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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00176
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: October 1981
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00176
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'IIi D- Cj;E II ~Imm FI IL~ 1 I I=VI3 ,~ i ~

October 12, 1981

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard

G.A. Marlowe

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor

Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor

FROM: J. M. Stephens, Extension Vegetable Specialist
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134



A. New Publications
B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

A. Benomyl on Potatoes for Control of Sclerotinia
B. Permethrin on Celery for Control of Vegetable

A. The Importance of Early Detection of Crop Damage.
B. Nutrient Film Technique Solution Temperatures Affect
Growth and Yield of Tomatoes

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.

A. Vegetable Consumption: Long and Short Term Changes

A. Gardeners: Active Conservationists and Energy Savers
B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Boniatos




A. New Publications

1. Verticillium Wilt of Strawberries Found in Central
Florida by C. M. Howard and E. E. Albregts, Research Report
SV-1981-4 is available from the Dover ARC, Rt. 2, Box 157,
Dover, FL 33527.

2. Powdery Mildew of Strawberry in Florida by C. M.
Howard and E. E. Albregts, Research Report SV-1981-J is
available from the Dover ARC, Rt. 2, Box 157, Dover, FL

3. Black Bean Variety Trial, Fall 1980 by P. J.
Stoffella and J. B. Brolman, Research Report RL-1981-3 is
available from the Ft. Pierce ARC, P. 0. Box 248, Ft.
Pierce, FL 33454.

4. Evaluation of Cauliflower Variety Performance During
the Winter 1980-81 and Spring 1981 Seasons by W. E. Waters,
T. K. Howe and D. S. Burgis, Research Report GC 1981-7 is
available from the AREC Bradenton, 5007 60th St. E.,
Bradenton, FL 33508.

5. Hand Harvest Tomato Variety Trials for Fall 1980 and
Spring 1981 by W. E. Waters, T. K. Howe, D. S. Burgis and
J. W. Scott, Research Report GC 1981-8 is available from the
Bradenton AREC, 5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 33508.

6. Abstracts of Publications from ARC Dover from 1976
to 1981 by C. M. Howard, E. E. Albregts and W. E. Waters,
Research Report SV 1981-2 is available from the Dover ARC,
Rt. 2, Box 157, Dover, FL 33527.

7. List of publications dealing with Strawberries and
Vegetables during 1976-81 by C. M. Howard, E. E. Albregts
and W. E. Waters, Research Report SV 1981-3 is available
from the Dover ARC, Route 7, Box 157, Dover, FL 33527.



8. Fall 1980 Unstaked Tomato Variety Trial by P. J.
Stoffella and R. M. Sonoda, Research Report RL 1981-4 is
available from the Ft. Pierce ARC, P. 0. Box 248, Ft.
Pierce, FL 33454.

9. List of Publications dealing with Vegetables and
Forage Crops During 1975-1981 by P. H. Everett and W. E.
Waters, Research Report SF 81-3 is available from the
Immokalee ARC, Route 1, Box 2G, Immokalee, FL 33934.

10. Herbicide Trials for Vegetable Crops, 1980-81, Re-
search Report EV 1981-4 is available from the Belle Glade
AREC, P. O. Drawer A, Belle Glade, FL 33430.

(D. N. Maynard)


November 03-04:







January 05-07:


IFAS Industry Conference on Biology and
Control of Liromyza Leafminers, Howard
Johnson's Motor Inn, Lake Buena Vista

Florida State Horticultural Society, Dutch
Inn, Lake Buena Vista

Vegetable Crops In-Service Training, Belle
Glade AREC

Vegetable Crops Extension Program Planning
Belle Glade AREC

Joint National Pea and Bean Conference,
Hilton Inn, Gainesville

23-25: National Carrot Conference, Altamonte
Springs Inn and Racquet Club, Altamonte

(D. N. Maynard)




New Section 18 Emergency Use Labels Cleared

A. Ben omyl on


for Control

of Sclerotinia

Benomyl (Benlate) has been exempted for use on potatoes
in Dade, Flagler, Putnam and St. Johns counties for the
control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The exemption for use
expires March 31, 1982. All label requirements must be met
and a report summarizing the results of the program must be
submitted to EPA September 30, 1982.

Please read the label for rates and timing before use.

B. Permethrin on Celery for Control of Vegetable Leafminer.

Permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) has been granted a section
18 exemption for use on celery for the control of the vege-
table leafminer in Florida.

The exemption expires June 30, 1982. Again a summary
must be filed with EPA by September 1.

All label restrictions should be followed. Please read
the label for rates and restrictions before use.

(W. M. Stall)


A. The Importance of Early Detection of Crop Damage

Crop damage due to natural causes (hail, lightning,
etc.), accidents (herbicide spray drift, mislabeled seed



lots, etc.); or carelessness (plugged fumigation injectors,
phytotoxic tank mixtures of pesticides, etc.) may hit com-
mercial vegetable growers at anytime. Sometimes insurance
claims, proper tax determination, or the outcome of costly
law suits depend on how well these losses have been docu-

It is almost impossible for county extension agents, ex-
tension specialists, and land grant university personnel to
avoid involvement in occasional crop damage assessment. The
fine line between "taking sides" and impartial evaluation
can only be walked with great care, an honest and open atti-
tude, and very careful documentation of the problem. For-
tunately, most damage cases can be settled out of court when
complete, accurate, and objective loss records are avail-

County extension agents should encourage vegetable grow-
ers to call for unbiased help as soon as possible in sus-
pected crop loss situations. If university personal are
involved they should try to make a comprehensive analysis of
the site, conditions, extent and type of damage as early as
possible. Facts, not opinions, are needed. The who, what,
when, why and how of each situation should be carefully de-
tailed in the presence of both parties (if two "sides" are
involved). A photographic record, field scale maps,
laboratory reports and evaluations of other resource person-
nel can be very useful.

If university personnel are asked to help in the damage
assessment they should also have a workable knowledge of
what a normal yield, range of acceptable product quality,
and a normal or healthy crop looks like. They should also
have access to average production and marketing costs, com-
mon production practices, and materials used in protection
of the crop, and usual planting and harvest dates.

Field personnel with experience in these evaluations
usually prepare and present a written or formal account of
the visit from their field notes and keep these field notes
on file, until the matter is settled. It is very important
to record the dates of the visit, when the damage was first
noted, and dates and findings of follow-up observations of
the field. If it is possible to "quantify" the damage, this



too should be done as soon as possible. For example, the
number of damaged plants in 100 foot row segments, repeated
at 8 to 10 places in the field, can add a great deal of val-
idity to the loss determination.

It is better to make more measurements than you need
than to have some sharp lawyer call your attention to some
simple observation you wished you had made. Loss assessment
is serious business and the impartial observer can sometimes
influence large economic decisions. A fresh foot print in
the sand is a lot easier to read than one washed over by a

(G. A. Marlowe)

B. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) Solution Temperatures Can
Affect Growth and Yield of Tomatoes.

Hydroponic tomato production using the nutrient film
technique (NFT) was developed in Britain and is now used in
Florida as well as many other states.

NFT is a good tool for managing the growing conditions
and increasing the productivity of plants grown under these
conditions. However, to use the system to its full poten-
tial, the grower must regulate the environmental parameters
for each particular plant grown.

Referals of problems encountered by growers using the
NFT system have historically been during the warmer weather
in Florida.

In September, G. A. Giacomelli and H. W. Jones, New
Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick, N.J.,
presented a paper on 'The Growth of Greenhouse Tomatoes by
the Nutrient Film Technique at Various Nutrient Solution
Temperatures' at the National Agricultural Plastics Congress
in Cleveland, Ohio.



Although this experiment was conducted for greenhouse
production for cooler climates, it confirms the observations
we have made in Florida and sets a few parameters that
should be extremely useful in Florida NFT production.

The authors grew tomatoes using the NFT technique in
which the solution temperatures were maintained at 35C
(950F), 290C (84.20F) and 24C (75.20F). A control was also
included in which the day temperature ranged near 24C
(75.20F) and dropped to 170C (62.60F) at night.

When plants were grown in 350C solution temperatures, a
visually significant detrimental growth was seen after 7
days. The solution temperature was then dropped to 27C
(80.6F). (If the water temperature was dropped within 10
days the plants would recover).

Initially the 29"C solution presented no growth inhibi-
tion, but after 58 days, a reduction of fresh and dry plant
weight was apparent with corresponding lower yields.

The growth of plants grown in 27C solutions were sig-
nificantly better than the 290C-solutions.

The highest plant weights and yields were from the con-
trol with the 24C solution not significantly different.
The conclusion drawn in the paper was that there should be
no difference in plants grown in the range of solution tem-
perature from 17C (62.60F) to 270C (80.6F) based on plant
weights. Maximum yields, however, ranged upward from 17C
to 240C (75.20F).

More research will have to be done to get the upper
limits of solution temperatures for Florida. The point it
confirms, however, is that high solution temperatures are
detrimental to plant growth. During warm spring, summer and
fall weather, the temperature of the nutrient solutions
should be monitored. With the translucent nutrient tanks in
use, the solution temperatures will rise much above the 27C
(84.20F) temperatures and in many cases will reach the 35C
(95F) temperature.

(W. M. Stall)





The trend towards use of more fresh vegetables continued
in 1980. Recently released USDA statistics show that per
capital consumption of fresh vegetables rose to 129.6 pounds
whereas processed vegetable use fell to 52.7 pounds. Com-
parisons between 1979 and 1980 per capital consumption are
shown below.

Per Capita Consumption of Vegetables:1979-80

Group 1979 1980 Change %
(poun d s)

Potatoes1 121 116 -4
Sweet Potatoes1 5.7 5.7 0
Dried Peas & Beans 6.8 6.9 +1
Fresh Vegetables 124.5 129.6 +4
Canned Vegetables 54.6 52.7 -4
Frozen Vegetables 29.0 27.3 -6

Total 341.6 338.2 -1

IFresh and Processed.

As one might suspect the per capital changes from year-
to-year are relatively small. However, for the nation as a
whole these small changes translate into gigantic amounts of
produce. For example, the 4% decline in potato consumption
in 1980 represented 11 million cwt on a national basis.

What accounts for such a dramatic shift in consump-
tion? As you will recall, potato growers responded to the
disastrously low prices of 1979 with reduced plantings in
1980. Lower supplies during the fall and winter of 1980 re-
sulted in greatly elevated prices and reduced consumption.
Florida growers, after a period of low prices, benefited
from the short supply in the winter and spring of 1981 with
substantially higher prices.



Similarly, lower supplies and higher prices of processed
vegetables in 1980 resulted in lower consumption. On the
other hand, fresh vegetable supplies were plentiful, prices
were lower and consumption increased.

Short-term changes in consumption of vegetables can be
explained largely by shifts in supply which drive prices up
or down. Supplies as we know, are influenced by numerous
conditions, including: economic conditions affecting planting
intentions, weather, availability of transportation and

Long-term changes in vegetable consumption may also oc-
cur. Some of these changes directly affect potential sales
by Florida vegetable growers.


Vegetable 1957-59 1980 Change %

Green Beans 2.7 1.4 -52
Broccoli 0.4 1.8 +450
Lettuce 20.3 27.4 +35
Peppers 2.2 3.6 +64
Cucumbers 2.8 4.3 +54
Watermelons 16.9 11.4 -33
Tomatoes 12.4 13.4 +8

Solid increases in lettuce, pepper, and cucumber con-
sumption have occurred during the period, probably due to
changes in dietary habits. The popularity of the salad as an
important part of the diet has increased consumption of these
vegetables but has not greatly influenced the consumption of

One possible explanation for the difference between
tomatoes and the green vegetables is that the serving size of
tomatoes has greatly diminished over the years. Formerly,
tomatoes were used almost exclusively as a 'main-dish' vege-
table. Now, as a complement to the salad, they are served as
the smallest wedge or even half a cherry tomato. The rela-
tive cost of tomatoes in respect to the other salad ingredi-
ents may explain its sparse use.



Broccoli consumption, although still comparatively low,
has shown a steady and remarkable increase. Some possible
reasons for this increase are consumer awareness, availabi-
lity and changes in dietary habits. Several aspects of the
potential for broccoli production in Florida were reviewed in
the Vegetarian 80-9.

The percipitous decline in watermelon consumption should
be of concern to Florida growers. What accounts for this
loss in popularity? Are currently used varieties too large
for today's family? Is quality inferior or undependable?
Are prices too high? Is supply inadequate? The answers to
these questions are critical to the future of the Florida
watermelon industry. For additional information see the
article by R. K. Showalter, Increasing Watermelon Consump-
tion, Vegetarian 79-4.

Fresh snap bean consumption has declined over the
period, but total bean consumption has remained virtually un-
changed. In this case, increases in consumption of canned
and frozen beans has replaced fresh bean consumption.

Short-term shifts in per capital vegetable consumption
can usually be traced to changes in supply that influence
price. Long-term consumption shifts may be related to price,
dietary habits, awareness, availability, quality, or other
factors. Florida vegetable growers are directly affected by
shifts in consumption and should take whatever steps possible
to encourage increased consumption.

(D. N. Maynard)


A. Gardeners: Active Conservationists and Energy Savers

Most of us who know any gardeners, especially vegetable
gardeners, realize just what a nice bunch of folks they are.
Good citizenship and gardening go hand-in-hand, according to
the results of polls taken by Gardens for All National Gar-
dening Survey conducted in 1980. In evidence, the following
article was taken from their booklet, 'The Impact of Home and
Community Food Gardening in America'.



"Economists, environmentalist and energy experts
have cautioned that Americans may soon have to take steps to-
ward adopting life-styles that discourage waste and excess
consumption and encourage conservation and personal producti-

Family food gardeners have already taken a first
step toward a more productive life-style, and realized a
number of direct personal and economic benefits from their
gardens--savings on food, better tasting food, healthy exer-
cise, relaxation, etc. But, apparently being a vegetable gar-
dener has also a direct relationship to being conscious of the
need to conserve and recycle.

Perhaps the most significant finding is that these
inflation and conservation activists among the nation's home
gardening population are not only found in rural and small
town America--their heightened involvement is noticed across
the spectrum of community size, including the central cities
and suburbia. Of the 31 relevant "life-style" categories
tested, in only one--"insulate home"--are non-gardeners even
equal to gardeners in terms of participation level.

The proportion of vegetable gardening households
that have chosen to assume an active conservation role at home
far outweighs those among the non-gardening neighbors, who
have taken similar steps."

Economic/Energy/Environmental Contributions
Around the Home and on the Highway*

In past 12 months, Gardening Non-gardening
proportion who have: Households Households
% %

Turned out lights when not needed 92 71
Bought sale items 89 58
Baking/creative cooking 88 40
Food preservation 87 33
Turned thermostat down 85 56
Heeded 55 mph limit 84 46
Done own sewing/mending 74 30
Done less driving 72 47
Lowered overall house temperature 72 41



Done own home painting 70 27
Bought less on credit 69 44
Less impulse buying 69 50
Budget more carefully 64 47
Done own plumbing 63 55
Eat out less often 58 44
Done own auto repairs 57 28
Closed off unused rooms 55 25
Done own electrical work 50 17
Bought fewer convenience products 49 29
Throwing less away 48 25
Weatherized home 45 23
Bought longer-lasting products 42 26
Lowered water heater temperature 41 24
Wash clothes in cold water 41 29
Re-cycled wastes 32 8
Insulated home 29 30
Sought better gas mileage 28 20
Used alternate heating energy 28 10
Car pooled 21 16
Made general investments 18 12
Bought co-op goods 9 7
*National Gardening Survey By Gallup Poll

Someone has pointed out that perhaps the conclusion from
this survey might be that people who exhibit the characteris-
tics described are more likely to have gardens than persons
who are less conscientious.
(J. M. Stephens)

B. Know Your Minor Vegetable Boniatos

Boniatos (Ipomoea batatas (L.) are also commonly called
Cuban sweet potatoes. While the generic name is the same as
for the common sweet potato widely grown in gardens and farms
around the state, boniatos differ primarily by having a dis-
tinctive white flesh rather than the characteristic yellow or
orange flesh of their edible roots.

Boniatos have been grown throughout the subtropical world
for centuries, but have only become an important commercial
crop in Florida since the nineteen sixties. This rise in
popularity was due to the influx of Cubans into the Dade
County area. Since there was always a small Cuban-Latin sec-
tor in South Florida, perhaps boniatos have been grown for
home use and limited sales for many years before that.



It was established in 1977 that there were about 5,000
acres of boniatos planted in Dade County (see FSHS 90:364).
Some fields were 50 to 100 acres in size, while the average
was 5 to 10 acres. Undoubtedly boniatos are grown in innumer-
able backyard gardens within the Latin sector.

Boniatos resemble ordinary sweet potatoes having round-
ish, oblong roots with fleshy tap-roots. They are not always
smooth and uniform in shape and size. Skin color is pale red-
dish-brown. Underneath is the bright white, very dry flesh.

Boniatos are grown in a similar manner to regular sweet
potatoes. They are started by using plants which are called
draws, slips, or transplants, or by vine cuttings. Trans-
plants are grown from roots that have been bedded, with each
root expected to produce from 8 to 12 plants. Vine cuttings
may be taken from vigorously growing vines at the terminal or
middle portions. These 8 to 10 inch long sections are then
planted at 12 inch intervals in rows spaced 3 to 4 feet apart.

The average growing season for boniatos is 150 days.
There are not specific varieties of boniato, so that there is
great viriability in yields and performance from on plant to
another. Average yields reported in Dade County were 5 tons
per acre in contrast to much higher yields reported for regu-
lar sweet potatoes in other areas of the state. The value of
the boniato industry in Dade County in 1977 was estimated to
be 4 million dollars.

Gardeners wishing to try boniatos in their home plots
will find it difficult to obtain seeds (roots) or plants.
Sweet potato weevils and nematodes are the biggest pest pro-
blems with the sweet potatoes. Root diseases are also preval-

(J. M. Stephens)

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$ 242.46 or 37 per copy for the purpose of communicating
current technical and educational materials to extension, re-
search and industry personnel.

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