Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: March 1981
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00170
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


March 1, 1981

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


S.D. Gray
Assistant
G.A. Marlowe,Jr.
Professor


James Montelaro Mark Sherman
Professor Assistant Professor
W.M. Stall 5 J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor Associate Professor


TO :


COUNTY EXTENSION: DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND


HUKORTICULTURE)
FROM: Susan D. Gray, Assistant in Vegetable Crop S

Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building /
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134
VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 81-3
IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications
B. Dr. George Marlowe, Jr. Returns
C. Vegetable Calendar
D. Slide Tape Series Complete
E. Watermelons Preliminary Report On Intended Acreage For
1981 Season
If. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. 24(c) Labels for Monitor
B. Loss of Vegedex
III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. On-Farm Testing As An Economic Tool
IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida Has National 4-H Gardening Winner
B. Understanding The Routine Soil Test Report For Vegetable
Gardens
C. Know Your Minor Vegetables Bottle Gourd



The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


r


I II III I I I









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

"Fall Slicer Cucumber Cultivar Evaluation" by J. M.
White is available as Research Report CF 81-2 from the
Sanford Agricultural Research and Education Center, P.O. Box
909, Sanford, FL, 32771.

Research Report SV81-1 which summarizes current research
at the strawberry center is available from the Dover ARC,
Rt. 2, Box 157, Dover, FL., 33527.

(Maynard)

B. Dr. George Marlowe Returns

After two years on leave of absence to the Jordan Valley
Water Authority, George has returned to Florida. He will
assume his former title of Professor and Extension Special-
ist in the Vegetable Crops Department. He will be located
at the Bradenton AREC.

George's responsibilities include primary specialist for
counties in Extension District 4, statewide cultivar demon-
strations and recommendations, coordination of Extension as-
pects of tomato IPM in the Hillsborough Manatee area, and
involvement in the water program.

Welcome home, George, we're glad you're back.

(Maynard)

C. Vegetable Calendar

April 16 -- 1:00PM, Vegetable Field Day, Hastings ARC,
Yelvington Farm
June 3 -- 1:30PM, Watermelon Field Day, Leesburg ARC
June 4 -- 9:00AM, Vegetable Crops Department Field
Day, Hort Unit, Gainesville

(Maynard)

D. Slide Tape Series Complete

At last all counties should have in their posses-
sion Parts IV and V of the "You Can Grow Vegetables"
slide tape series. Part IV (80 slides) deals with pests
and problems, while Part V (80 slides) covers harvesting
tips. The five parts should now give you a complete






-3-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

program on the has kcs of hackyard vegetable garden ng In
P lori(da.

If you find the slide sets useful in your county, I
know you will want to express your appreciation to the
sponsor, Mr. Edward H. Boeckel, Rohm and Haas Co., 345
Whooping Loop, Altamonte Springs, FL.,32701.

(Stephens)

E. Watermelons Preliminary Report on Intended Acreage for
1981 Season

The Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service
estimates that Florida growers will plant 51,000 acres
of watermelons in 1981. A breakdown of acreage distri-
bution by area along with comparisons for the 1979 and
1980 seasons is as follows:


1979


1980


1981


% of
Areas Planted Harvested Planted Harvested Intended last year


Acres


West


5,000


North 31,000
Central 8,800
South 5,200
State 50,000


3,000 4,000
27,500 27,500
7,400 7,800
5,100 5,700
43,000 45,000


2,800

26,500
7,600
5,600


4,500
31,000
8,700
6,800


42,500 51,000


(Gray)


113
113
112
119
113


_-----I-i-------~-~ --C~-~---~l_11


--- --~~II-"-----~'^---"~-~-------"I--"-- -- II'-







-4-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. 24(c) Labels for Monitor

The State of Florida has temporarily granted
Chevron's applications for section 24(c) labels for the
use of Ortho Monitor 4 spray for the control of insects
on eggplants and melons.

On eggplant, Monitor 4 can be used at 1-2 pints
(0.5 to 1.0 lb, ai) per acre for the control of
spidermites, aphids, leafminers and lepidopterous
larvae. There is a 7 day spray limit before harvest.

On melons, the product can also be applied at 1-2
pints for the control of the Rindworm complex (cabbage
looper, tobacco budworm, granulated cutworm), melon
worm, pickleworm, and leafminer. There are variable
7-14 day waiting periods before harvest depending on the
crop.

Check the label before application of these pro-
ducts for other directions and restrictions for use.

B. Loss of Vegedex

The Monsanto Agricultural Products Co. has an-
nounced that they have ceased production of the herbi-
cide Vegedex. All manufactured material will be di-
verted to California and Florida. This should be adequ-
ate for a one year supply for these two states.

(Stall)

ITI. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. On-Farm Testing As An Economic Tool

Vegetable growers can do something big about rising
costs of production by challenging every practice and
material used in their operation. One of the best ways
of telling whether a fertilizer rate applied is too high
or too low is to set up one or more simple test rows in
the field, mark them and observe them closely.

The days of "apply-plenty-it-costs-so-little" are
just about gone. Luxury levels of fertilizer, and all
other inputs, can and should be challenged. The "rate"
my neighbor uses needs to be tested, too. Your ferti-
lizer salesman can be very helpful in setting up test









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSI.ETTER

rows t:o rleterml n I whia Ls beLst for your crop, your f4rmni
and you r pocketbook.

Growers should select the most typical area of
their field for these simple rate tests. The tests
should be large enough to represent the effect of using
one-half, one-fourth (or whatever rates are selected) of
the material in comparison to the rest of the field.
The test rows, usually one or two rows of each level,
are enough to give the grower fairly good information
without causing a serious cultural, cost, or loss pro-
blem.

The test rows should be labeled with some marker
that will last through the season. Frequent comparisons
should be made, and written down somewhere so that con-
clusions can be made after the harvest. Growers should
compare the growth and vigor of the crop as well as the
yield. If one gets the same yield from less vine maybe
a closer spacing will give a higher yield per acre.

The Extension Agent is usually very happy to assist
growers (or growers and salesmen) in setting up these
simple but very valuable comparison tests. Usually the
cost, growth, and yield information produced by these
tests are large enough to measure by rating the test
rows as equal to, better than or lower than the regular
or standard rows in the field.

Growers should give their test rows the same care
they give the rest of the field. Good judgement in set-
ting up the test rows, careful observation, and a hard
look at the cost-benefit relationship of nearly every
operation in vegetable crop production can make a big
difference in the profit column.

(Marlowe)

IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida Has National 4-H Gardening Winner

Anthony Flowers, 15, of Taylor County is the na-
tional 4-H gardening winner for 1980. After his record-
book was selected as a state winner in July, it was For-
warded to regional competition where it again placed
first. Winning in regional competition earned Anthony a
trip to National 4-H Congress in Chicago, courtesy of
Ortho Division of Chevron Chemical Company. Chevron is
also the donor of the $1000 scholarship Anthony won when
selected as the national gardening winner.







-6-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

All of these awards are the result of much hard
work and dedication by Anthony. With the help of his
county 4-H program leader, a local volunteer leader and
specialists in Vegetable Crops, he designed his own
project. His interest in developing a project began
when he visited the demonstration gardens at Florida A &
M University and got the idea of organizing a community
garden program in Perry. From this basic idea, the pro-
ject grew to include experiments with various types of
mulches; different types, rates and application methods
of fertilizer; and varying depths for seeding.

Doctors Memorial Hospital in Perry donated an acre
of land for the project and other Taylor County busi-
nesses also donated supplies and services. Thirty-four
25' x 40' plots were rented to interested residents as
community gardens. The County 4-H Council grew beans,
tomatoes, peas and squash on a 20' x 150' area and
donated these vegetables to the hospital for patient
meals.

Fifty-three different vegetable varieties were
grown in a 25' x 20' area to provide study materials for
4-H horticultural identification classes. The remaining
areas (25' x 40' and 25' x 20') were used by Anthony for
his experiments.

To enter state, regional and national competition,
Anthony submitted a record describing his project from
start to finish, included the results of his experi-
ments, along with photos and diagrams. The book also
contained a report of his previous 4-H projects and
activities and a story about his 4-H career.

Ortho Division of Chevron Chemical Company sponsors
the 4-H gardening project each year. Projects may be
done in any area of horticulture vegetable crops,
fruit crops or ornamental horticulture. Anthony's suc-
cess shows what planning and hard work can achieve. We
hope to see increased interest in this project area each
year.

(Gray)

B. Understanding The Routine Soil Test Report for Vegetable
Ga rdens

Many agents have found the current computerized
"Soil Test Report and Standard Fertilizer Recommenda-
tions" for vegetable gardens to be quite confusing (In
the re c omme ndat ions sec t o n) Rec ommn ind iat i. on s for I ine ,









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

N, 1'205 and K2() are made on rthi, basis pound p er
acre. The conversion factors for chang t.i s na iLer
areas such as pounds per 100 square feet are given; how-
ever, there is considerable concern that thihs procedure
needs to simplified. The main objection to the current
reporting system is that the gardener is given no help
in converting to actual fertilizer kinds and r.mou-nts per
100 square feet.

Therefore, it should come as good news to most
agents that the report will undergo considerable changes
very soon. The exact nature of the changes are not con-
crete at this time; however, the basic pli soply 1lehind
the recommendation format that will come rit later is
discussed here.

Soil Testing

Soil tests are helpful in d e t er Tin i n h o much
phosphorus and potassium the soil can supply. Fortili-
zation recommendations based on soil test results are
given by the IFAS Extension Soil Testing LaboraLory.
The amount of phosphorus and potassium recommended is
the amount needed to supplement the soil's supply and to
assure optimum plant nutrition. Soil nitrogen chemistry
is such that nitrogen availability is not tested in
Florida. The nitrogen fertilizer recommendation is
based simply on the quantity found by experimentation to
assure optimum plant nutrition for the majority of vege-
tables in the garden. Further refinement could be made
on an individual crop basis.

A soil test acts as a guideline to fertilizing the
vegetable garden. Its practical value is the fertilizer
recommendation that accompanies it. For example, a soil
test result may show that a soil is very high in avail-
able phosphorus. The accompanying recommnendat ons would
suggest that no phosphorus be added.

At this point there are two basic choices of kinds
of fertilizers to buy and use. The first is to use a
complete fertilizer such as 6-8-8. Since this ferti-
lizer contains 8 percent available phosphoric acid, you
would be applying a material that is not needed and you
would be ignoring the practical value of the soil test.
Gardeners who have used complete fertilizers have done
so for the following advantages: availability, ease-of-
application, storage properties, and product familia-
rity.








-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

The second choice is to use single-element ferti-
lizers (contains only one of the macro-nutrients) such
as ammonium-nitrate, superphosphate, and potassium chlo-
ride. This is the only way to add only what is needed,
thus ensuring full-advantage of the soil-testing proce-
dure. It should be pointed out, however, that some in-
conveniences may be encountered with the use of single-
element fertilizers. They are as not widely available
in garden supply stores as the mixed fertilizers, and a
little more time and effort is involved in their appli-
cation. Furthermore, left-over materials need to be
handled carefully to prevent hardening or loss.

The forthcoming new soil test report will give gar-
deners the choice of using a complete fertilizer, as
most are accustomed to, or of using a combination of
single-element fertilizers. Also, they will be advised
on special fertilizat on requ rements For high-pH soils.

Using the Soil-Test Report

Once the soil is tested, the results are returned
from the computer in the form of a "Soil Test Report and
Standard Fertilizer Recommendations" sheet. The report
will give the amount of needed fertilizer in pounds per
acre (LB/A) for nitrogen (N), phosphoric acid (P205),
and potash (K20). To find out the kind and amount of
actual fertilizer to recommend use the following
tables. The materials suggested are commonly available;
others could just as well be used but the amounts would
vary with the nutrient content.

Refer to Table I if single-element fertilizers are
to be used. Find the soil-test report recommendation In
the first column and read across to determine pounds of
single-element fertilizers needed per 100 square feet of
garden. A gardener may thoroughly mix the fertilizers
together (if n ore than one is needed) or apply them se-
parately. For directions on how to prepare the soil and
apply the fertilizer, refer to Extension Circular 104 or
Extension fact sheet VC-5, "Fertilizing the Garden".

Because of the small quantities of fertilizer re-
quired for short rows and small plots, it is easy to ap-
ply too much fertilizer. Root injury or nutrit onal
disorders in plants might result. Therefore, the chemi-
cal fertilizer to be applied should always he measured
or weighed.









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLE:rTER

If it is more convenient to measure the material
than to weigh it, pounds of complete ferti Izers such as
6-8-8, and such other fertilizers as superphosphate and
muriate of potash, may be converted roughly to pints or
cups by allowing I pint (or 2 kitchen measuring cups or
32 tablespoons) to a pound. Ammonium nitrate is
lighter, so allow 2 1/2 cups per pound.



Table 1. Converting your Soil Test Recommendations to Single-Element
Fertilizer.


Recommendation
as shown on
soil test report


N P205 K,20


______ i-


Name and Grade
of three single-element
fertilizers


Amoninum
nitrate
(33-0-0)


Ordinary
Superphosphate
(0-20-0)


----bs/acre------------------lbs to use/100


100-140-140
100-140- 70
100-140- 0
100- 70-140
100- 70- 70
100- 70- 0
100- 0-140
100- 0- 70
100- 0- 0


__________________________________________________________________


0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7


1.6
1.6
1.6
0.8
0.8
0.8
0
0


Muriate of
potash
(0-0-6C0)


Total
weight of
fertilizer
to use


sq. ft.-- --------


+ 0.
+ 0.3
+ 0
+ 0.5
+ 0.5
+ 0
+ 0.5
+ 0.5
+ 0






-10-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Should a complete fertilizer be preferred, the
following table (Table 2) shows how much 6-8-8 analysis
fertilizer to use based on the recommendation from the
soil-test report. You will note that in all cases it is
4 pounds per 100 square feet. This amount is necessary
to provide the rate of nitrogen that is required for
optimum growth of young seedlings and transplants.

The table demonstrates how excess fertilizer is
applied when a complete fertilizer is used.




Table 2. Using a complete (6-8-8) fertilizer based on the soil test.


Recommendation 6-8-8 Excessive fertilizer applied
as shown on Fertilizer
soil test report to use Phosphoric Potash
Acid

N P205 K20 6-8-8 P205 K20


-------bs/acre-----

100-140-140
100-140- 70
100-140- 0
100- 70-140
100- 70- 70
100- 70- 0
100- 0-140
100- 0- 70
100- 0- 0


--lbs/100 sq. ft.-

4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0


_______________________ _____- _____________


-----------lbs/acre----------


0
0
0
70


140
140
140







-11-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

C. Know Your Minor Vegetables Bottle Gourd

The bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.)
Standl, is apparently the only species of Its genus.
The name is synonymous with L. vulgaris Ser. and L.
leucantha (Duch.) Rusby. It is also called the trumpet
gourd, the calabash groud, and the white-flowered
groud. The name "bottle gourd" is especially appropri-
ate, because this plant species is one of the few from
which useful and lasting containers can he made.

Origin and Distribution

The bottle gourd probably originated in Africa and
from there was widely distributed in pre-Columbian
times. It traveled to India, where it has evolved into
numerous local varieties, and from India to China and to
Indonesia and as far as New Zealand. Archaeological re-
mains show that the bottle groud was used in Egypt about
3500 to 3300 B.C. First records in China are the 1st
century A.D. and in New Zealand by the 12th century A.D.

Lagenaria also traveled to the New World. The
dried gourds have been shown to survive in seawater for
at least 224 days, and seeds have remained viable. The
fruits might have traveled to the New World by sea. Re-
mains found in Mexico date from 7000 to 5500 B.C. and in
Peru from about 10,000 B.C. The bottle gourd is thus an
ancient crop, widespread and well used, from warm parts
of the Temperate Zone throughout the dry and wet Tro-
pics. It is the only crop known to have been cultivated
in pre-Columbian times in both the Old World and the New
World.

Seeds and other remains of the gourd have turned up
in several archaeological digs in Florida.

Description

The bottle gourd is a vigorous, annual, running or
climbing vine with large leaves and a lush appearance.
It is fast growing and may begin to flower only 2 ,months
after seeding. The thick stem is furrowed longitudinal-
ly. The vine is much branched and climbs by means of
branched tendrils arising from the stem with the leaf.
The foliage is covered with soft hairs and has a musky
or foul smell when crushed. The leaves of the bottle
gourd are up to 15 inches broad, circular in overall
shape, with a cordate base and smooth margins, or with a








-12-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

few broad lobes, or with undulate margins. Leaves have
a velvety texture because of fine hairs, especially on
the undersurface.

The bottle gourd is monoecious. Flowers are borne
singly on the axils of the leaves, the males on long
peduncles and the females on short peduncles. The
flowers are white and attractive, up to 12 centimeters
in diameter, with spreading petals. The ovary is infer-
ior and in the shape of the future fruit. Otherwise,
the male and female flowers are similar in appearance.
The anthers are borne on short filaments grouped at the
center of the flower. The stigmas are short, thickened,
and branched.

The fruits of the bottle gourd show an immense
amount of variation in shape, ranging from flattened
forms to bottle-like forms with one to three swollen re-
gions, to long club shapes, sometimes over 3 feet. Fur-
thermore, the natural forms are further varied by arti-
ficially restricting growth with bands in order to deve-
lop special forms. The brownish seeds are numerous in a
whitish-green pulp.

Varieties

Variation:

Lagenaria is a diploid with 22 chromosomes. All
forms interbreed freely, and breeding is simple.

The bottle gourd shows great variation in vigor and
horticultural characteristics. Adapted varieties are
vigorous and rapidly climb to the top of supports, pro-
ducing large quantities of foliage and many flowers.
Varieties differ in earliness of flowering and fruit set
by a month or more.

The most spectacular variation in bottle gourds is
with respect to the fruits. The background color is
either light green or dark green. Dark green color can
be distributed as a solid color, as regular or irregular
stripes and as an irregular blotch. The size of the
fruit varies from 2 to 12 inches in diameter and from 4
to 40 inches in length. The shape of the fruit is vari-
able. The fruit can have a sterile (seedless) neck,
which varies from a few to 15 inches in length and I to
2 inches in width. Wider necks usually contain seeds,
and the neck may have a seed-containing bu lge. The
seed-containing portion of the fruit v;IIrIes from flat tc







-13-


THEIR VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

round, to cylindrical, club shaped, or Long and narrow.
The long, narrow forms are best for vegetables, and the
round types serve as containers.

Cult Lvars

Cultivars of Lagenaria are known throughout West
Africa, where the bottle gourd has been grown for con-
tainers, but these cultivars are largely unrecorded in
terms of name and characteristics. Probably no region
has as much diversity and so many named varieties of
bottle gourd as India, where there are 36 named variet-
ies.

Climatic and Cultural Requirements

Lagenaria can be grown anywhere in Florida during
the frost-free periods of the year. The vines should be
trellised to provide good aeration around the leaves for
disease prevention. Best growth results when planted in
the spring to coincide with the increased lengthening of
days.

Space plants 9 feet apart. Plant seeds 1 1/2 Inch
deep in raised beds or mounds.

Fertilize at the rate of 1/2 cup of 6-8-8 per
plant, or place a shovel-full of compost or animal ma-
nure beneath the seed when preparing the planting site.

A trellis is advised, but vines may be allowed to
run on the ground. With ground culture, the use of
mulch is advised to prevent fruit rotting.

Pests and Disease

Lagenaria is likely to be attacked by poudery mil-
dew mosaic virus, fusarium wilt, and fruit ruts. Var-
ieties differ in resistance.

Harvest and Yields

The young fruits of Lagenaria are the part eaten,
but bottle gourd fruits can be fairly large, up to two-
thirds of mature size, before harvest. Lsrge fruits are
not as tender or tasty as small fruits but may be even
more nutritive, because the seeds are more highly deve-
loped.







-14-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Fruits can be used as vegetables from a few days to
2 weeks after harvest, if kept at ambient temperatures,
and they stay fresh somewhat longer under cool tempera-
tures.

Utilization and Nutritional Value

Uses:

Young bottle gourd fruits are eaten as a boiled
vegetable. Varieties differ, but the best are slightly
sweet, tender, free of bitterness, but sometimes with a
slight nutlike flavor, pale green, and attractive. Many
varieties are bitter or may contain poisonous substances
and are not attractive to most people. The fruits are
often cooked with curries, which mask the natural
flavors. The carefully selected varieties of India are
choice vegetables, as good and as nutritious as the popu-
lar summer squashes.

When bottle gourds are to be used as containers,
they may be constricted by bands to particular shapes.
The gourds are permitted to obtain a maximum maturity on
the vine before harvest. When harvested with a short
length of vine, they can be hung from wires below a hot
ceiling, where they dry out. However, the drying pro-
cess is slow, and other measures are often used.

The top of the gourd is cut away and the seeds and
pulp are scooped out. An excellent technique is to fill
the partially cleaned gourds with clean, dry sand, and
to cover them in a larger container with sand. This is
heated over a fire for several days, and the gourds are
carefully dried out. Patterns may be cut into the
gourds before they are dried, or the shells may be
forced into desired shapes. Dried gourds are cleaned a-
gain. The interior is scraped to remove dried pulp.
The exterior may be painted, shellacked, or waxed.
Well-treated gourds become durable containers. The dry
hard shells are used for bottles, milk pots, churns,
bowls, ladles, spoons, work baskets, floats, pipes,
carved objects, and musical instruments. (Reference:
Martin, F.W.: SEA/USDA).

(Stephens)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost
of $203.14 or .03 per copy for the purpose of communicating
current technical & educational materials to extension, re-
search and industry personnel. ____




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