Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: January 1983
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00180
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HSIPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 83-01


January 05, 1983


CONTENTS



I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Strawberry Field Day

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

C. Vegetarian Index for 1982 (Enclosed)


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Section 18 for Methamidophos on Chinese Cabbage,
Escarole, Endive and Parsley


B. Crisis Exemption
(Cyonazine)


for Use of Trigard


75WP


SIII. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Trouble Shooting Vegetable Crops Nutritional
/ Disorders


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

-, A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Garden Nasturtium

B. 4-H & FFA Horticulture Identification and Judg-
t'i I ing Contest





The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING








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I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Strawberry Field Day

The Agricultural Research Center at Dover, Florida has
scheduled a Strawberry Field Day for Wednesday afternoon,
February 2, 1983. All interested persons are invited to attend.
A copy of the program follows.

PROGRAM

Moderator: Bob Wilder, Extension Agent I, Hillsborough County

PM
2:15 Assembly and Registration
2:40 Dr. W. E. Waters, Welcome
2:45 Mrs. A. J. Overman Nematode Research
3:00 Mr. J. W. Prevatt Strawberry Production Costs
3:15 Dr. J. F. Price Insects on Strawberries
3:30 Dr. J. P. Gilreath Weed Control for Strawberries
3:45 Dr. S. P. Kovach Water Management in Strawberries
4:00 Dr. C. M. Howard Strawberry Varieties and Diseases
4:15 Dr. E. E. Albregts Strawberry Nutrition and Culture
4:30 Tour of Strawberry Research Plots

(SHERMAN)


B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

February 2 Strawberry Field Day, Dover ARC, 2:15 pm

February 9-10 Florida Seedsmen's Conference, Hilton Inn,
Gainesville, 1 pm

(MAYNARD)



II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Section 18 for Methamidophos on Chinese Cabbage, Escarole, Endive
and Parsley

A specific exemption under the provisions of Section 18,
FIFRA amended has been granted for the use of methamidophos
(Monitor) to control aphids, lepidopterous larvae, and leafminers
on escarole, endive, parsley and Chinese cabbage in Orange, Lake,
and Palm Beach Counties.








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Monitor may be applied at a maximum rate of 0.75 Ib a.i. per
acre, per application. A maximum of 2.0 lb a.i. per acre, per
season may be applied.

A 21-day pre-harvest interval (PHI) will be observed for
Chinese cabbage and a 28-day PHI for escarole, endive and pars-
ley.

This specific exemption expires June 1, 1983.


B. Crises Exemption for Use of Trigard 75WP (Cyonazine)

On December 10, 1982, Commissioner of Agriculture, Doyle
Conner, authorized a crisis exemption to use Trigard 75WP (cyona-
zine) on Florida celery and lettuce to control leafminers.

The crisis exemption has been extended till such time that a
Section 18 specific exemption is acted upon.

(STALL)



III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Trouble Shooting Vegetable Crop Nutritional Disorders

Diagnosis of crop disorders, pest damage, and environmental
problems is an important part of the field life of the vegetable
grower, Extension agent, and commercial field person. The diag-
nostic process actually begins with the first contact of the
grower relating the problem to the person asked to help with the
disorder. The grower usually provides a fairly good description
of the problem and a rather definite idea as to whether the prob-
lem is due to an organism (disease, insect, nematode), climate
(temperature, wind, rain) seed or variety, or a cultural mishap.

Sometimes careful questioning over the telephone can pin-
point the problem but quite often a field visit is required. The
experienced consultant usually spends most of the early part of
the field visit observing, listening, questioning, and making
field notes. A careful record of fertilizer, irrigation, and
cultural practices is usually very helpful.

The first step is to categorize the problem: Is it typical
of a foliar or root disease, insect or nematode damage, unusual
weather conditions? Is the disorder limited to a few rows, spot-
ty areas or the entire field? For this brief article let us as-
sume that the problem is related to fertilizer use or misuse.








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The following symptom outline may be of help in assessing the
disorder. The determination of the problem in a short season
vegetable may be of value only for the next crop, but in a long
season crop such as tomatoes or watermelon, early detection of a
nutrient shortage or excess can be corrected in time to assist
the current crop.

1. Symptoms characteristic of high or excess soluble salts* in the
soil solution:


Delayed germination
Erratic growth of seedlings
Lesions of stem at soil line
Fall-over of seedling
Marginal leaf scorch


Root die-back
Poor germination
Root discoloration
Yellowing of leaves


*A field test with a portable soluble salt meter or a laboratory
test of the soil helps to verify this suspected disorder.

2. Symptoms characteristic of a deficiency or excess of a specific
nutrient:

A. Leaves and Stem Symptoms

1. Seed leaves malformed: Low Mn
2. Seed leaves drop prematurely: Low P, Mn; Excess N
3. Seed leaves necrotic: Low Ca
4. Seedlings stunted, erratic growth: Low N, P, Ca, Mg;
Excess Ammonium
5. Leaves smaller than usual: Low Mn, (Severe Mg); Excess
Cu, Mn
6. Leaves chlorotic, mainly between veins, veins remain
green: Low Fe small veins yellow, large veins remain
green, Low Mn, Zn, Mo
7. Leaves chlorotic, mainly between veins, veins yellow:
Low N, Mg
8. Youngest leaves yellow or mottled: Low Ca, S, Fe, Mn, B
9. Oldest leaves yellow or mottled: Low N, P, K, Mg, Mo
10. Youngest leaves have deak spots: Low Ca, Mn, B, Cu, Zn
11. Oldest leaves have dead spots: Low P, K, Mg, Mn; Excess


12.
13.
14.
15.

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.


Leaves distorted, twisted: Low S, B, Cu; Excess B
Terminal die-back: Low Ca, P, Cu
Leaves wilt: Low B, Cu
Leaf veins discolored: Low N (Pink), P (Purple), S
(Reddish)
Premature leaf fall: Low N, Mn; Excess B
Leaves cup upward: Low Mg; Excess Mg
Leaves cup downward: Low K, Ca
Plants stunted: Low N, P, K, S, Fe, Cu
Plants erect and stiff: Low P, Excess K
Plants spindly and soft: Low S, Excess N








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22. Stem brittle: Low Ca, Mg
23. Stem lesions, external: Excess Ammonium
14. Stem internal tissue discolored: Low Ca, Blackheart of
Celery, Cavity Spot of Carrot

B. Root, Flower and Fruit Symptoms

1. Root development retarded: Low P, Ca, Fe
2. Roots die prematurely: Low B
3. Roots discolored: Low Ca, brown tip; Low P, light
brown; Excess Cu, dark brown; Excess K, dark brown; Ex-
cess N, light brown
4. Roots stubby: Low Zn, Low Ca, many short branches; Ex-
cess Cu, Mg
5. Roots long, slender: Low P, N, thin light brown; Excess
Ca, Mg
6. Flowers small pale in color: Low N, Mg
7. Flowering delayed: Low N, Excess N
8. Premature flower fall: Low N, B, Cu
9. Fruit small, lowered yield: Low N, K, Ca
10. Fruit color altered: Low K (tomato, pepper)
11. Fruit shape altered: Low P (peppers elongated); Excess
K, N; (catface tomatoes N and pollination)
12. Fruit blossom-end flattened dark and leathery: Low Ca
(Blossom-end rot tomato, pepper, and watermelon)

3. Symptoms characteristic of imbalance of nutrients

A. Internal tissue breakdown of eggplant believed to be related
to low Ca high B imbalance.

B. Graywall of tomato believed to be related to high N low K
imbalance (and bacteria are also involved in this complex
disorder).

In many instances a laboratory analysis of the soil and/or
plant tissue is needed to confirm a suspected nutritional dis-
order. In some states quick tissue tests are used, but these
methods should be corrected with laboratory findings to insure
reliability.

(MARLOWE)


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Garden Nasturtium

Garden nasturtium is a showy, attractive flowering plant
which is commonly grown in Florida gardens as an ornamental.
However, it may be included in gardens for use as a vegetable,
since its leaves, flowers, and seed pods are edible.








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Nasturtium goes by other names such as Indian cress, Mexican
cress, and Peruvian cress. There are two species, the most com-
mon being Tropaeolum majus L., called large or tall nasturtium,
and stortioner. The other is dwarf or bush nasturtium (Tropaeolum
minus L.). These should not be confused with the genus Nastur-
tium, which is watercress.

Nasturtium originated in South America and is grown world-
wide. It does very well in Florida as a spring, summer, and fall
annual.

The plant is a succulent, climbing annual, with round smooth
pea-green leaves attached in the center by a round petiole.
Leaves range from 2 to 5 inches in diameter. It produces numer-
ous five-petaled orange colored flowers. These develop into seed
berries (pods) that are globular, ridged, and about 1/3 inch in
diameter.

Use

The leaves are peppery flavored like cress and are used in
salads and as a garnish. Likewise, the colorful flowers are used
for the same purposes. The green berries are made into pickles,
supposedly being equal to or superior to capers for such use.

Culture

Plant seeds from spring through fall throughout Florida, and
winter in South Florida. Nasturtium is easy to grow. The seeds
are sown about 1/2 1 inch deep, spaced 2-3 inches apart. When
the plants are about 6 inches tall, it is best to place a stake
or trellis near them for trellising. It is not necessary to
stake or trellis the dwarf type.

There are few pests to bother the plants. Pods develop
about 4 months after seeding.

The plants respond to the same general soil preparation,
liming, fertilization, watering, sun-exposure, and cultural prac-
tices as for most garden vegetables.

(STEPHENS)



B. 4-H and FFA Horticulture Identification and Judging Contest

The Florida State Fair Authority will again sponsor a 4-H
and FFA Horticulture Identification and Judging Contest at the
State Fair grounds in Tampa. The contest will be held on Satur-
day, February 12, 1983. Registration will begin at 8:30 a.m. and
the contest will start at 9:00 a.m.








-7-


This event will include two divisions: FFA & 4-H. Contes-
tants from both organizations will view the classes together, but
tabulations and awards will be handled separately.

A list of plant materials for the contest is being sent to
every extension office, in the 4-H newsletters. Note the
addition of vegetables to this contest. Any plant part may be
used if it is identifiable. There will be 4 classes to judge: 2
vegetables, 1 ornamental, 1 flower and foliage.

If there are any questions, contact me or Dr. Robert Black,
Ornamental Horticulture Department, 392-1834.

(McDONALD)








Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


D.N. Maynard
Chairman

G.A. Marlowe
Professor

W.M. Stall oe
Associate Professor


S.P. Kovach
Assistant Professor

M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


NOTE:


Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible, please give credit to the authors.


Whenever


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose
of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a recom-
mendation of the product.


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $116.07
or 20 4 per copy for the purpose of communicating current technical
and educational materials to extension, research and industry
personnel.




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