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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: December 1981
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00178
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


December, 1981

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


G.A. Marlowe
Professor

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


Ann McDonald
VEA I Multi-County


TO:


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND
HORTICULTURE)


FROM: J. M. Stephens, Extension Vegetable Specialis
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 81-12

IN THIS ISSUE:


I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. New Publications
B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Section 18 Labels Since Last Report
B. Crises Exemption For Use Of Permethrin And
Fenvalerate On Cabbage
C. Advocacy Of Pesticides Not On The Label





The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to rece, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


--








III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Copper Fertility In Watermelons


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Florida Master Gardeners
B. Know Your Minor Vegetables
Naked Seeded Pumpkin


V. YOUTH PROGRAMS
A. National Junior Horticultural
Association Convention








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications


1. Tropical Root and Tuber Crops and Their Potential in
Florida. Part 1. Cassava, Homestead AREC Research. Report SB
81-1 by S. K. O'Hair is available from the Homestead AREC,
18905 S.W. 280 St., Homestead, FL 33031.


2. Time of Planting Trials with Vegetable Crops in
North Florida. IV. Sweet Potatoes, V. C. Research Report
81-5, by L. H. Halsey is available from the Vegetable Crops
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


(D. N. Maynard)


B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


January 05-07:



February 07-09:




February 16:



March 23-25:




April 20:



April 28:


Joint National Pea and Bean Conference,
Hilton Inn, Gainesville.


Southern Region, American Society for
Horticultural Sciences, Howard Johnson,
Orlando.


Florida Seedsmen's Conference, Hilton
Inn, Gainesville.


National Carrot Conference, Altamonte
Springs Inn and Racquet Club, Altamonte
Springs.


Sanford AREC Open House and Research Up-
date.


Immokalee ARC Field Day.


(D. N. Maynard)







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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Section 18 Labels Since Last Report


The Environmental Protection Agency has granted three
exemptions and denied one request for exemption under the
provisions of Section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungi-
cide and Rodenticide Act, as amended.


(1) A Section 18 emergency exemption for the use of methami-
dophos (Monitor 4) to control aphids, lepidopterous larvae,
and leafminers in Boston lettuce, Bibb lettuce, Romaine let-
tuce and Chinese cabbage was granted for a maximum acreage in
Orange County, Florida only.


(2) A Section 18 emergency exemption was denied for the use
of methamidophos (Monitor 4) to control certain pests on
Florence fennel, Italian dandelion, escarole, endive, napa,
pak choy and parsley. The reasons for the denial as stated
in the Mailgram from James M. Cenlon, Acting Director, Office
of Pesticide Programs, EPA to Doyle Conner, Commissioner,
FDACS:


"The toxicity data baseline for Monitor has
become seriously eroded and certain toxicity
studies are missing. Without these data, we
are unable to support any residue levels in ex-
cess of 1 PPM of Monitor on any row Agricultural
Commodity. I therefore, find it necessary at
this time to deny your request to use Monitor on
Florence fennel, Italian dandelion, escarole,
endive, pak choy and parsley since this use may
result in residues levels of 2 PPM.


The use of Monitor on napa, although not
expected to result in levels of Monitor in ex-
cess of 1 PPM, must likewise be denied because
of the potentially large increase in the theo-
retical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) to
the diet of chinese people."






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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


(3) A Section 18 specific exemption for the use of Monitor 4
is authorized for use on celery for the control of leaf-
miners.The exemption states for use in Orange County, Belle
Glade, Pahokee and South Bay in Palm Beach County, Ovieda in
Seminole County and Sarasota County.


Several conditions and restrictions are imposed. Be sure
to read the label for all detailed information before use.


(4) A Section 18 specific exemption for the use of meto-
lachlor (Dual) to control chickweed, dock, pigweed, purslane,
ragweed, signalgrass and crabgrass on broccoli, cabbage and
cauliflower has been granted.


Several conditions and restrictions are imposed. Dual 8E
will be applied as a single preemergence surface treatment;
see the label for the difference in rates on sand and organic
soils. Applications should also be made at the time of di-
rect seeding or transplanting.


Be sure to read the labels and follow them before appli-
cation.


(W. M. Stall)


B. Crises Exemption For Use Of Permethrin And Fenvalerate On
Cabbage.


Pursuant to title 40, code of federal regulations, Part
166.8, Doyle Conner, Commissioner, Florida Department of Ag-
riculture and Consumer Services has determined that a crises
condition exists for cabbage producers. Therefore, using the
Crises Exemption provisions, permethrin (Ambush, and Pounce)
and fenvalerate (Pydrin) may be used effective November 6,
1981, for the control of cabbage looper and diamondback moth
on cabbage.


For rates and specific conditions for use read the up-
dated labels.


(W. M. Stall






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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


C. Advocacy Of Pesticide Uses Which Do Not Appear On The Re-
gistered Pesticide Label; Policy Statement.


In the November 1981, Chemically Speaking, Sam Fluker
summerized the Policy Statement of the Office of Pesticides
and Toxic Substances Enforcement that became effective
October 22, 1981. This information is important enough that
it is reproduced here in its entirety.



The Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances Enforcement
has reconsidered its position that the advocacy of section 2
(ee) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act uses be limited to user/applicators. This notice informs
the public that since sec. 2(ee) uses are no longer misuse,
any person may legally recommend or advertise such uses.
This policy statement is effective October 22, 1981.


The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
(FIFRA) was amended by the Federal Pesticide Act of 1978
(FPA) on September 30, 1978. The FPA broadened the construc-
tion of section 12(a)(2)(G) of FIFRA which provides that it
shall be unlawful "to use any registered pesticide in a man-
ner inconsistent with its labeling." The new section 2(ee)
defines the phrase "to use any registered pesticide in a man-
ner inconsistent with its labeling."


According to the language of this new section, it is a
violation of section 12(a)(2)(G) to use a registered pesti-
cide "in a manner not permitted by the labeling" with the ex-
ception of four specific areas. Under section 2(ee) it is
not misuse to:


1. Apply a pesticide at any dosage, concentration, or
frequency less than that specified on the labeling.


2. Apply a pesticide against any target pest not speci-
fied on the labeling if the application is to the
crop, animal, or site specified on the labeling,
(unless the label states that the pesticide may be
used only against pests specified on the label).






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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


3. Employ any method of application not prohibited by
the labeling.


4. Mix a pesticide or pesticides with a fertilizer when
such mixture is not prohibited by the labeling.


This notice informs the public that since section 2(ee)
uses are no longer misuse, any claims made regarding these
uses are not unlawful unless the registered pesticide label
specifically prohibits the use. Thus, to the extent that
section 2(ee) allows particular uses, any person may legally
recommend or advertise such uses provided that recommenda-
tions made under section 2(ee)(1) pertaining to the amount of
diluent used in applying pesticides for forestry or agricul-
tural purposes must be made in accordance with the Advisory
Opinion published in the Federal Register of March 3, 1981
(46 FR 14965). This Policy does not prospectively amend any
existing pesticide labeling; all changes in a registered pes-
ticide label must still be approved by the Agency. This No-
tice supersedes the Federal Register notice of June 8, 1979,
(44 FR 33151) which limited section 2(ee) recommendations to
user/applicators.


This new policy not only implements the Congressional in-
tent of section 2(ee) to allow beneficial non-label pesticide
uses but also provides for strong enforcement to ensure ap-
propriate recommendations of such uses. The policy statement
in no way relaxes the administrative or other civil liability
of persons who recommend pesticide uses. It should be noted
that the FPA only amends Federal pesticide law and does not
purport to affect State pesticide laws or possible private
civil liability. The only change is that the Agency no
longer limits the advocacy of permitted uses on the basis of
financial interest in the use. The Agency will, however,
take enforcement action under section 12(a)(1)(B) against any
person with a financial interest who makes pesticide use re-
commendations which exceed the limits of section 2(ee). Ad-
ditionally, any person who recommends section 2(ee) uses, of
course, remains liable for possible civil damages arising out
of his own negligence. (FR, pg. 51745, Oct. 22, 1981.)


(Chemically Speaking)


(W. M. Stall)







-7-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Copper Fertility In Watermelons


Last year there seemed to be some confusion on copper
(Cu) fertility as it affected watermelon production in se-
veral areas of the state.


Watermelons grown on deficient virgin sandy soils
generally develop severe Cu deficiency when Cu free ferti-
lizer is used.


Deficiency symptoms consist of upward cupping and crink-
ling of the young expanding leaves and death of leaf tips.
As growth continues, internodes are shortened, and because of
necrosis of leaf tissue, leaf shapes are irregular. When Cu
deficiency is less severe, symptoms do not develop until
later growth stages and generally during periods of rapid
growth. Expanding leaf tips can become necrotic as the Cu
supply is depleted. Flower development and fruit set are
greatly reduced in Cu deficient plants.


Growers formerly used natural organic, such as castor
pomace, activated animal tankage and sewage sludge as a N
source. It was later found that part of the yield responses
were actually to micronutrients supplied by the organic.
Copper was identified as largely responsible for the yield
increases.


Response of watermelons to Cu has been shown to vary con-
siderably with soil type. Response to the addition of Cu is
greatest on poorly drained sandy soils and less on upland
better drained soils. In replicated tests, watermelon yield
on Norfolk soils increased minimally with the addition of Cu
whereas, on the more deficient Immokalee and Leon soils, ad-
ditions of Cu increased yields significantly.


Source and Placement


Copper can be applied to watermelons in several ways:
blended in the fertilizer as frits or chelates, blended in






-8-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


the fertilizer as salts (CuS04), applied as salts directly in
the soil, or as a foliar application.


In most studies, the slow release form of copper was ap-
plied in a glass frit micronutrient mix. Due to the slow re-
lease of all the required micronutrients from the frit, it is
thought to be possibly a better source of Cu than copper sul-
fate. Watermelon responses to 30 to 60 lb/acre of frit is
similar to that provided with 4 Ib/acre Cu from copper sul-
fate.


The application of Cu, either in the fertilizer or sepa-
rately is much superior when broadcast and mixed throughout
the bed.


Copper can also be adequately supplied as a foliar spray.
Because a continuous Cu supply is needed throughout the sea-
son, several foliar sprays (0.25 lb/acre Cu) would be re-
quired to be adequate.


Interaction of Cu and P


Studies have shown that response to Cu and P are interre-
lated. Increased rates of applied P to watermelon generally
increased P levels in watermelon leaf tissue but decreased Cu
concentrations. This reduction of Cu uptake with increased
rates of P decreases yields on soils highly deficient in Cu
when an additional Cu is not supplied. Interaction of Cu and
P fertilization was found to affect watermelon yields parti-
cularly where diammonium phosphate (DAP) was used. It is
therefore suggested that P sources should be in a greater
amount from superphosphate or triplesuperphosphate in addi-
tion to that supplied by DAP or ammoniated superphosphate.


Information in this article was extracted from:

Locascio, S. J. J. G. A. Fiskell and P. E. Everett.
Advances in Watermelon Fertility. Proc. Trop. Reg.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 14: 223-231.






-9-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Fiskell, J. G. A., S. J. Locascio, P. H. Everett and
H. W. Lundy. 1967. Effect of Fertilizer Placements and
Rates on Watermelon Yields. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
80: 168-173.


(W. M. Stall)


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Florida Master Gardener Program


January 1982 will begin a busy year for the Florida
Master Gardener program. Plans are now being finalized to
begin training in Broward, Palm Beach, Pasco, Pinellas and
Polk Counties.


Training for these counties (all first year except for
Polk) will involve a series of eight classes based on lec-
tures, slide sets and tours; at the end of the eight weeks a
comprehensive examination will be given for certification.


Master Gardeners recently completed training in Orange,
Lake and Osceola Counties. Approximately 70 persons were
certified at the end of their training to become Master Gar-
deners.


On November 18, Orange, Lake and Osceola County Master
Gardeners came to Gainesville and toured the Ornamental Hor-
ticulture Greenhouses, Soil Testing Lab and the Vegetable
Specimen Garden. A picnic lunch was enjoyed by everyone and
during this time, certificates were awarded by J. J. Brasher,
Associate Dean for Extension.


The Master Gardener program has proven to be an asset to
the Extension horticulture program in counties participating
in the program. Many hours of service have been contributed
by the Master Gardeners, thus enabling local Extension of-
fices to serve a much larger clientele. More counties have






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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


shown interest in beginning a Master Gardener program than
can be included and trained at the present time. This in-
terest level should remain high and the program should con-
tinue to grow.


(Ann McDonald)


B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Naked Seeded Pumpkin1


Naked seeded pumpkin, also called squash, (Cucurbita
pepo L.) varieties are now available from major seed company
catalogs for planting in Florida gardens. The naked-seeded
pumpkin has been derived from natural mutants whose integu-
ments (seed coats) were very thin in contrast to the thick,
hard and close fitting hulls of normal pumpkins seeds. Since
pumpkin hulls are in close contact with the meat cotyledonss
and primary axis) of the seed, they cannot be removed easily
by the methods used for dehulling sunflower seed.


Sunflower hulls are the pericarp (ovary wall) and are
attached to the true seed at only one point, the funiculus.
Sunflower integuments, like those of pumpkin, closely contact
the cotyledons and remain on the dehulled seed; therefore,
dehulled sunflower seed and naked-seeded pumpkin seed are
morphologically equivalent.


Even with the seed coat, pumpkin seed for food use has
been fairly popular for many years, particularly with natural
food enthusiasts and self-sufficient gardeners. Perhaps the
Indian word for squash, "askutasquash", which means "eaten
raw or uncooked" is derived from the use of raw seeds rather
than the pulp. The flesh of wild Cucurbita species is re-
ported to be so bitter that it is inedible, so seeds were
likely to have been the first parts eaten. Today most people
like the flavor of pumpkin seeds, and with the naked-seeded
varieties, pumpkin seed should become even more popular.




1This article is based primarily on Misc. Report 156-1981,
University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment Station, by
R. G. Robinson.







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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Varieties According to the Department of Agronomy at
the University of Minnesota, naked-seeded pumpkins have been
tested there since 1964 as a potential oilseed crop. However
it was not until the release of 'Lady Godiva' by the USDA in
1972 that there was a popular variety available through na-
tional seed companies for grower use. Description of this
and other varieties followed:


'Lady Godiva' Fruit weigh five pounds and are yellow
with green stripes at maturity (green fades as a sign of
over-maturity). The pale flesh can be sliced and eaten raw,
but it is stringy when cooked. The green seed is about three
times the size of a dehulled sunflower seed. A bushel of
seed weighs about 43 pounds. The long prostrate vine runners
reach 10 to 20 feet in length.


'Triple Treat' A 1977 Burpee Seed Company release,
this variety is suggested for jack-o-lanterns, cooking and
naked-seed. The deep orange flesh is of good cooking qua-
lity. However, the fibrous hulls are noticeable when the
seed is eaten (unlike 'Lady Godiva'). Fruits are about five
pounds, golden orange in color.


'Streaker' Orange fruit are suitable for jack-o-
lanterns, cooking and naked seeds.


Others 'Eat all', 'Sweetnut', 'Hull-less'.


Culture Naked-seeded pumpkins should be grown in a
similar manner to other types of vining pumpkins and winter
squashes. In Florida this means spring planting throughout
the state, and fall and early winter planting in South
Florida. Due to the absence of a protective seed coat, it is
important to treat the seed with a fungicide and plant shal-
low (1" deep) 24 to 30 inches apart in 36 inch rows. Like
all pumpkins, there are male and female flowers on each
plant, and bees are required for pollination.


Gardeners growing naked-seeded varieties do not need to
worry about isolating these plants from other squash or pump-
kins to prevent cross-pollinated. Although crosses will oc-
cur, the seed will not have a tough seed coat since it is ma-
ternal tissue. Of course, such cross-pollination seed should







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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


not be saved for planting, as the next generation will result
in seeds with regular seed coats.


Use Seeds may be removed by cutting open the fruit and
scraping out by hand. Seeds should be cleaned by rinsing,
then dried on a screen or in the oven.


The seed can be eaten raw, roasted dry or roasted in
oil. When dry roasted at about 350*F, the seeds make a pop-
ping noise and swell but do not explode like popcorn. Oven
roasting takes about 15 minutes.


Nutritional value In studies at the University of
Minnesota, naked-seeded pumpkins exceeded sunflower seed in
protein percentage. A daily intake of 1/3 to 1/2 pounds of
seed per day would provide the quantity and quality of pro-
tein needed per day for adults according to the study. Naked
seed of pumpkins contain: 38% protein; 46% oil (80%-
unsaturated), 4.8% ash; 7.9% fiber; 11.3% carbohydrates;
5.92% N; 1.37% P; 0.99% K; 0.52% MG; 0.35% sulfur; 0.04% Ca;
0.03% Na; 94 ppm Fe; 92 ppm Zn; 44 ppm Mn; 14 ppm Al; 13 ppm
B; 12 ppm Cu.


(J. M. Stephens)


V. YOUTH PROGRAMS


A. National Junior Horticultural Association Convention


Florida was well represented at the National Junior Hor-
ticultural Association Convention held in Colorado Springs,
Colorado, October 30 November 3, 1981. Nine 4-H Members
from Marion and Leon Counties participated in the national
contest.


The horticultural team from Marion County placed second
in the 4-H division, with three of the team members placing
in the top ten with their individual scores. Florida also
had the first, second and fourth high individual scores in
the Honors Division.





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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Each participant in the horticultural identification and
judging contest identified plant specimens of fruits, vege-
tables and ornamentals; judged 8 classes. of horticultural
products and completed an 80-question written examination.


In the demonstration event, Ricky Jeffries from Leon
County received a blue ribbon award in the production divi-
sion for his demonstration on plant propagation.


After the competitive events 4-H members took part in
educational workshops on a variety of horticultural topics
and toured greenhouse operations, apple orchards, a cattle
ranch and the U. S. Air Force Academy.


Much enthusiasm was evident as awards were presented on
Monday evening and we can all be proud of these 4-Hers for an
outstanding showing in these contests.


Sponsorship by the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Associa-
tion, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
and Dolime Minerals Company made this trip possible for the
following 4-H Members:


Horticultural Contest


4-H Marion County Honors Marion County

Kim Ambrose Jana Haskins
Jeannie Piotrowski Butch Brady
Torm Siverson Teresa Piotrowski
Rip Haskins Nancy Sawallis

Horticultural Demonstration
Production

Ricky Jeffries


(Ann McDonald)

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$ 197.48 or 32 per copy for the purpose of communicat-
ing current technical and educational materials to extension,
research and industry personnel.




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