Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: December 1980
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


December 8, 1980

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


S.D. Gray
Assistant
R.K. Showalter
Professor


James Montelaro
Professor
W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor
J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND
HORTICULTURE)
FROM: Mark Sherman, Postharvest Extension Vegetable Speciali 4

Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 80-12

IN THIS ISSUE:


I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. New Publications
B. Errata
C. Planning Conference
D. Demonstrations by County Agents
E. 1981 Field Days


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Crisis Exemption for Use of Monitor 4 on Celery
B. New Herbicide Registration for Potatoes

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Clogging of Drip Irrigation Systems

IV. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Shipping Container Standardization
B. Modularization, Unitization and Palletization of
Vegetable Shipping Containers

V. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Nomenclature
B. National Junior Horticultural Association Convention

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sax, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


~ __.


-- I r I









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New :-'1'-ations

Vegetable Crops Extension Report 17-1980 (69 pp.), a re-
vision of "Know Your Minor Vegetables" by J.M. Stephens, is
ready for distribution. Single copies are available from
this department.
(Stephens)

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology
(CAST) has released Report No. 84, "Organic and Conventional
Farming Compared." The report is 32 pages long, includes a
literature cited section, and contains a good discussion of
the relationships between "organic" and conventional farm-
ing. Copies should be requested from the Council for Agri-
cultural Science and Technology, 250 Memorial Union, Ames,
IA 50011.
(Sherman)

B. Errata

In the article on jojoba, Vegetarian 80-10, several
lines were inadvertently left out at the end of page 12.
Please add the following segment which will complete and
correct the article:

"The fruit are capsules which turn gradually from
green to tan or brown on maturation. Upon drying,
the fruit may or may not split to release the
seed. At maturity, most seed are dark brown; size
varies from 700 seed/kg to 5300 seed/kg. Cotyle-
dons make up the bulk of the seed, and contain
about 50% liquid wax which can be extracted using
standard pressure or solvent techniques.

The liquid wax from jojoba is clear, odorless, and
has longer carbon chain lengths than sperm whale
oil. The wax has many potential uses. It is an
excellent base for the manufacture of high grade
cosmetics, for ointments, and as an antifoaming
agent in the production of penicillin. When hydro-
genated, it forms"
(Stephens)

C. Planning Conference

A statewide Extension Planning Conference for commercial
vegetables was held at Longboat Key, December 4 and 5. The







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

objective of the meeting was to aid agents, specialists, and
extension administration in the development of a statewide
educational plan. The program included discussions of Vege-
table Crops publications, newsletters (production and post-
harvest), area and statewide meetings, LET projects, grower
demonstrations, short and long term extension needs, exten-
sion specialist resources, in-service training needs and
planning, meeting critique and preliminary program plan-
ning. All persons attending the conference expressed their
satisfaction with it. You can look for a conference of this
type to become at least an annual event. Ken Shuler, Terry
Montgomery, and George Henry were elected to coordinate the
next conference. Our thanks go to all the participants.

(Maynard, Gray, Sherman, Stall, Stephens)

D. Grower Demonstrations by County Agents

The following comments are excerpted from the talk on
grower demonstrations given by Don Lander at the Extension
Planning Conference at Longboat Key. Don is retiring at the
end of the month after almost 30 years work in Cooperative
Extension in Florida. Don will be missed but all of us can
benefit from his expertise and years of experience as exem-
plified in this article.
(Sherman)

I have always heard of two types of demonstrations, re-
search and result, but it is hard for me to designate
any major differences between the two. In the first
place, any demonstration I carried out, in my own mind,
was a research demonstration.

I feel my most significant result demonstration was with
the 'Charleston Gray' watermelon. In work with the Ex-
tension Vegetable Crop Specialist at the University, I
stressed the need for new varieties of melons to replace
the 'Cannon Ball' melon we were producing. Through Jim
Montelaro I received some melon seed, a numbered variety
with no name. I planted this seed with two growers and
continued to observe growth habits, production yields,
resistance to disease, and other factors in melon pro-
duction. Its fusarium wilt resistance, carrying qua-
lity, and ability to produce under adverse weather con-
ditions made it a far superior melon to the 'Cannon
Ball.' My growers were enthused and wanted the melon
for production the next season. I met Dr. Andrus, the
developer of the 'Charleston Gray' melon, and requested
the release of this melon. Although it was his breeding







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

line development, it did not prove to be outstanding at
the USDA stations in Charleston and Beltsville, so he
was '- riing to release the v.-riety. After much plead-
ing and beeggng, he agreed to give me more seed.
That season I had enough seed to have demonstrations on
six or eight farms. The results were again outstanding.
Dr. Andrus visited the area and observed the melons
growing on grower-demonstration fields and agreed to re-
lease the variety. In my opinion, it should have been
named the Immokalee Gray, because the results achieved
in Immokalee were the reason for its release.

Over the years I have carried on grower demonstrations
that I felt helped increase agricultural growth in
Southwest Florida--variety trials with tomatoes, pep-
pers, cukes, and melons. The grower is always receptive
to these demonstrations. He is always looking for bet-
ter varieties to increase yields, more disease resist-
ance, better size, better color, etc. The use of
plastic mulch in Collier County was started through
grower demonstrations.

The advantages for you as a County Agent in holding
grower demonstrations are many.

1. Contact with growers. Demonstrations put you on a
one-to-one basis with the producer. A good demon-
stration will build the grower's confidence in you
as an agent and will build your own confidence in
carrying out demonstrations. In addition, this
gives you an opportunity to bring other growers in
to observe the demonstration (mini grower meetings).

2. Build up your own knowledge. You not only gain
knowledge for the producer, you also gain for
yourself.

3. Brings you in contact with commercial people. The
commercial representative will recognize you as an
authority and come to you with problems.

Disadvantages:

1. Very few. You need to keep accurate records.
Growers tend not to keep accurate records, particu-
larly in variety trials for production purposes.
Also in spray trials, you must constantly super-
vise or trials will get sprayed with whatever the
fields are being sprayed with.







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I couldn't think of all the demonstrations I have car-
ried out over the years. Some successful, some just
run-of-the-mill, but none that has not been beneficial.
We learn from all of them. I think the future of exten-
sion lies in your hands to be developed through your
personal contact with the growers. One good method is
through demonstrations.
(Lander)

E. 1981 Field Days

Dates of some of the Field Days scheduled for 1981 have
been set as follows: February 4 Dover ARC
June 3 Leesburg ARC
June 4 Vegetable Crops
More details on these and other field days will appear
in subsequent issues of the Vegetarian.
(Maynard)

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Crisis Exemption for Use of Monitor 4 on Celery

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Ser-
vices has announced that a crisis condition exists in the
control of the vegetable leafminer in celery due to insecti-
cide resistance.

Using provisions contained in Part 166 they have given
Monitor 4 a crisis exemption for use on celery for the con-
trol of leafminer.

Applications of 1 to 2 pints of Monitor 4 per acre may
be made by ground or air as needed, with a maximum of 5 ap-
plications at 7-day intervals.

Plants must be trimmed (tops removed) before shipping or
use. Tops may not be used for feed or food.

There is a 21 day application to harvest limit.

The label should be consulted before application for
other specifications.
(Stall)

B. New Herbicide Registration for Potatoes

Pendimethalin (Prowl) has been granted a national label
for use as a preemergence herbicide for control of weeds in
potatoes.







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Prowl can be applied alone or as a tank mix with metro-
buzin (Sencor/Lexone) or as a tank mix with Eptam.

Label instructions should be followed as to application
rates and methods.
(Stall)

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Clogging of Drip Irrigation Systems

One of the most common failures of drip irrigation sys-
tems is the lack of water distribution, a condition due to
one or more factors.

Clogging may be caused by physical means. Sand or silt
carried into the system at installation or through improper
or non-existant filtration systems.

Calcium carbonate (CaC03) in hard water can precipitate
at emitter openings and gradually close the size of the
openings. Iron can also be precipitated by the activity of
certain filamentous bacteria.

Microbial growths usually cause more problems than those
caused by physical means.

In surface waters, algae, actinomycetes, and fungi can
be problems. While they can clog emitters, their most dam-
aging feature, especially filamentous algae, is the forma-
tion of gelatinous slime which serves as an energy source
for growth of slime bacteria which in turn clog the system.

Surface or well water containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
is also prone to clogging from filamentous bacteria. Small
amounts of .air getting into the line stimulate certain
species of bacteria to grow and oxidize the H2S to elemental
sulfur. The bacterial growth can get so great that their
filaments can stop up the emitters. Fortunately, slimes
from sulfur can be controlled easily and H2S usually inhi-
bits iron deposits and other non-sulfur slime clogging pro-
blems.

There are also, unfortunately, filamentous slime forming
organisms found in water of excellent quality.

Chlorine has been used successfully in controlling slime
problems and to precipitate low concentrations of iron in
drip irrigation systems. Chlorine must be injected on a
preventative basis. Once the line is clogged, it is very
difficult to clear it.









THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Liquid sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI) or household bleach
is the only bactericide that has a 24c label for use in low
pressure irrigation systems in Florida. NaOC1 will hydro-
lize in water to form hypochlorous acid (HOC1) a powerful
oxidizing agent that is a stronger disinfectant than C12
alone.

There is no one all inclusive recommendation for the
amount of chlorine to be injected for best control in all
water and from all water sources.

The amount of chlorine varies with water pH, iron con-
tent, sulfur content, suspended solids and particulate ma-
terial, and also whether the water is from deep wells, shal-
low wells, or surface ponds or canals.

A good rule of thumb to follow is to inject chlorine
into the system 40 minutes every 6-12 hours of irrigation
time. The number of chlorine injections should be increased
if certain fertilizers are injected regularly.

For adequate control the free residual chlorine should
be at least 2 ppm at the end of the lines.

To test for free residual chlorine a DPD test kit is
necessary. Test kits for testing swimming pools, etc., will
only tell total chlorine present. Free chlorine does the
actual killing of bacteria. Total chlorine includes free
chlorine and chlorine absorbed on organic matter. In some
cases, 85% of the total chlorine can be tied up by organic
fractions in the water.

Dr. Harry Ford, AREC, Lake Alfred has developed much of
the sanitation control information for drip irrigation
systems. For more specific information, you may wish to
read the following research reports by Dr. Ford.

H. W. Ford. 1979. The Use of Surface Water for Low
Pressure Irrigation Systems. Lake Alfred Research Report
CS75-2.

1979. Using a D. P. D. (N, N. Diethyl-
P-Phenylenediamine) Test Kit for Measuring Free Residual
Chlorine. Lake Alfred Research Report CS79-1.

1979. Water Quality Tests for Low Volume
Irrigation. Lake Alfred Research Report CS79-6.


-7-







-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

1979. A Key for Determining the Use of
Sodium Hypochlorite (Liquid Bleach) to Inhibit Iron and
Slime C. g of Low Pressure Irrigation Systems in
Florida. Lake Alfred Research Report CS79-3.

(Stall)

IV. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Shipping Container Standardization

This report is to bring you up-to-date on the status of
standardization of shipping containers for fresh fruits and
vegetables. The topic of standardization has been subject
to much discussion in the fruit and vegetable industry for
many years. Kasmire (Vegetarian Newsletter 80-7) detailed
some benefits of better packaging. He also pointed out some
of the vested interests which impede progress in this area.

In 1974 Stokes and Woodley (1) reported the results of a
survey of shipping containers used for marketing fresh
fruits and vegetables in Los Angeles and New York. Data
were collected on containers used for 49 commodities during
each of four seasons of the year. A total of 547 different
types and sizes of containers were found. There were 44
different base sized containers used for apples, 35 for
tomatoes, 27 for lettuce, 19 for cabbage, 14 for cauli-
flower, and 14 for grapefruit. From these data it appears
obvious that there should be some room for standardization
or simplification.

Quoting from an earlier report by L.C. Carey (2), Stokes
defined standardization "as reduction in industrial waste
through the elimination of unnecessary sizes, types, and
dimensions of manufactured products." He pointed out that
consumers (we are all consumers regardless of our profes-
sion) pay the increased costs of marketing fresh fruits and
vegetables that result from: 1) waste due to the greater
expense of manufacturing a large number of different con-
tainers; 2) waste inherent in the handling, transportation,
and storage of odd-sized containers; and 3) waste due to
damage in transit and distribution of produce in weak con-
tainers.

The USDA, UFFVA (United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Assoc-
iation), and the PMA (Produce Marketing Association) all
support adoption of standard shipping containers. The
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
has proposed that containers with the following outside
dimensions for length x width be adopted: 40 cm x 30 cm, 50







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

cm x 30 cm, 50 cm x 40 cm, 60 cm x 40 cm. In inches these
dimensions translate to 15.7" x 11.8", 19.7" x 11.8", 19.7"
x 15.7", 23.6" x 15.7". The depth of the container can be
varied as needed. These standard containers were developed
to give maximum utilization of space on the 120 cm x 100 cm
(47 1/4" x 39 3/8") pallet or slip sheet. The switch to a
metric based system will facilitate international transport
and export shipments; however, this system (120 cm x 100 cm)
is compatible with the 48" x 40" GMA pallet in use by 70% of
the food industry in the United States.

One of the workshops at the PMA convention in Chicago
this year was devoted to "Solving the Handling Dilemna -
Within Our Grasp or Wishful Thinking?" All of the partici-
pants including shippers, equipment manufacturers, and re-
ceivers stressed the need for adoption of standards to fac-
ilitate produce handling. Florida was well represented on
the panel by Joe Obucina, Director of Marketing Development,
A. Duda & Sons, Inc., Oviedo, FL.

UFFVA has made standardization a high priority area and
established Project MUM. Hilburn Fulks, President of the
HEF Corporation, Salinas, CA is spearheading the project for
UFFVA. MUM stands for Modularization, Unitization, and
Metrication. Fulks facilitates test shipments with standard
containers between shippers and receivers. Once the test
shipments have begun, Fulks helps to make sure that someone
supervises the shipments, takes photographs, compares them
with current practices, studies handling at the various dis-
tribution levels, and makes the information or results
available to everyone. UFFVA cites the following advantages
for unitization:

1. Improved condition of product.
2. Reduced labor expenses.
3. Improved dock and storage space utilization.
4. Faster and easier handling and throughput.
5. Improved sanitation.
6. Easier inventory control.
7. Easier rearrangement of floor space.
8. Convenience in selling.
9. Trucker preference.
10. Reduced pilferage.
11. Reduced employee injury.

What's the role of Cooperative Extension in the stand-
ardization effort? Standardization will ultimately result
in a substantial energy savings. This is a high priority







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

area of the PosLharvest LET project. As I see it, at the
present time we in Cooperative Extension should have two ob-
jectives: inform our growers, packers, truckers, and
shippers that these proposed containers exist; 2) initiate,
encourage, and cooperate in studies of these standard con-
tainers with Florida vegetables. At this time several
studies have been initiated in Florida. These will be done
in cooperation with UFFVA's Project MUM and the USDA. If
the cooperators in your counties are interested in testing
these containers, let's work together and help them.

REFERENCES

1. Stokes, D.R. and G.W. Woodley. 1974. Standardization of
Shipping Containers for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. MRR
991. USDA.

2. Carey, L.C. 1950. Containers in Common Use for Fresh
Fruits and Vegetables. Farmers' Bulletin 2013. U.S.
Department of Agriculture Production and Marketing
Administration.
(Sherman)

B. Modularization, Unitiz.ation and Palletization of
Vegetable Shipping Containers

Many attempts have been made to reduce labor, cost and
product damage from handling individual shipping containers
of vegetables from time of filling until they reach the re-
tail store. The packing and distribution of Florida fresh
vegetables are big subjects and big words such as modulari-
zation, unitization and palletization are used to describe
some of the procedures.

Modularization refers to individual size cartons, any
one of which could be used by itself or in conjunction with
others, to build a strongly interlocked unit load of con-
stant dimensions. Unitization refers to a method of assem-
bling, storing, handling and transporting filled containers
as a unit load with some method of strapping to hold the
unit together. Palletization refers to a horizontal plat-
form, such as a pallet or slip sheet, used as a base for as-
sembling, storing, handling and transporting filled con-
tainers as a unit load. All palletized loads are unitized
but all unitized loads are not necessarily palletized.These
handling systems are all aimed at better use of energy,
space and equipment with less product damage in marketing
channels.







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Much of the vegetable handling between harvest and
shipping and within receiving warehouses has been unitized
and mechanized, but this is not generally true for shipments
in transit. Many of the 400 different shipping containers
do not form stacking patterns that use the recommended mini-
mum 90% of the surface area of a 48 x 40 inch pallet.
Mechanical handling of pallet loads of non-standardized con-
tainers results in labor savings but also increased trans-
portation cost from lower load density. Modularization and
unitization will help reduce container damage and product
losses between the warehouse and retail store. It is impos-
sible for the wholesaler to repalletize hundreds of differ-
ent sizes and shapes of containers without damage between
the warehouse and the store. Use of modular containers will
permit better stacking of different products together into
pallet loads.

Among Florida vegetables, tomatoes have taken the lead
in palletization with about 75% of the shippers using pal-
lets this year. The industry uses a stacking pattern of 8
cartons per layer, 8 layers high for a total of 64 cartons
on a 48 x 40 inch wooden pallet. The cartons on each layer
are stacked near the outer edges of the pallet with ventila-
tion channels extending through the length and height of the
pallet load. Although this carton size and spacing does not
utilize maximum surface of the pallet, it provides for in-
creased circulation of air and ethylene among the cartons.
Exact spacing requirements have not been determined.

The cost, uncertainty of return and maintenance of
wooden pallets have greatly restricted their use in inter-
state shipping. Slip sheets have major advantages over
wooden pallets such as, lower initial and maintenance costs,
lower space requirements, ease of recycling or disposal and
slip sheets weigh only about 5% as much as wooden pallets.

Slip sheets are manufactured from corrugated or solid
fiberboard and polyethylene or polypropylene plastic. These
thin sheets provide a base for unitizing loads that are
moved with special forklift equipment. These forklift
trucks must have special gripper bars which grab extensions
of the load-bearing surface known as tabs. Slip sheets used
for fresh vegetables must be impervious to moisture because
water buildup in the sheet will lead to its disintegration.

An important feature of any pallet load is the provision
for circulation of air through the pallet and containers for
proper temperature and atmosphere management. When con-
tainers are stacked on wooden pallets with or without







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

channels between containers, the spaces between deck boards
allow air to move readily through the pallet. The Florida
tomato industryy has objected to tle use of slip sheets that
block the ..1 flow between stacks of tomatoes. Holes can be
cut in slip sheets to line up with openings in the bottom of
containers and thus provide a flow of air or gas through the
contents of each container. This will require register-
stacking and good alignment of all containers in the unit,
plus sufficient strapping and tension to maintain proper
alignment during shipping.
Although slip sheets appear to have numerous energy,
material and labor saving possibilities in comparison with
wooden pallets, slip sheets are not generally used by the
Florida vegetable industry. The feasibility of aligning
openings in container bottoms with holes in slip sheets
should increase with recent packinghouse equipment installa-
tions. One shipper has installed automatic pallet stacking
and strapping equipment, and another shipper uses stretch
netting to securely hold the cartons in place on the pallet.
Other advancements can be expected with industry recognition
of the need for more efficient distribution of fresh pro-
duce.
(Showalter)
V. HOME GARDENING

A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Nomenclature
Now that several minor vegetables have been discussed
over the last decade in this portion of the newsletter, it
seems appropriate to utilize this end-of-the year issue to
present the proper scientific nomenclature for these and
other vegetables.
L. H. Bailey has long been considered the authority on
the correct names of plants. His Manual of Cultivated
Plants (1940, 1949) was the source of the following listings
(Table 1) made by Paul G. Smith and J.E. Welch in 1963.
Their article was entitled "Nomenclature of vegetables and
condiment herbs grown in the United States," (Journal of
the American Society for Horticultural Science 84:535-548).
Since the 1963 article, there have been several changes
in nomenclature. These changes have been assessed in an
authoritative manner in Hortus Third, written in 1976 by the
staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University and
a long list of contributors.
Changes in the Smith and Welch list are outlined in
Table 2. For a vegetable not listed in Table 2, the
scientific name as listed by Smith and Welch should
be considered to be proper and correct.




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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER







Table 1. Vegetables-Alphabetical listing (Smith and Welch,
1963)


Common Name
A.\uar nrh, Chifse
Antelic;
Anise. swept
Artichoke, globe
Jerusalem
Asparagus

Balsam pear
Bean, asparagus, yard-loin
broad, English, fraa, horse.
Windsor
green, snap, string
jack
lima. buter
mung
scarlet runner, while Dutch runner
yam
Bean sprouts, Chinese
Beet, garden, table
Borage
Braschette
Broccoli
Broccoli raab
Brussels sprouts
Burdock, edible
Biurnet

Cabbage
Chinese, celery
Cactus pad
Cantaloupe
Cardoon, cardoni
Carrot
Caijang

Cauliflower
Celeriac, celery root
Celery
Celery mustard
Chard
Chayote
Ch'rr, ground
Ch-ral. salad chervil
turnip-rooted
Chicory
Chili
Chives. Chinese
Chufa
Citron

Collards
Corn, sweet
Corn salad
Cowpea
Cowslip
Cress, garden'
Cucumber
Armenian, Japanese
Cucuzzi
Daikon
Dandelion
Italian
Dasheen
Dock, spinach

Eggplant
Endive
French
Escarole

Fennel, Florence, sweet
Fetticus
Finocchio
Garlicr
great-headncd

Oriental
Gherkin. WVrst India
Gira.tole


Family
Amra3ntiltacae
Unmbelliferar.
Unmbelliferae
Compositae
Comporitae
Liliaceae

Cucurbitacca
Leguminosac

Leguminosae
Leguminosac
Leguminosac
Leguminosae
Leguminosac
Leguminosac
Legurrnosae
Leguminosae
Chenopodiaceae
BRcrauinace.,e
Crui fer.ie
Cruciferae
Cruciferac
Cruciferac
Composite
Rosaceac

Cruciferac
Cruciferae
Cactaceae
Cucurbitaceae
C"inrpo l'se
L'rrbellierc.se
Leguminosae
Cruciferae
Umbelliferac
Umbelliferac
Cruciferae
Chenopodiaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Solanaceac
Umbelliferac
Umbelliferae
Compositae
Solanaceac
Amaryllidaceae
Cyperaccac
Cucurbitaceae

Crueterac
i raneenc
Valerianaceae
I.ereminos i
Rlanur, ii.cuCe J
Cruciferae
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaccae
Cruciferae
Composilae
Compositae
Araceac
Polygonaceae

Solanaceac
Composi ae
Conposista
Composite
Umbelliferac
Valerianaceae
Umbclliferae
Amaryllidacecie
Amaryllidacear

Amaryllida.cc.c
Cucnrtbitacerrc
Composite


Scientific Name
.Amloatonthui itjruor L.
A.Ingdta oarr.ah rroa L.
F'ormulurm iultare Mill.
Cynara srofmus L.
Hhanthus iuberoesu L.
Aspnarus offiinalis L.

Alonordiro rd/arrian L.
I .. ..,~i I- Stickmz.) Savi ex Hassk.
'5r l'p.if 'Li., group)
I iie fabc L.
Phasealus -: 'riri L.
CanoEraov a rJ', I (L- DC,
Phasolaus Iunatus L,
P. aureus Roxb.
P. ctciniruf L.
Pathiyrrhi.cus fraus L.) Urban
Phasrolus aureus Rohb.
Bria vutgarl L.
Bortago ofF is.' L.
Brasslra oteracca L. (Acephala group)
Bi. oleract L. (Italica group)
B. camptsiris L. (Ruvo group)
f. aleracea L. (Gemmifera group)
A4reium lappa L.
Sanguisorba minor Scop.

Brassira oelrarsa L. tCapitata group)
B. ramprstris L. (Pekinnsis group)
Opuntia .-ae;.*.'int. Salm-Dsck
Cutumis mei., L. It ei.cuJ.iu, group)
Crytra cardunculus L.
bour s tarota L.
Vigna sintris (Stickm.) Savi ex Hassk.
(Cylindrica group)
Brasure alracera L. Botrytis group)
Apium gras.rolns L. (Rapaccum group)
A. gra eolns L. (Dulce group)
Brassica comprstrir L. (Chinensis group)
Beta vulgaris L. (Cicla group)
Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.
/-rl...nil ruinora L,
A.r.it... ..r cerefolium (L.) Hoffm.
Chaerrphyllum bulbosum L.
Cirhorium ilntbuts L
Capsicum annuum L.
Allium tubroisum Rott.
Cyperus rrculentu L.
Catrullus lanatus rThunb.' Mlan'f
var. citrrides (saleI NI Minsf.
Rtascisa oserarea L ( '.:ephala cr,,..p
(sa majs L.
I Flerianfle ohtarim (L.) Poll.
i'gneo sinesis (Stickm.) Savi ex Hassk.
Caltha polustris L.
Lqpidium sativum L.
Cutumis sti rus L.
C. meo L. (Flexuosus group)
Lagenaria siceroria (MoL) Standl.
PaRs. nL r atirnus L. (Longipinnatus group)
Ti s'ij ffFcin'nar Weber
Cichorium intybtus LT
Colocasia escrIenta 4L.) Schott
Rurnex paoiertia L.

Solonum mlianmena L.
Clrhorium L.
C. ino/bus L.
C. rndsria L.

Foamicu!um rz warr fMill.
I'aerianrlla atitfrre (L) Poll.
Foeniculum rulgare NMill.
,liluim saoican L.
1, amprelrasusn L. C;re;t- headed garlic
group)
.I. fuberosum Rots.
Curumis ona urTa L
It, hlnccur .ub cerous L.






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER






Table 1. VEgetables-Alphabetical listing (Smith and Welch,
1963)

Cont'd .


GC ..d.- .i...t!! ac
...,s, t -rri. dwarf cape
Gourd, bottle, calabash, white-
flowered
dishcloth
vegetable
wax, white
Ground almond
Gumbo

Hanover salad
Herb patience
Horse-radish-
Huckleberry, garden
Hyssop

Ice plant

Jicama
ute, Nalta
Kale, common, Scotch
sea
Siberian
Kohlrabi

Leek
Lemon, garden
Lettuce
Lotus root, East Indian lotus

Mallow, Jews
Mango
Marigold, marsh
NMartyma
Melon
bitter
Chinese preserving
mango
Oriental pickling
preserving

winter
zucca
Melon shrub
Mercury
Mushroom
Muskmelon
Mustard, brown, Indian, leaf
celery, Chinese
spinach, tendergreen

Nightshade, Malabar
Nopal
Okra
Chinese
Onion
potato, multiplier
Welsh, Japanese bunching
(cv. Bectsvillc Bunching)
Orach
Oyster plant
Spanish

Pakchoi
Parsley*
turriip-rootcd

'Prsnip
Pea, garden pea
edible podded, sugar
southern
winged
Pear, lballsan
Pepino
Pepper, uhill, sweet
Pc-tsai
Pieplant
l'.k., prokrare.


Chrnopodiaeae
Solanacireae

Cucurbitaceae
Ciucurbiaceae
Cocurbitaceae
Cuicurbiiact.ite
Cvprrarcc.
)-alvaceae

Cruciferac
Polygonaceae
Cruciferac
Solanaceae
Labataac

.ASizoucraie

Leaur ,..3. 'tp.

Cruciferac
Cruciferae








Solanarrac
Cruciferaic





Cucurifbiacae
Amaryllidaccaec
Cucurbitaceac
Composite
Nymphaeace
Tiliaceae
Solanaceae
Ranunculaccae
Martyniaceae
Cucurbitaccae
Cucurbitaceac
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbiraceae
Cuserbiliaeae
Cucurbitaccac






lvCucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae





CucAmaryllidaccae
Solanaccae
Chenopodiaceac
Agaricaceac
Cucurbitaceae
Cruciferae
Cruciferue
Cruciferae

BaselliTree
Ciuraceaen
Malvaceae
Cucurbitaccac
Amaryllidaceae
\m ar.l]rd.. tceae
lm ,' Id.lccae
Amaryllidaceae
Chenopodiaceac
ComIposiarce
ComposuheC

CrUt ferre
L'mbelhferae
1 mbelliferae

Umheiliferaec
Leguminose
Legu ninosae
[reuminosae
LegurminosaeC
Cucurbitarcace
Solanaceat:
Sol.,nriceae
Cruciferae
Polygonacr.ie
'Ph olc t c'.-C .iC


Artsium l.ppa 1.
Chernrpodium hnurh-r, u'r 1..
i'hralis prurnr.; L-

I .r, .r' "-anria il\ I,l St.,ndl,
.ui., r.I..'.. .J (L. R'-ne .
L. ai-ttaniua L.J Roxb.
Brenncrasa ispida (Thuniii Cogn.
CAperus rSrilenfur L.
Ilibicui rscueguiis L.

Brassica rhapuf L. (Pdhul.irra group
Rumex patientja L.
Armoracia rurticaa (aerr n., Mry., Scherb.
Solanum nirum I..
IH spr us pr ,.-r..v L.
C,.; s:'- '.'flhinum (L.) N. E. Br. eC
F. i Phliiip

Pachrrhizus rrosua (L.) Urban
Corchaorus oliorius L,
Brassica tolracea L. (Acephala group)
Crambe maritime L.
Brassica napus L. (Pabularia group)
B. oltracea L. (Gongylodes group)

Allium amplpdpras um L. (Leek group)
Curumis met& L. (Chito group)
Lectuca sativa L.
.Vlumbo nucijera Gartn.

Corchorus alitorius L.
Capsicum amnnum L.
Caltha palustris L.
Probosridea losiianica (Mill.) Thcl.
Cucumis mld L.
.Momordica charantia L,
Benincasa hispsda (Thunb.) Cogn.
Cucumis mrlo L. (Chito group)
C. melr L. (Conomon group)
Citrullus lanatur (Thunb.) Mansf. var.
citroidel b..Ici Mlar.sf.
Cucumis --Iwi L l'.J.drur group)
Lagenacia siteraria (Mol.) Standl.
Solanum muricatum Ail.
Chnopodium bonus-hennrcus L.
.4giart.r brsporus (Lgc.) Sing.
CLt-Miin ml/o L.
Brassica junca (L.) Czern. & Coss.
B. campestris L. C Lil Inr l group)
B. ramtxlris L. (Perviridis group)

Basella alba L.
Opuntia mrgacaniha Salm-Dyck
Hibiscus surulentus L.
Lufa (uiuiu (L 1 Ri-.b.
Allium .,f L. 'Co.:n.llun onion group)
A. repa L. (Aggregatum group)
A. fistuesum L,
A. cepa L. x A.fistutosum L., 4N
Alriplex Aortenjis L.
Tragopagn portifdlius L.
Scotymus hilspfanrus L.

Brassifa camptstris L, {Chinensis group)
Petroslitnum rrispum (Mill. NSm.
P. cripum (Mill Nym.
(Tuberosum group)
Pastinaa rativ'a L.
Praum riivrum L.
P. sati um L. (Macrocarpon groui)
I'r C .'.., (Stirkm.) Sas'i ex liasrk.
I'.-i '.. nl u I 'irui us MenchC
,,.r ....= .' .~- L.
SAlianum mnuricatur Ait.
Caps um annuum I. (See text)
ltaisu ra cspeisis L. I Pckincosi gittmp)
Rheiu spp.
Phit/ll a i arn'rn ri,0a L.




-1)-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER







Table 1. Vegetables-Alphabetical listing (Smith and Welch,

1963)


Cont d.
Potlim, Irnh, site

Pumpkin


Purstlin, kitchen garden

Radish
.-intecr
Ra kkyo
Rampion
Rapa
Rapini
Rhuba.rb
Rncket si.id, roquette
Rowrlic
Rurabaga

Sa Lilf
black
Scola mus
Scorzonera
Sea kale
Shallor
(cv. Delta Giant)

Skirrer
Sorrel, French
garden
Sovbecin
Spinach
French, mountain
Malabar
New Zealand
Spinach dock
Squash, spaghetti
summer
winter


Solanacceae
Convolvulace.e
Cucurbitaceae


Portulacaccac

Cruciferae
Cruciferac
Amaryllidacaec
Campanulaceae
Cruciferae
Cruciferae
Polsgnna-. ,e
C*-iif cr.ic
Malvaceae
Cruciferac

Composiltae
Compositac
Compositac
Compositac
Cruciferac
Am.rviiidare.e
Am ar yllid..cae i

Umbelliferae
Polygonaccac
Polygonaceae
Leguminosac
Chrnopodi.iceae
Chenupodl, ':ae
B.Isellace .a
Aizoaceac
Polygonaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae


Solanum aberolm i L.
Iporoma balatat (L,) l'oir.
Cucuitit pepo L.
C. mohratra Duch. ex Poir.
C. mitsa Pang.
C. maximat Duch.
Portulara tloracea L.

Raphanuo sativrs L.
it. sat;us L. (Longipinnatus group)
AIllum chinensr G. Don
Campihris rapuanulus L.
hrassua camrpertris L. (Ruvo group)
iB campostris L. (Rapifera group)
Rheum spp. (See text)
Eruca satira Mill,
Hibiscus sabdariffa L,
Bratsica apus L. (Napobrassica group)

Trag.opaon p. ,,/ t.Cu, L.
Scartonera hispanica L.
Scolym us hispanicus L.
Scorzonora hispanica L.
Cranmb maritima L.
Allium rrpa L. .Aggr-gaum group)
(A.. cpo L. xA 4frluitnm L., 4N) x A. repa
L,. 2N
Slum siiarum L.
Rurtx scutatus L.
R. arelora L.
GlycJnt mar (L.) Mcrr.
pt' .i s o cracea L,.
it,,r,. hotensis L.
BaJiat. alba L
Tetragona letragonioides (Pall.) O. Kuntre
Rumrs pataentia L.
I/.car,.a sictrana (Mol.) Standl.
Cua.ur.t,i pepo L.
C popo L.
C. morchata Duch. ex Poir.
C. maxima Duch.


Swede, Swedish turnip Cruciferae Brassica napus L. (Napobrassica group)
Sweet potato Convolvulaceae Ipnomoa belata (L.) Poir.
Swiss chard Chenopodiaceae Beta cularis L. (Cicla group)
Tampala Amaranthaceae Amaranthus tricolor L.
Taro Araceae Clotcasia sulantla (L.) Schott
Tomatillo Solanaceae Physalis ixorcrpa Brot. ex Hornem.
Tomato Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
currant Solanaceae 1. f'Fierttn'if'tiu (Juslen.) Mill.
husk, strawberry Solanaceae I ,L .'r,. f*,-ra L.
tree Solanaceae Ctphomandra bttacra (Cav.) Sendr.
Turnip Cruciferse tirosica campestris L. (Rapifera group)
Italian Cruciferae B. tampestris L. (Ruvo group)
Swedish Cruciferac B. napus L. (Napobrassica group)
Udo Araliaceae .ralia cordata Thunb.
Unicorn plant Martyniaceac Probouadta louirianica (Mill.) Thell.
Uri Cucurbiraceae Cucumis melo L. (Flexuosus group)

Vegetable oyster Compositac Tragopogon parrifolius L.

Water chestnut Cyperaceae Elrocharis duris (Burm. f.) Trin. ex
Henschel
Water convolvulus Convolvulaceae Ifomosa aquatic Forsk.
Watermelon Cucurbitaceac Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.
Wonderberry Solanaceac Solanum nigram L.
Yam, Chinese )am Dioscoreaceac Diocoarea botatas Decnc.
Yam bean Leguminosac Pachyrrhi us erosus (L.) Urban

*A condiment herb in the strict sense but by cultural and common usage is often included wath
the vegetables.







-16-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Table 2. Vegetable nomenclature, Hortus Third, 1976.

Common ..mc Scientific name

Bean, asparagus Vigna unguiculata subsp.
sesguipedalis (L.) Verdc.

Bean, mung Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz

Broccoli raab Brassica rapa L. Ruvo Group

Burnet Poterium sanguisorba L.

Cantaloupe (uncommon, Cucumis melo L. Cantalupensis
inedible type) Group

Carrot Daucus carota L. var. sativus
Hoffm.

Catjang Vigna unguiculata subsp.
cylindrica (L.) Van Eselt. ex
Verde.

Celeriac Apium graveolens L. var.
rapaceum (Mill.) Gaud. -
Beaup.

Celery Apium graveolens L. var.
dulce. (Mill) Pers.

Celery, mustard Brassica rapa L. Chinensis
Group

Cherry, Ground Physalis peruviana L.

Chili pepper Capsicum annuum L. Longum
Group

Chufa Cyperus esculentus L. var.
sativus Boeck.

Corn, sweet Zea mays L. var. saccharata
(Sturtev.) L.H. Bailey

Corn salad Valerianella locusta (L.)
Betcke







-17-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 2. (cont'd) Vegetable nomenclature, Hortus Third,
1976.


Common name

Cowpea

Eggplant


Fennel, Florence


Fetticus


Finocchio



Garlic, great headed


Gourd, dishcloth

Gumbo

Huckleberry, garden

Ice Plant


Leek


Muskmelon (commonly referred
to as cantaloupe in trade)

Mustard, celery

Okra (Gumbo)


Pea, southern

Pea, winged

Pe-tsai


Scientific name

Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

Solanum melongena var.
esculentum. (L.) Nees.

Foeniculum vulgare var.
azoricum (Mill.) Thell.

Valerianella locusta (L.)
Betcke

Foeniculum vulgare var.
azoricum
(Mill.) Thell.

Allium ampeloprasum L. Ampel-
oprasum Group

Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.

See Okra

Solanum melanocerasum All.

Mesembryanthemum cristallinum
L.

Allium ampeloprasum L. Porrum
Group

Cucumis melo L. Reticulatus
Group

see celery, mustard

Abelmoschus esculentus (L.)
Moench

Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

Lotus tetragonolobus L.

Brassica rapa L. Pekinensis
Group







-18-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 2 (cont'd) Vegetable nomenclature, Hortus Third,
1976.

Common name Scientific name

Purslane, kitchen garden Portulaca oleracea L. var.
sativa DC.

Rapa Brassica rapa L. Ruvo Group

Rapini Brassica rapa L. Rapifera
Group

Rocket salad Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa
(Mill.) Thell.

Tomato Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.)
Karst. ex Farw.

Turnip Brassica rapa L. Rapifera
Group

Turnip, Italian Brassica rapa L. Ruvo Group

Wonderberry Solanum burbankii Bitter


(Stephens)

B. National Junior Horticultural Association Convention

Florida was well-represented at the National Junior Hor-
ticultural Association Convention held in Atlanta, October
31-November 4, 1980. Twenty three 4-H and FFA members from
Levy, Marion, and St. Johns counties participated in the
national horticultural identification and judging contest.
Florida youth won many national awards at this competition.

Horticultural teams from Marion County placed first in 3
categories of the national horticultural contest: 4-H, Open
(ages 15-18), and Open (ages 19-22). Florida also had the
high individual score in each of these categories and the
second, third, and fourth high individual scores in the
Honors Division. Bronson High School's FFA team placed
second in the FFA Division. Each participant in this event
identified 100 plant specimens in the areas of fruits, vege-
tables, and ornamentals; judged 8 classes of horticultural
products; and completed an 80 question written examination.







-19-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

In the demonstration event 4-H members from St. Johns
County were national winners in the artistic arrangement
category and also received blue ribbon awards in the use,
production, and marketing divisions.

Following the competitive events, participants took part
in educational workshops on a variety of horticultural
topics and also toured Callaway Gardens and Six-Flags Over
Georgia.

The highlight of the trip was the awards banquet on
Monday evening. Many long hours of hard work and lots of
enthusiasm were evident as awards were presented. We can
all be extremely proud of these 23 young people and their
leaders. Extension agents attending the convention were Bob
Renner from Marion County and Jim Dilbeck and Ann McDonald
from St. Johns County. James Deas, FFA Chapter adviser from
Bronson, attended with the FFA team.

Sponsorship by the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Associa-
tion, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Ser-
vices and ICI, Americas made this trip possible for the fol-
lowing young people:

Horticultural contest 5 divisions

1) 4-H Marion County
Jana Haskins
Nancy Sawallis
Michelle Mace
Doug Davenport

2) Open (ages 15-18) Marion County
Teresa Piotrowski
Hugh Dailey
Kelly Charles

3) Open (ages 19-22) Marion County
Jill Davis
Lynn Duncan
Rocco Marzella

4) Honors Marion County
Kelly Peeples
Darlene Swift
Butch Brady





-20-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

5) FFA Levy County
Marcia Asbell
Weley Asbell
Judy Beauchamp
Mike Schmadt


Horticultural Demonstrations 4 divisions

1) Artistic Arrangement
Kim Huff St. Johns County

2) Use
Teresa Register St. Johns County
Michelle Lightkep St. Johns County

3) Production
Leah Griner St. Johns County
Renee Pacette St. Johns County

4) Marketing
Julie Burchfield St. Johns County


(Gray)


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost
of $ or per copy for the purpose of communicating
current technical & educational materials to extension,
research and industry personnel. __




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