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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1981
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00171
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
IA AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IlFASj UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

[L I II


April 1, 1981

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard


Chairman


S.D. Gray
Assistant
G.A. Marlowe,Jr.
Professor


James Montelaro
Professor
W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor
J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


TO:


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND


HUKORTICULTUKE)
FROM: Susan D. Gray, Assistant in Vegetable Crops ca-
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 81-4

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Field Day Calendar
B. New Publication


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Growth Patterns and Nitrogen Uptake
B. Latent Effects of Cold on Cruciferae


III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. State 4-H Horticulture Contest and FFA Vegetable Contest
B. Care of the Garden
C. Know Your Minor Vegetables Armenian Cucumber





The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, srx, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING










THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Field Day Calendar

April 16 -- 1:00PM, Vegetable Field Day, Hastings ARC,
Yelvington Farm
May 22 -- 9:45PM, Vegetable Field Day, Bradenton
AREC
June 3 -- 1:30PM, Watermelon Field Day, Leesburg ARC
June 4 -- 9:00AM, Vegetable Crops Department Field
Day, Hort Unit, Gainesville

(Maynard)

B. New Publication

Vegetable Crops Research Report VC1-1981 titled
Time of Planting Trials with Vegetable Crops in North
Florida. 1. Green Bean and Cucumber by L.H. Halsey is
available from the Vegetable Crops Department, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

(Maynard)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Growth Patterns and Nitrogen Uptake

Salt injury to tomato and pepper seedlings has been a
serious problem this spring, especially when fertilizer was
placed deep in the bed during bed forming and pressing
operations, a practice not recommended in the full-bed mulch
system. With rapid changes in soil moisture it takes very
little fertilizer to burn the tender roots of seedlings dur-
ing the first 8 to 10 days after setting in the field.


How little is very little? Classic studies on nitrogen
uptake by F.W. Zink, University of California, show that
only 1 to 7% of the total N absorbed by various vegetable
crops is taken up during the first quarter of their growth.
The nitrogen uptake patterns of several vegetable crops
(high yield situations) is shown: (Pounds of N per acre
taken up).








-2-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Vegetable Crop


Length
season,


of
days


Crop Growth Periods
(% of Total)
25 50 75 100


Broccoli

Carrot

Celery

Garlic

Lettuce

Muskmelon


Spinach


138

132

154

230


110


1 5 42 245

3 20 75 128

2 5 71 230


7 38 102

1 4 33


176


2 41 86 150

1 4 60 140


If plant growth is measured carefully from seedling
stage to maturity and the measurements recorded on a time-
growth graph, a growth rate curve would be evident. The
slow start, then rapid increase period, and the tapering off
of the S-shaped curve is typical of the growth rate of all
living things.


A typical plant growth rate, broken down into 10%
sections of the total growing season, is as follows:


Units Increase Accum.
% % Incr.%

10 2.2 2.2
20 8.4 10.6
30 17.4 28.0
40 18.5 46.5
50 18.1 64.6


Units Increase Accum.
% % Incr.%
0 2.2 2.2
60 16.9 81.5
70 10.1 91.6
80 4.4 96.0
90 2.0 98.0
100 2.0 100.0


--~-~---------










THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Consideration of the growth pattern and uptake of nutri-
ents should guide us in the development of more efficient
fertilizer programs. Someday we may be able to match this
supply and demand with greater precision, and move to higher
yield levels in less space, time and cost. Drip irrigation,
plastic mulch, controlled release inputs and a better under-
standing of the S-curve may be the production combination of
the future.


(Marlowe)


B. Latent Effects of Cold on Cruciferae


Many scattered problems that have arisen in the state
this spring on the cruciferous crops can be attributed to
the unseasonably cold winter. The latent (hidden) effects
of cold temperatures are complicated and here are discussed
for the Brassicas specifically and all crucifers in general.


Most of the problems can be attributed to the stimula-
tive effects of low temperature on flowering, a phenomenon
known as vernalization. Physiologically the Brassicas are
divided into two growth stages, juvenile and adult.


While the plants are in the juvenile stage, the growth
is vegetative and they cannot be vernalized (induced to
flower). The adult stage is composed of a vegetative growth
phase and a generative phase. The generative phase is the
budding and flowering phase of development and with the ex-
ception of broccoli and cauliflower is undesirable in com-
mercial production. The transition from juvenile to adult
is a factor of plant size and age.


Premature Flowering of Brassicas


Bolting of the crucifers seems to be the greatest latent
effect seen so far. Low temperature induction of flowering
in cabbage is quantitative. An older plant requires less
time at the critical temperature than a plant that has just
passed into the vegetative phase from the juvenile stage.
Unfortunately there is a tremendous range in the juvenility











THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


factor due to variety differences. In some cases, inter-
mediate forms occur between flowering plants and completely
vegetative plants. This includes elongated stems, and heads
with long cores with internal flower formation or simply
primordial flower buds. The plants could be somewhat to se-
verely mishapen or partial cracking might occur. Here again
each variety may manifest different propensity for the pro-
blems depending on the age of the plants. Similar growth
and flowering patterns also occur in semi-heading and non-
heading crucifers such as Chinese cabbage and mustard.


Buttoning of Cauliflower


A problem that may be found in cauliflower is "button-
ing". Buttoned plants have fewer and smaller leaves than
normal plants, and make small curds which soon bolt.


Buttoning is caused by premature transition from the
juvenile stage to the generative stage. In other words, the
plants do not have enough time or growth in the vegetative
stage to form proper foliage for curd development. Button-
ing is strongly influenced by conditions under which the
cauliflower is grown. Slowing or stopping the growth in the
vegetative stage by cold, dryness, nitrogen shortage, exces-
sive salt concentrations or severe weed competition can pro-
mote buttoned plants. Planting hardened off, old trans-
plants will also promote buttoning.


Blindness in Cauliflower


Blind plants are those in which the growing point col-
lapsed at an early stage. Blindness is prevalent if plants,
after having formed approximately seven leaves, are exposed
to temperatures near freezing. When plants are well past
the seven leaf stage, low temperatures cause little of this
condition.


This disorder is often confused with whiptail, which is
caused by molybdenum deficiency. The leaves of blind plants
are often thicker and harder than normal, and adventitious
shoots may develop which can make a small curd.








-5-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Pathological and Other Disorders


Other effects on crucifers after severe cold may show up
as pathological or non-parasitic disorders or may be a com-
bination of both.


It has been reported that crucifers may become more sus-
ceptable to Fusarium and black rot after a severe cold
shock. Alternaria may also attack damaged curds of cauli-
flower causing a brown rot disease.


Frozen pith may be attacked by several pathogens of
which soft rot bacteria would be the most common. Soft rot-
ted stems may not be apparent until lower leaves start to
soften and collapse.


Sudden withdrawal of water due to freeze shock, or col-
lapse of the pith by soft rot cause the browning of cauli-
flower curds and internal disorders of cabbage such as in-
ternal tip-burn.


Diseases such as downy mildew and others are not related
to cold damage and should not be confused with a disease
such as brown rot which may or may not be attacking curds.


In summary, one must take into account the crop variety,
age at the cold weather, days subjected and degree of cold,
seed bed production techniques, condition of transplants at
planting and field production variables when trying to pre-
dict if conditions were favorable for a crop to develop
latent cold damage symptoms. No mean feat in itself.


(Stall)


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. State 4-H Horticulture Contest and FFA Vegetable Contest

It won't be long before July is here and it's time for
the State 4-H Horticultural Identification and Judging Con-
test. The event will be held on Tuesday, July 28 at 4-H
Congress in Gainesville.









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Each county may enter a 4 member team in this event.
The contest involves identification of fruits, vegetables
and ornamental plants as well as judging 2 classes of pro-
ducts in each commodity area. Judging is done on a consumer
quality basis. The Florida contest is one of the most com-
petitive in the nation and has proved to be excellent train-
ing for the first place team which goes on to national com-
petition. This year's national meeting will be in Colorado
Springs, Colorado.


Interest in 4-H horticultural events has increased in
the past few years and that growth should continue. Par-
ticipation in this event is an excellent way to stimulate
interest. Training materials are available on a loan basis
to counties in preparing teams.


The State FFA Vegetable Identification and Judging Con-
test will be held at the University of Florida, on Friday,
May 1. Fifty to sixty 4 member teams are expected to
enter. Participants are responsible for identification of
kinds and varieties of vegetables, insects, diseases, weeds,
and seeds and for judging 4 classes of vegetables.


For further information on either of these events con-
tact Susan Gray at (904)392-2134. Please help to encourage
interest and participation in these programs.


(Gray)


B. Care of the Garden


Now that most spring garden vegetables are up and grow-
ing around the state, it is time to think about taking care
of them. Here are some of the more frequently encountered
garden care activities.


Thinning


After sowing the seeds, most seedlings emerge much too
closely together in the row to allow proper growth and de-
velopment. Thus, it is necessary to remove surplus plants,
leaving the remaining plants properly spaced.








-7-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Thinning is best done by hand while the plants are small
and the soil is moist, so they can be pulled out easily
without injuring the remaining plants. Surplus turnips,
leaf lettuce, beets, and mustard may be pulled when they are
4 to 5 inches tall. At this stage they are usable in salads
or as cooking greens. Carrots should be thinned first when
2 to 3 inches tall, so as to stand about 1 inch apart. When
havesting, pull alternate plants, thus leaving room for
those remaining to develop.


Some kinds of vegetables may be replanted after thin-
ning, thus allowing empty spaces in the row to filled. The
following chart should be helpful in determining which ones
may be moved from one point in the garden to another.





Table 1. Response To Transplanting After Thinning


Generally Survive
Transplanting


Beet
Broccoli
Brussels sprouts
Cabbage
Carrot
Cauliflower
Celery
Chard
Chinese cabbage
Collards
Egglant
Endive
Kohlrabi
Lettuce
Mustard
Onion
Pepper
Tomato


Seldom Survive
Transplanting


Bean
Corn
Cucumber
Okra
Lima Bean
Muskmelon
Pea, English
Pea, Southern
Pumpkin
Radish
Squash
Turnip
Watermelon


---








-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Cultivation and Weed Control


Cultivation is the working of the soil around the
plants. Its main purpose in most cases is weed control. A
single cultivation will kill most all weeds less than 1 inch
tall, but it is difficult to kill them when they reach 4 to
5 inches. Usually, weekly cultivation will be sufficient.


Shallow cultivation is best, for it is less injurious to
crop roots than deep cultivation, and is just as efficient
in killing weeds. A well-sharpened common garden hoe is
still the best tool for cultivating the average garden.


In addition to weed control, some garden soils such as
heavy clays gain other benefits from cultivation such as
better aeration and water absorption.


While cultivating, it is beneficial to pull soil up
around the base of plants where wind and water erosion has
exposed the roots. With the Irish potato, it is advisable
to mound up the soil around the stems of the leaves when the
stems have reached 6 to 8 inches in length. Allow only the
top 2 to 3 inches of leaf-canopy to stick out of the bed.
This mounding causes more tubers to set on a stronger plant
with a longer underground stem than if left unmounded.


Mulching


A good mulch controls weeds, conserves moisture and fer-
tilizer, and provides a clean surface for supporting tender
fruiting vegetables. Mulches may be applied before plant-
ing, or they may be placed around the base of vegetables
after the plants are sufficiently large enough to avoid
covering.


Common mulching materials are black plastic film, paper,
leaves, hay, pinestraw, peanut hulls, sawdust and wood shav-
ings.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Staking and Pruning


Some of the taller growing plants and vine crops will
need a support to hold them erect.


There are many acceptable ways to support pole beans and
other similar plants. One method is to set 6-foot posts
every 12-15 feet in the row. Stretch wire or cord between
the posts at the top and bottom. Weave string between the
top and bottom wires (or cord) to form a trellis. Shorter
plants such as peas can be supported in the same way using
shorter 3 to 4 foot stakes. Cut-brush or bamboo may stuck
in the ground and arranged in a tee-pee fashion above the
vining plants.


Indeterminate tomato plants need to be staked due to
their extremely vining growth habit. Determinate and semi-
determinate varieties may also benefit from staking and
trellising for the purposes of easier cultivation and care.


Indeterminate varieties of tomatoes should also be
pruned. Removal of side branches (suckers) produces a more
manageable plant with fewer, but larger fruits than if un-
pruned. Generally it is not advisable to prune determinate
varieties.


Watering


A short period of dry weather may reduce the yield and
lower the quality of vegetables, and a long period without
water can result in a total failure of the garden. Usually
about 1/2 to 1 inch of water per week is necessary to main-
tain the garden. Water the garden as often as is necessary
to keep a proper moisture level in the root zone. It is
best to water deeply and less frequently than shallow and
often.


Examine the garden regularly to observe the first signs
of insect or disease invasion. Some pests need to be con-
trolled early before they multiply to hazardous proportions.
Others may not be cause for alarm even though some damage is
evident. Ordinarily, diseases must be controlled on a







-10-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


preventive basis, whereas insects can be' monitored for
threshold levels beyond which control steps must be taken.
Gardeners should become aware of the integrated pest and
crop management concept.


(Stephens)


C. Know Your Minor Vegetables Armenian Cucumber


Armenian cucumber (Cucumis melo L. Flexuosus group) is
known by several other names such as: Japanese cucumber,
snake melon, snake cucumber, and uri. It should not be con-
fused with the snake gourd or club gourd which is Trichosan-
thes anguina.


Armenian cucumber is closely related and is similar to a
muskmelon, however, a very long one. The fruit is very long
and slender, usually about 3 feet long and 3 inches in dia-
meter, almost always bent and twisted. It is dark green,
marked with paler longitudinal furrows, and is thicker at
the blossom end. The fruit changes to a yellow color when
ripe, at which time it has a strong muskmelon odor.


The annual vine is creeping, with slender roundish to
angular stems covered with short hairs. The leaves are
rounded, almost kidney shaped with 5 angles (lobes). Both
male and female flowers on the vine are small, pale yellow,
with 5 rounded divisions. Seeds are more like those of a
muskmelon than a cucumber.


Individual plants may be found which bear at the same
time fruits which are long and twisted and fruits which are
broad and oval in shape. Sometimes even the same fruit
will be thin and snake-like near the stem-end, but swollen
at the other end similar to a melon.


In Florida, as in most parts of the country, the
Armenian cucumber is grown only as a curiosity. It is used
for pickling.







-11-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


It is a warm-season crop, so should be planted from seed
in the early spring in all areas of Florida except south
Florida where it may be seeded in October through February.
Follow the cultural suggestions for cucumber or canta-
loupes. Be on the alert for powdery and downy mildew, two
common diseases of cucumbers and cantaloupes.


(Stephens)


Statement: This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$25.75 or 4 4 per copy for the purpose of communicat-
ing current technical and educational materials to exten-
sion, research and industry personnel.




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