the beans were planted
the first of September and allowed to mature in November before
the onset of cold weather. Yields were fair under the short days
of this harvest period. Better yields might be expected in South
Florida during the winter months which are even shorter in day-
length, since the beans are daylength sensitive. However, moist
atmosphere is detrimental for dry bean production, so trials have
been insufficient as yet to determine how well this bean would
fare under Florida's more humid climate.

At Gainesville in the Fall, bean leafrollers were the most
damaging pest problem encountered. Seed inoculation is reported
to be the same as for lima bean.

Tepary beans are high in protein (23-25%). They are eaten
like other dry beans, first soaked, then boiled or baked. Of
course, the Indians of the Southwest have developed various other
uses for the beans such as bases for soups and stews and grinding
for meal.

Varieties offered to home gardeners by other gardeners are
Blue Tepary, Brown Tepary, Light Brown Tepary, Light Green
Tepary, Papago White Tepary, Ivory Coast, and White Tepary.


(Stephens)







-12-


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


D.N. Maynard
Chairman


G.A. Marlowe
Professor


W.M. Stall O-O
Associate Professor


S.P. Kovach
Assistant Professor


M. Sherman
Assistant Professor


J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


NOTE:


Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible, please give credit to the authors.


Whenever


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose
of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a recom-
mendation of the product.




Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$ 177.36 or 30 4 per copy for the purpose of communicating cur-
rent technical and educational materials to extension, research and
industry personnel.




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