Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: March 1983
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00182
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publicatior

Vegetable Crops Department -1255 IIPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Tclcphone 392-213,


Vegetarian 83-03


March 7, 1983


CONTENTS


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Bolero Section 18 on Lettuce, Endive & Escarole

B. Section 18 for Bayleton on Squash


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Assessing and Correcting Leaching Losses in
Mulched Beds

B. Federal Crop Insurance Approval for Pepper and
Tomatoes on a Pilot Basis


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Companion Planting of Vegetables in Gardens

B. Florida State Fair Horticulture Contest Results

C. Florida Master Gardener Program Welcomes Four
More Counties


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


II I







-2-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

1. Available from Bradenton AREC, 5007 60th St. E., Bradenton,
Florida 33508:

(a) Research Report 82-22 Sweet Corn Variety Evaluation-
Supersweets, Spring 1982 by T. K. Howe and W.E. Waters.

(b) Research Report 82-23 Fertilizer Requirements of Pep-
per Seedlings for Transplant Production:Symptoms of
Inorganic Nutrient Deficiencies by S. S. Woltz.

(c) Research Report 1982-24 Weed Control in Spring Trans-
planted Cauliflower by J. P. Gilreath.

(d) Research Report 1983-1 Pith Necrosis of Tomato by J.
B. Jones, J. P. Jones, and J. W. Miller.

2. Available from Dover ARC, Route 2, Box 157, Dover, Florida
33527:

(a) Research Report 82-3 Effect of Stress on Strawberry
Transplant Growth and Fruiting Response by E. E.
Albregts and C. M. Howard.

3. Available from Publications Distribution Center, Building
660, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611:

(a) Circular 100 Snap Bean Production in Florida by W. M.
Stall and M. Sherman.

(b) Circular S-296 Orlando Gold, A Fresh Market F1 Hybrid
Carrot for Florida by M. J. Bassett, J. 0. Strandberg,
and J. M. White.

(c) Circular 478 The Southern Pea in Florida A Small
Farm Production Guide by W. M. Stall, R. D. William,
G. W. Simone, R. A. Dunn, and F. A. Johnson.

(d) Circular 99 Sweet Corn Production in Florida by R. K.
Showalter.

(Maynard)

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

1. Central and South Florida Weed Tour


(a) April 20 Bradenton








-3-


(b) April 21 Belle Glade AM

Ft. Lauderdale PM

2. May 19 Bradenton AREC Vegetable Field Day

(Maynard)


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Bolero Section 18 on Lettuce, Endive and Escarole

Bolero (Thiobencarb) has been granted use under a Section 18
specific exemption for the control of barnyardgrass and purslane
in lettuce, endive and escarole grown in organic soils.

A maximum rate of 4.0 lb ai per acre of Bolero 8E is author-
ized in a single application at the time of direct seeding.
Check the label for all cautions and restrictions. The specific
exemption expires June 1, 1983.

(Stall)

B. Section 18 Exemption for Bayleton on Squash

Bayleton 50WP may be used for the control of powdery mildew
on squash. A maximum rate of 2 ounces ai per application may be
used. A maximum of 8 ounces ai per acre per season may be ap-
plied. The pre-harvest interval to be observed is 3 days.

Specific protective clothing restrictions and subsequent
crops planting conditions are also listed on the label. Read and
follow all conditions and restrictions. The specific exemption
expires December 20, 1983.

(Stall)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Assessing and Correcting Leaching Losses in Mulched Beds

The yellow, stunted seedlings of eggplant, pepper and tomato
crops in many parts of the state have been sending out strong
signals that the cupboard is bare! Heavy rainfall in many vege-
table production areas has created a fertilizer leaching crisis
for many farmers. County Extension Agents, field, sales and
technical personnel should be ready with constructive suggestions
as many of the crops can be saved if immediate action is taken.







-4-


Most growers ditch their field for high-normal to heavy
rains, but few plan for the excess levels of water in years like
this. Frequently we have seen water standing a few inches from
the top of mulch covered beds. When the water reaches this level
even for a few hours, most of the soluble fertilizers may go into
a solution or suspension in the water front. As the water re-
cedes much of the nutrient content of the bed drops. We have
evidence of entire layers dropping down 5 or 6 inches unless the
band of fertilizer was on the very top of the bed or shoulder.
The lower the placement the greater the leaching in most cases.

This water-front leaching is often accompanied by leaching
loss from the plant hole. Soluble salt samples in the plant hole
frequently reflect readings of 200 ppm or less which is just
about the level of non-cropped land.

Some first aid measures for this problem:

1. Determine the extent of the leaching damage. Take sol-
uble salt readings across the mulched bed at 2 to 3
inch intervals, 4 to 6 inches deep. Plot the results
on a piece of paper. Show the grower the salt profile
of the bed. Caution the grower that insoluble fertili-
zer components are not generally reflected in these
readings so there may be additional N and K in the bed.

2. Determine the condition of the seedlings. If only a
few pale green leaves remain (and even these seem
ravaged by wind or foliar diseases), or if the roots
appear light brown, yellow (or with very little white
tip branching) the grower may need a count of normal
and deficient plants in that field. From this type of
information the grower can decide the level of replant-
ing needed or abandonment in extreme cases.

3. Determine the fertilizer replacement amount needed. In
the case of tomatoes on a staked, mulched, 3-pick pro-
gram, more than half of the 240 lbs of nitrogen and 360
lbs of K20 may have been leached away. For these
fields at least 150 lbs of nitrogen and almost 250 Ibs
of K20 would need to be put back into the bed. In some
cases the loss replenishment needs may be even greater.

4. Consider best method of replenishment of the bed. As
shown in step 3, growers must be helped to see the
folly of trying to resupply this level of nutrition by
foliar sprays. Liquid concentrates can be injected in-
to the bed readily. Granular materials can be punched
in by machine or hand into "new" holes on the shoulder
of the bed. Soluble materials such as calcium nitrate,








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potassium nitrate and any of the readily available com-
plete fertilizers are helpful. Approximately 1.5 to
2.5 ounces of material per hole may be needed. With
sprinkler or drip irrigation, materials such as these
can be applied easily in the irrigation water.

Some innovative tomato growers that use seep irri-
gation place a band at the outside base of the bed.
This practice has many followers but this specialist
feels we need research to evaluate this practice.

(Marlowe)

B. Federal Crop Insurance Approval for Pepper and Tomatoes on a
Pilot Basis

The Board of Directors of the Federal Crop Insurance Corpor-
ation (FCIC) has formally approved a pilot project for Federal
Crop insurance on pepper and tomatoes in Collier, Lee, Hendry and
Glades counties. The project request has been forwarded to Sec-
retary Block.

Personnel from the Vegetable Crops Department and certain
county extension directors along with representatives from
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services and the Florida Tomato Commit-
tee will be meeting with an FCIC task force to review and consult
in regard to policy development. Hopefully a Federal Insurance
policy will be available by early summer.

Assumming success in the pilot project, there is reasonable
expectations that Federal Crop Insurance can and will be expanded
to other areas of the state on pepper and tomatoes, and other
commodities will be included in the near future.

(W. M. Stall and Reggie
Brown, Collier County
Extension Director)


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Companion Planting of Vegetables in Gardens

Companion planting refers to the practice followed by many
gardeners of planting one kind of variety of vegetable in close
proximity to another kind or variety for a specific purpose.
Other common terms are intercropping, companionate planting, in-
terplanting, combination planting, co-cropping, and nurse-crop-
ping. The term multi-cropping is different, meaning succession
cropping.







-6-


Purpose A number of reasons are given for the companionate
planting of vegetables. These purposes vary all the way from the
ridiculous "plant onions with the potatoes so that the potato
eyes will water and you won't have to irrigate" to the sensible
"plant pole beans with sweet corn so that the corn stalk will
support the climbing bean vine". Claims are widespread for some
plants liking other plants and disliking others.

Here are some of the various purposes given for the growing
of vegetables in close association with other vegetables of
another kind or variety.

1. Improve growth and productivity

Would a vegetable plant growing alone produce less than if
grown beside a companion plant? Many gardeners believe the ans-
wer is "yes", and can even name the other vegetables best suited
for the companionship role. Especially among organic gardeners,
statements such as "potatoes do well planted with beans, corn,
and cabbage, but do not fare well planted near pumpkin, squash,
tomato, and cucumber" are made. Many of the following reasons
are given in explanation for the compatability of the various
vegetables.

2. Repels insects and other pests

A long-held theory among many gardeners, mostly organic gar-
deners, is that certain kinds of plants will prevent specific
pest damage to certain other kinds of plants when grown nearby.
The repellancy is thought to be due to root exudates or aromatic
characteristics, or in some cases, "catch-crop" effects.

In a Pennsylvania State test, researchers planted (a) radish
with cucumber to see if radish would protect against the striped
cucumber beetle; (b) beans with potatoes for Colorado potato
beetle control; (c) onion with carrot for rust fly and leaf hop-
pers; (d) marigolds with beans for bean beetle control; (e) thyme
with cabbage for imported cabbage worm control and (f) catnip
with eggplant for flea beetle control. The results of these rep-
licated trials showed no indication of protection from insect
damage.

The University of Georgia studied the marigold nematode re-
lationship. Their studies showed that certain varieties of mari-
gold are not used by root-knot nematodes as host plants. There
was no repellancy discovered or verified. Another study showed
that marigolds would attract certain nematodes, then kill them
within the roots. The net effect of these studies is to suggest
that marigolds might be useful as an off-season catch or cover
crop to suppress nematode build-up in garden soil.






-7-


3. Nitrogen fixation

Everyone knows that bacteria living in nodules of legumes
fix nitrogen from the air into forms that the plant can utilize.
An average of 50 to 130 pounds of nitrogen per acre may be added
to the soil if the crop is plowed under. While the nitrogen fix-
ing plant is living, the nitrogen benefits only the host plant.
After the plant decomposes, however, the nitrogen may be utilized
by any other plant. Therefore, one should not expect the inter-
planting of a legume such as beans, along with another plant such
as corn to be mutually beneficial. However, observations of such
interplantings have indicated a more vigorous and darker green
corn crop than where the corn was planted alone. This now ap-
pears to be a mycorrhizal effect.

4. Mycorrhizae influence

The roots of most green plants are infected with beneficial
fungi; resulting in a symbiotic relationship between green plants
and fungi. These fungi are termed mycorrhiza.

Mycorrhiza fungi have been found to produce growth sub-
stances and vitamins and to increase host plant resistance to
water stress, but the most practical role is in plant nutrition.
In particular, P uptake is enhanced by mycorrhizae.

Growth of onions in mineral soils that contained low levels
of phosphorous was severely retarded in the absence of mycor-
rhizal fungi (HortScience 106:86. 1981). Mycorrhizal inoculum
added to these soils increased yield 34%.

Individual species of fungi will form mycorrhizae with a
wide range of hosts. Crops grown together sharing the same
mycorrhizae is one explanation for some plants getting along to-
gether.

5. Increased Depth of Rooting

Because some plants send roots deeper into the soil than
others, it is held by many gardeners and writers of gardening
literature that deep-rooting vegetables and even some weeds such
as common pigweed should be planted in the row with certain vege-
tables to pump nutrient from the subsoil and to enhance penetra-
tion of the vegetable roots. It is particularly beneficial, they
say, on heavy poorly-drained soils. Advocates of this practice
have not sufficiently proven their point to off-set the possible
detrimental effects of establishing a severe weed problem in a
garden.








-8-


6. Improves Plant Environment

According to some advocates on intercropping, certain atmos-
pheric conditions are improved considerably by an adjacent plant.
One such condition often mentioned is shade. For example, toma-
toes are sometimes planted to shade cabbage, broccoli, and let-
tuce.

Wind is another atmospheric condition whose detrimental
effects are reduced by means of companion plants such as
sunflowers that serve as windbreaks.

7. Enhances Pollination

Interplanting may contribute to better pollination of vege-
tables in one of two ways: (a) by mixing a male-flowering polli-
nator plant at intervals within a row of predominately female
flowering plants, and (b) by including bee-attracting types of
vegetables in the row of vegetables which require bees for polli-
nation.

In the first instance, the most obvious example is with gyn-
oecious (female flowering) types of cucumbers such as 'Gemini',
which require that a pollinator such as 'Poinsett' be planted
along with it. Herbs are considered by many gardeners to be the
best sort of plant for attracting honeybees to vegetables that
need them for pollination.

8. Germination Assistance

Seeds of radishes are often mixed with slower germinating
seeds to mark the seeded area until all seeds have germinated and
the seedlings are up.

Along the same lines, lima bean seeds are sometimes sown in
the same furrow and at the same time as seeds of weaker sprouting
vegetables. The strong germinating power of the bean seeds
breaks the heavy soil crust allowing better aeration and moisture
penetration, thus assisting smaller seeds to germinate and
emerge.

9. Space Efficiency

As gardening space is often limited, it is sometimes wise to
make the most of the available area by such intensive use methods
as wide row gardening, vertical gardening and companion planting.
Interplanting comparatively short and long season crops is the
usual practice. When planted at the same time as the more slowly
maturing crop, the short-season crop can be harvested before com-
petition and shading from the companion crop becomes a limiting
factor.








-9-


For example, vegetables are quite often grown beneath and
around pecan, orange, and other fruit groves. Within the garden,
radishes, spring onions, or leaf lettuce can be planted in or be-
tween rows of sweet corn, eggplant, okra, pepper, and tomato.

In Maryland (HortScience 11:238. 1976), studies have shown
that sweet corn and soybeans can be grown together in the same
row with acceptable sweet corn yields and the soybean yields were
50% of normal after the sweet corn had been harvested.

10. Trellising for Support

The practice of planting pole beans in a corn field has been
done for many years. The basis for the idea is the beans use the
corn stalks for climbing support.

11. Aesthetic Enhancement

Some vegetables, herbs, and other plants are interplanted to
provide a more pleasing visual and aromatic appeal. Lavender and
thyme go well together, for example.

Using imagination in the design of garden and arrangement of
the vegetables within it, different kinds and varieties of vege-
tables may be interspersed to provide unique effects.

Summary

Companion planting of vegetables is a common practice with
many gardeners. While the technique is not essential for a suc-
cessful garden, there are instances where it is beneficial.
Based on the evidence available to date, the major benefits are
related to (a) space efficiency, (b) pollination, and (c) in-
creased aesthetic value of the garden.

(Stephens)

B. Florida State Fair Horticulture Contest Results

Excellent participation was noted this year at the Annual
Florida State Fair Horticulture Identification and Judging Con-
test. Two-hundred thirteen 4-H and FFA members from throughout
the State of Florida tested their knowledge on vegetable, foliage
and woody ornamental varieties. Each member was required to
identify 40 each, of the above mentioned varieties. Judging of 4
classes was also required, 2 of vegetables one from the woody
section and one from the foliage section.








-10-


High individuals and team placing are as follows:

4-H Division

(2400 possible points)
Team Placing Score

1. Manatee County 1894
2. Hillsborough County 1784
3. Leon County 1660


High Individual (800 possible points)

1. Subahmaayam, P. Leon County 668
2. Konkel, K. Manatee County 662
3. Williams, M. Manatee County 624
4. Hinton, T. Hillsborough County 621
5. Kurina, J. Manatee County 608


FFA Division

(2400 possible points)
Team Placing Score

1. Plant City 1993
2. Dade City, Sr. 1976
3. Crescent City, Sr. 1932


High Individual (800 possible points)

1. Ahizer, C. J. G. Smith 704
2. Sasnet, H. Plant City Sr. 703
3. Abbott, M. Liberty Jr. 693
4. Morris, T. Dade City Sr. 686
5. Cotter, M. Dade City Sr. 677

(McDonald)

C. Florida Master Gardener Program Welcomes Four More Counties

Sixty-seven Master Gardeners visited Gainesville on February
22, to participate in ceremonies noting the competition of their
training. These gardeners traveled from Clay, Baker, Putnam,
Duval and St. Johns Counties. State Extension Specialists wel-
comed the gardeners and explained their extension activities.








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Dr. Jim Brasher, Associate Dean for Extension, also welcomed
the gardeners, and commented on the importance of their work as
master gardeners. He completed his visit by awarding the
Certificates of Completion.

The afternoon hours were spent in the Fruit Crops teaching
orchard where Dr. Tim Crocker demonstrated pruning techniques.

The Florida Cooperative Extension Services welcomes these
new counties into the Florida Master Gardener Program.

(McDonald)







Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


D.N. Maynard
Chairman

G.A. Marlowe
Professor

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


S.P. Kovach
Assistant Professor

M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


NOTE:


Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible, please give credit to the authors.


Whenever


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of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a recom-
mendation of the product.


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 10 n6
or 27 4 per copy for the purpose of communicating current technical
and educational materials to extension, research and industry person-
nel.




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