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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: November 1981
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00177
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
/ L AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IFAS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
[[ I l l I I l II I I Il l II I


November 1981

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


G.A. Marlowe
Professor

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND
HORTICULTURE)
FROM: J. M. 5tephens, Extension Vegetable Specialist
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 81-9

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. New Publications
B. FSHS Vegetable Section Report

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Update on Bush Bean Row Spacings
B. Re-Fertilizing Full Bed Mulched Tomatoes

III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Pumpkin









The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity -Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sx, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications


Research Report GC 1981-9, Exploratory Investigation on
the Response of Mulched, Staked Tomato to Drip Irrigation,
Tube Placement, and Type and Quanity of Fertilizer by A. A.
Csizinszky and A. J. Overman is available from the Bradenton
AREC, Bradenton, FL 33508.


(Maynard)


B. FSHS Vegetable Section Report


Twenty-five research papers were given in the Vegetable
Section of the Florida State Horticultural Society (FSHS)
during its 94th Annual Meeting at Lake Buena Vista, November
4-6, 1981. Jim Stephens, Extension Specialist, Gainesville,
presided as sectional VP. The newly elected Vegetable Sec-
tion VP is Paul Everett, Professor of Soil Science at ARC,
Immokalee. The best paper award for the 1980 vegetable sec-
tion was presented to D. J. Pieczarka, formerly of AREC,
Belle Glade, for his paper, "A new race of Helminthosporium
turicum and reacting sweet corn hybids to the pathogen." In
the Garden and Landscape section, the best paper award went
to J. M. Stephens, Marcia Kelt, and Nancy Seely, for their
paper, "The Jacksonville Urban Gardening Program." The 1982
meeting is scheduled for the Carillon Hotel, Miami Beach.


(Stephens)


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Update on Bush Bean Row Spacings


Row spacings for mechanically harvested bush beans have
been limited in past years due to the side reel harvesters in
use. With the advent of front reel bush bean harvesters
higher density populations of beans are now possible.








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Studies have shown that doubling the plant populations,
that is planting on 18-inch rows instead of 36-inch rows,
will increase the yield per acre tremendously. Many growers,
especially in South Florida, have already started to move to
this closer row spacing.


Caution should be used in recommending closer row spac-
ings in bush beans. One problem that immediately is a con-
cern is how do cultural practices and pest populations react
in higher density plantings, and will pest control practices
in use now be effective in the thicker canopy of the higher
populations.


Fortunately, many of these questions have been anticipa-
ted and research is in progress to answer these problems.


Ken Pohronezny and Bob McSorley, at the Homestead AREC
reported on their work this year at the Florida State Horti-
cultural Society.


Joan Dusky at AREC Belle Glade, is working on the weed
aspect as is Steve Kostewicz in Gainesville.


The results presented at the Florida State Horticultural
Society this year by Steve Kostewicz et al. gives some inter-
esting information on weed populations and weed control me-
thods as it affects yields of bush beans at various between
row spacings. With high weed pressure there was no advantage
in higher density beans, however, with only one cultivation,
significant differences were seen between the yields of the
various row spacings. However, a second cultivation, just
before bloom reduced yields in 12 inch-row spacings.


Work is still in progress to determine the interactions
of in row spacings, cultivations and herbicide applications.


For more in depth information on these aspects, I suggest
you read the papers when they are published, or contact the
authors.


(Stall)








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Re-Fertilizing Full Bed Mulched Tomatoes


Nearly all of the commercial tomato acreage in Florida
is produced with the full bed mulch system. Approximately
70% of the harvested acres are irrigated by seep irrigation,
27% by sprinkler, and about 3% by the drip method. In per-
iods of excessive rainfall, as was encountered with this fall
crop in the seep irrigated areas, significant leaching occur-
red in fields which had less than adequate drainage. It is
believed that most of the bed placed and some of the band
placed nutrients were disolved and carried away when beds be-
came saturated and the water i~-ecded.


Severe leaching did occur this fall and growers were
faced with the potential of "yellow fields" and low yield.
The earlier the problem was detected the more effectively a
corrective program could be initiated. Growers who live with
their crop usually spot the tell tale signs of growth slow-
down, loss of leaf color, and poor set of fruit in the case
of tomatoes, peppers and eggplant long before the emergency
level is reached.


How can a vegetable grower replace lost fertilizer to a
mulched bed when the crop is growing in the bed? With drip
irrigation, most of the nitrogen and potassium is usually
supplied in soluble form during water application, thus "re-
placement" would not be a problem. Usually all of the micro-
nutrients and phosphorus are applied in the soil during bed
formation when drip is used.


In sprinkler irrigated areas, soluble fertilizer can be
metered into the system during watering, too. Mulched beds
watered by sprinkler are usually well perforated, thus, the
nutrients can be carried into the bed fairly readily. This
method also feeds weeds and may require added expenses in
herbicides or cultivation.


Seep irrigated crops require a different strategy. A
small portion of the (NK) nutritional needs can be supplied
by foliar sprays but the cost could be prohibitive for a crop
at mid season. If we can assume that a tomato crop one month
from first harvest may need more than one half its total











VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


N & K to provide for satisfactory yields and quality then
approximately 90-100 Ibs of nitrogen and 120 to 130 Ibs of
potassium may need to be replaced.


What are the alternatives for growers using seep
irrigation?


1. Monitor salt levels in the beds frequently. Inexpensive
soluble salt meters are available and easy to use. Spot
problem fields early to avoid crisis.


2. Insure good drainage and rapid removal of excess rain.
Beds should not be flooded at any time. Flooding can
rapidly suffocate roots, encourage root rotting organisms
and disease, as well as leach valuable nutrients.


3. Fertilizer can be applied by hand or machine in a punc-
ture and replacement method or sidedressing close to the
outside of the bed wall. The bed puncture method may be
the most effective but most labor intensive method. In a
7260 lineal foot-row acre approximately 500 Ibs of an 18-
0-25 fertilizer would need to be applied to replace this
90-0-125 amount of N and K20.


(a) If the spots were spaced 18 inches apart, 1.5-oz of
material should be placed in each of the 66 punc-
tures per hundred lineal foot of bed (HLF).


(b) If the spots were spaced 24-inches apart, approxi-
mately 2.2-oz should be placed in each of the 50
puncture spots per HLF.


(c) If the spots were spaced 30 inches apart, approxi-
mately 2.5 to 2.7-oz should be placed in each of the
40 spots per HLF.


(d) If the continuous band sidedressing method was se-
lected, approximately 6.5 to 5.8-lbs of the 18-0-25
fertilizer should be applied per HLF.









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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Let us hope that we do not encounter these emergency
situations again, but if we do, let us be sure that the
problems can be detected earlier so that remedial practices
can be more effective.


(Marlowe)


III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Pumpkin


The term "pumpkin" refers to certain varieties of
Curcurbita pepo L., Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.,
Curcurbita mixta Pang., and Cucurbita maxima Duch., according
to Smith and Welch, Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 1963. The
varieties called pumpkins differ from those varieties called
squashes by having coarser, more stongly-flavored flesh, and
rinds that are softer at maturity than the winter squashes
but harder than the summer squashes. Local tradition and
common usage may dictate that a particular variety is called
a squash in one area of the country and a pumpkin in another.


Pumpkins come in many shapes, sizes, and colors. This
variation is due not only to the many named varieties, but
also to the fact that pumpkins cross-pollinate readily among
themselves and with the squashes. Seeds of pumpkins are com-
monly saved by gardeners.


The most common uses for pumpkins are for jack o'lan-
terns and for making pies. Some of the more widely grown
varieties for these purposes are described here.


For Jack O'Lanterns


'Connecticut Field' this is the standard general pur-
pose or large Halloween pumpkin which is used more than any
other variety for carving into a jack o'lantern. Fruits have
a hard orange, smooth, and slightly ribbed skin. The thick
meaty flesh is deep yellow in color, coarse textured and
sweet. Most will average 15 to 25-pounds after 120-days from








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


seeding. The blossom scar is prominent, about 1 2/3-inches
in diameter. The 3 to 4-inch long fruit stalk is slightly
curved, rough, ridged, woody and tough.


Other names sometimes used for this variety are: Big
Tom, Canners Supreme, Common Field, Connecticut Cornfield,
Connecticut Golden Field, Connecticut Yellow Field, Cow, Eas-
tern Field, Georgia Field, Golden Marrow, Indian Field, Jack
O'Lantern, Lake Shore, Large Common Field, Large Cornfield,
Mammoth Field, Michigan Mammoth, Pure Gold, Southern Gold,
Southern Field, Vermont Pumpkin, Western Field, Yankee, Yan-
kee Field and Yankee Pie.


It is used for making pies, canning, stock feed and jack
o' lanterns.


'Big Max' Matures in 120-days. Best of the big ones for
Florida gardens. Skin is pinkish orange, slightly rough in
texture, and about 3 inches thick. Jumbo size pumpkins often
reach 70-inches in girth and 75 to 100-pounds. Although best
suited for jack o'lanterns, the flesh is suitable for making
pies.


'Big Moon' Matures in 110 to 120-days. Although the flesh
is suitable for pies, it is grown for show and making jack
o'lanterns. Some of these may reach 200-pounds under ideal
growing conditions. These huge pumpkins have a medium orange
color, slightly rough texture, and are evenly ribbed.


'Jack O'Lantern' Matures in 110 days and is about the right
size for a small jack o'lantern (grows about the size of a
man's head). Deep yellow, slightly elongated pumpkins aver-
age about 10 to 15-pounds. Special selection out of 'Con-
necticut Field'.


'Funny Face' A hybrid variety good for small jack o'lan-
terns and pies. Suited to small gardens due to semi-bush
plants. The short-vine growth is only about 5-feet wide.
Matures early (95 to 100-days). Pumpkins are bright orange
and average 10 to 15-pounds.








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


'Spirit' Also a semi-bush variety which produces 12-inch
diameter fruits with deep orange color. Matures early (100
days). Good for both small jack o'lanterns and pies.


For Pie Pumpkins


'Small Sugar' Also known as New England Pie, Boston Pie,
Early Sugar, Golden Sugar, Mothers Famous Pie, New England
Pie, New Yellow Sweet Potato Pie, and Yum Yum. This is the
most popular and widely grown pie pumpkin throughout the
northeastern section of the Lcnry.


The pumpkins are small averaging only 6 to 7-pounds.
Shape is nearly globular, flattened top and bottom, ribbed,
and somewhat depressed. Blossom scar is prominent and corky.
Skin color is reddish orange, entire fruit may be finely
specked with minute dark brownish dots. Mature in 110-days.


'Cinderella' Bush type, 10-inch, globe shaped, smooth
bright orange, maturing in 95-days.


'Triple Treat' Bright orange, uniformly round fruits weigh
6 to 8-pounds and have hull-less seeds.


'Spookie' An improved 'Small Sugar' type, averages about 6
to 7-pounds and matures in 110-days from seeding. Great for
pies.


'Winter Luxury' Resembles 'Small Sugar' but has an outside
skin with a fine gray-tan netting which looks like the net-
ting on a cantaloupe. Firm thick orange flesh make excellent
pies. Averages 8-pounds.


'Cheese' One of the most popularly grown pumpkins in
Florida gardens. Pumpkins are flattened and round, with buff
colored, smooth, ribbed skin. The 10 to 12-pound fruits grow
on a vine. Matures in 110-days. Not the right color for
jack o' lanterns.








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


'Kentucky Field' Similar to 'Cheese' except elongated.
Has buff colored, ribbed skin. Orange coarse sweet flesh
makes it good for pies. Weighs about 13-pounds.


'Cushaws' These produce large, elongated fruits, the necks
of which are solid, free from seed cavities, and often
curved. Seeds are in the bulbous end. Among the strains
available are Golden, (yellow skin), Green Striped (striped
white and green, and most popular), and White (about 10
pounds).


Growing Suggestions


Time of planting Since most pumpkin varieties need
about 3 1/2 to 4-months to mature, they should be seeded by
July 4, to be ready for halloween. Pumpkins planted in the
spring (late March and early April) mature in about 100-days
and produce best yields. These are harvested in late June
and early July, and must be stored until used in October -
November. Storage is a problem, for in a test at Gainesville
by Halsey in 1975, storage in a dry unrefrigerated location
resulted in 50% loss of pumpkins ('Big Max', 'Connecticut
Field', and 'Funny Face') by late October.


Pumpkins seeded in the late spring (April 22) and in the
summer (May, June, July) are affected in the garden by virus
and fungus disease, are impaired by fruit-set problems, and
produce smaller size pumpkins. Early August seeding provides
the best fall crop for Thanksgiving, but is too late for Hal-
loween in most cases.


Spacing Most pumpkins, except the bush-type varieties,
need at least 5-feet in each direction to spread and grow.
Thus, small gardens probably should not include them. Plant
3 to 4 seeds in a hill, then remove all but the strongest
plant when they reach 2 to 4-inches tall.


Fertilizing Pumpkins respond well to liberal amounts
of organic compost. A good growing tip is to place one
shovelful of compost (or chicken, cow manure), under each
hill before seeding. Mix a handful of 6-6-6 fertilizer into











VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


each hill when preparing. Sidedress with a handful of 6-6-6
every 3-weeks or as needed.


Pollination All pumpkins have both male and female
flowers on each plant. Bees are needed to transfer the
pollen. When the plant has two small pumpkins about the size
of a baseball, remove all others as they form. This allows
the two that remain to reach fairly large size.


Storage Pumpkins keep well for a few weeks, but long
time storage of 1 to 4-months is very difficult to accom-
plish. As has been pointed out by o'.e study done in
Gaines-ville, there was a loss of 50% of pumpkins harvested
in late July and stored until halloween.


Where possible, store them in a dry (70% RH) and cool
(50" 600 F) place. Spread out the pumpkins rather than
stacking them up. Decay is the main source of loss.


Some good results have been obtained by curing pumpkins
before storing. This was done by keeping them for 10 days at
80* 85* F and a high relative humidity (80 85%).


(Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$T80o49 or28 4 per copy for the purpose of communicat-
ing current technical and educational materials to extension,
research and industry personnel.




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