Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00166
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: November 1980
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00166
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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November 4, 1980

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard

S.D. Gray

R.K. Showalter

James Montelaro

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor

Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor



FROM: Mark Sherman, Postharv Een on Vegetable Specialist



A. Susan Gray Added to Vegetarian Contributors
B. Commercial Vegetable Crops Extension Planning
C. New Publication

A. Oxamyl Given Section 18 Clearance for Use on Green
Beans for Control of Specific Nematodes

A. Calculations for Water Application with Drip Irrigation
on Vegetables

A. Water Loss Control
B. State Fire Marshal Rules Regarding Fruit Ripening

A. Economic Value of Home-Garden Vegetables in North
B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Willow-leaf Lima
C. Master Gardener Program

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational Information and other services only to Individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.




A. Susan Gray Added to Vegetarian Contributors

Starting with this issue, Susan Gray, Assistant in
Vegetable Crops will be contributing articles on the youth
and master gardening programs to the Vegetarian. We welcome
Susan to the team.

B. Commercial Vegetable Crops Extension Planning Conference

A statewide Extension Planning Conference for commer-
cial vegetables has been scheduled for Longboat Key, Decem-
ber 4 and 5, 1980. The objective of the meeting is to aid
agents, specialists, and extension administration in the
development of an effective statewide educational plan. The
conference will be held at the Holiday Inn of Longboat key.
We hope to see each of the agents with commercial vegetable
programs participating in the conference. You should have
mailed your room reservations in by now. If you have any
questions, please call Bill Stall or Mark Sherman at
904/392-2134, Suncom (322-2134).
(Sherman and Stall)

C. New Publication

A new Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet entitled "Postharvest
Water Loss Control for Vegetables" prepared by Professor
R.K. Showalter has been just been released. A supply can be
ordered from IFAS Editorial or single copies from this


A. Oxamyl Given Section 18 Clearance for Use on Green Beans
for Control of Specific Nematodes

Oxamyl (Vydate L) has been given an emergency section
18 exemption for use in green beans for the control of
root-knot, sting, and reniform nematodes in Palm Beach,
Broward, and Dade counties.
Oxamyl may be applied as a single soil treatment or as
two foliar applications.
The applicator should consult the label for treatment
rates and all restrictions specified for the exemption.





A. Calculations for Water Application with Drip Irrigation
on Vegetables

Improper design and use of drip irrigation installa-
tions in the state have resulted in reduced yield and
quality of vegetables for some growers. Precise management
of water and nutrients is essential with drip irrigation.

Crop water needs change during the growing season. The
water needed is also modified by soil type and environmental

Evaportransperation (ET) is the total water used by the
plant plus the direct evaporation from the soil surface.
During a typical season, ET varies from 2 to 5 inches/
month. (See Rogers and Marlow, 1976. Water Needs of
Florida Vegetable Crops, Water Resources Council, WRC2).
The net irrigation requirement (NIR) is the portion of the
ET not supplied by rainfall. In addition, the amount of
water calculated to apply is influenced by the efficiency of
the irrigation system and the total land area irrigated.

Drip irrigation has a high efficiency (95%) since only
the bed area is irrigated, this represents about 50% of the
total land area.

To calculate the water needed by drip irrigation,
assume an NIR of 1.25 acre inches per week for a crop at
peak water requirement on a 4-foot bed. The water per day
would equal: 1.25 x 27,154 gal/acre divided by 0.95
(irrigation efficiency) times 0.50 (area irrigated) times
1/7 (1 day). (1)
1.25 x 27, 154 x 1 = 2,550 gal/day
0.95 7

Good water distribution on most soils has been obtained
with emitter sizes of 0.4 gal/hr or larger. If the emitters
are 1 foot apart on 4-foot beds then there would be 10,890
emitters per acres (43,560 divided 4). Each emitter then
would apply 0.23 gallons (2550 gal divided by 10,890
emitters = 0.23 gal/emitter). The total time needed to
apply 0.23 gallons if the emitter size is 0.4 gal/hr is
approximately 34 minutes.

On sandy soils, high volume emitters are more desirable
due to better horizontal water movement. With emitters of a
lower discharge rate, the soil wetting pattern may extend
only 5 to 6 inches on each side of the emitter in an
inverted cone pattern. To increase the wetting pattern,


inverted cone pattern. To increase the wetting pattern,
many growers have tried to run the system for 24 hours
without appreciable success. Soluble nutrients are moved
with irrigation water and in many cases leached with
prolonged irrigation.

Increased yields are not uncommon with the use of drip
irrigation. To produce maximum yields, however, both water
and nutrients must be applied in the correct manner and in
the correct amounts.

1. S.J. Locascio and J.M. Myers, 1979. Water and nutrient
application by trickle irrigation for vegetables.
Vegetable Crops Department Report 27-1979.



A. Water Loss Control

Limp celery, snap beans that won't snap, and dented
corn kernels are examples of excessive water loss. This is
a major cause of quality deterioration, poor consumer
appeal,and a direct loss in saleable weight. The air in the
intercellular spaces of most vegetables is saturated with
respect to water vapor (100% Relative Humidity). This means
that the water vapor pressure inside the vegetable is almost
always higher than that of the atmosphere surrounding it.
Since water vapor moves from areas of higher to lower
concentrations, water dries out of most vegetables during
harvesting, handling, and marketing. Vegetables vary
greatly in their susceptibility to water loss and some
rapidly become unsaleable because of wilting and shrivel.
Those with large surface areas such as leafy vegetables,
tend to lose water most rapidly.

The structure and condition of the vegetable, plus the
anatomy of the epidermis influence the rate of water loss.
The epidermis usually has a protective waxy layer (cuticle)
with varying numbers of openings such as stomata, lenticels
and a stem scar. Water loss increases with the number of
openings and skin breaks as well as epidermal hairs.
Cuticles are a contact layer between the vegetable and its
environment. More water is lost whenever the cuticle or
skin is broken by growth cracks, cuts, bruises or other
injuries. With no openings in the skin of tomatoes, the
stem scar provides the pathway for water loss. The cuticle
and rind on watermelons form such a good barrier that water
loss is not a problem.



Cuticles develop during early stages of growth and
are supplemented with additional wax deposits during
maturation. Vegetables harvested immature are much more
susceptible to water loss than those harvested when mature.
Cuticles on mature tomatoes, squash, cucumbers and peppers
get much thicker as they mature. Immature carrots, beets,
and potatoes lose water rapidly until the thicker periderm
layer forms.

Water loss can be controlled by minimizing the
difference between the humidity inside the vegetable and that
of the surrounding air, or protecting the vegetable from
drier air. The best control measures vary among vegetables
and marketing conditions. Water loss is generally highest in
freshly harvested vegetables and will continue as long as the
commodity temperature is higher than that of the air.
Therefore, precooling of many vegetables also controls water
loss. During hydrocooling, the moisture content of the
vegetable may actually increase. High relative humidities
combined with suitable temperatures are essential for many
vegetables. Since the rate of moisture loss from a vegetable
increases with rate of air movement across the vegetable,
special provisions are needed in forced air coolers, open
trucks, and storage rooms to minimize the drying effects.

Trimming the tops from radishes and carrots, the
outer leaves from cauliflower and celery, and the shank and
flag leaves from sweet corn greatly reduces water loss from
the edible portions. Most tubers and roots are able to heal
skinned and bruised areas if a curing period is provided.

Packaging is a common method of reducing water loss by
maintaining a high relative humidity surrounding the vege-
tables. Plastic bags and liners for shipping containers,
film overwraps for heads of lettuce or cauliflower, and
plastic wraps for consumer packages are effective against
wilting and shrivel. Wax and plastic impregnated fiberboard
containers or the most recently developed plastic containers
retard water loss. Packaging for controlling water loss has
largely replaced waxing of many vegetables in Florida. Water
loss from peppers, summer squash, and eggplant could be
reduced by waxing, but losses from decay are often greater if
organisms on the skin are covered with wax.

Surface coatings (waxes) are applied to most cucumbers
and tomatoes shipped from Florida. A coating that covers the
entire surface of a cucumber, including the stomata in the
epidermis, can reduce water loss by about 50%. Common
surface coatings for vegetables are formulated from natural
waxes (paraffin or carnauba), mineral oil, oleic acid,


emulsifying agents, and other materials. Carnauba wax is
hard, and polishes well, but does not control water loss as
well as the softer paraffin. When the proportion of mineral
oil is increased, consumers complain about greasy cucumbers
and soiled hands. The natural character of the vegetable's
surface, and the presence of skin breaks or decay organisms
determine the feasibility of applied surface coatings.

Postharvest Water Loss Control for Vegetables by R.K.
Showalter is the title of Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet No. 28
just released by the Vegetable Crops Department.

B. State Fire Marshal Rules Regarding Fruit Ripening

The American Insurance Association publishes a recom-
mended Fire Prevention Code which includes a section on Fruit
Ripening Processes. The State Fire Marshal has a similar
code for Florida. These rules are published as part of the
Florida Administrative Procedures Act and section 4A-17.02
"Use of ethylene" is reproduced below for your information.

4A-17.02 Use of ethylene.

1) The location of buildings in which fruit ripening
processes utilizing ethylene are conducted shall be
approved by the State Fire Marshal or his deputy.

2) Ethylene shall be introduced by some means under
positive control and measured so that the quantity
introduced does not exceed 1 part ethylene to 1,000
parts of air.

3) Containers storing ethylene shall be constructed so
as to be reasonably safe to persons and property.
Evidence that containers storing ethylene are
constructed in accordance with the standards as set
forth in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations; Part
78 of Interstate Commerce Commission Regulations and
the ASME Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, 1965
edition of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, shall be evidence that such containers
are reasonably safe to persons and property.

4) Containers other than those connected for use shall
be stored outside of the building or in a special
building except that not more than two portable
I.C.C. containers not connected for use may be
stored inside the building premises. Such inside
rooms or portions of buildings used for storage of
these containers shall be constructed in accordance
with Rule 4A-30.14(4) and (5).



5) Ethylene piping shall be of iron pipe. Flexible
connectors and hose, when used shall be of approved
type. Tubing shall be of brass or copper with not
less than 0.049 inch wall thickness.

General Authority 633.05. 633.051 FS. Law Implemented
633.01. 633.081 FS. History-New 9-16-65.

The flow-through system currently recommended by IFAS
for introducing ethylene into tomato ripening rooms is in
compliance with this section. In addition to covering the
use of ethylene, the rules also cover electrical equipment,
heating, open flames, and housekeeping for ripening rooms.
Some of these rules apply more directly to commodities other
than tomatoes (e.g. citrus, bananas). I can provide copies
of the rules to those interested.


A. Economic Value of Home-Garden Vegetables in North Florida

In Florida as well as other states, the possibility of
saving money is a primary reason for growing one's own
vegetables. There have been several recent attempts to
determine if gardening is a paying proposition and, if so, to
what extent. Stall determined from records kept on a 600
square foot garden in Dade County, Florida, that vegetables
grown in South Florida gardens were more economical than
vegetables purchased retail and if grown over a five-year
period, more economical than from U-Pick operations.

Since there were no studies on record to determine the
economic feasibility for vegetable gardening in North Florida
where growing conditions are considerably different from the
southern end of the state, a garden was grown in Tallahassee
and another in Jacksonville in the spring of 1980. Cost and
returns records were kept on both gardens and the results are
reported in this paper and FSHS Proc. 93, 1980.


Tallahassee A 35x40 ft. vegetable garden was grown on
the campus of Florida A&M University (FAMU) for three
consecutive years (1978-1980) in cooperation with the
University of Florida, IFAS.

The 1400 sq. ft. garden was planted March 24, 1980, on a
sandy clay loam soil typical of the area. The plan included
ten vegetables most liked by the predominantly black families
of the area. Cultivars, in-row plant spacing, planting



techniques, and cultural practices were consistent with
Extension recommendations. All rows were 42 inches wide and
with the exception of sweet corn which had two rows, a single
row of vegetables was planted down the center of each raised
bed. Tomato, pepper and eggplant were started from
transplants, whereas others were seeded. Water was applied
as needed by overhead sprinklers.

Jacksonville The 638 sq ft. garden at Jacksonville was less
than half the size of the Tallahassee garden; however, due to
very intensive culture, a greater selection of vegetables
were produced on it than the larger garden. The intensive
culture plan included twenty-four different kinds of
vegetables and six herbs. Minimum spacings were used with
each crop.


Tallahassee The weight of the 10 vegetables harvested from
April through July, 1980, was 775 pounds worth $384 at re-
tail. The costs for growing the garden vegetables are given
in Table 1. The garden returned a net profit of $242.22 even
when a charge of labor was included. Excluding labor, the
net value rose to $313.52.

Table 1. Costs and returns for 1400 sq. ft. garden,
Tallahassee, Florida, 1980.

Returns (retail value) $384,32

Equipment (5 yr depreciation) 13.40
Seeds and plants 19.40
Fertilizer 4.50
Pesticides 10.00
Water 20.00
Stakes 3.50
Total (w/o labor) $ 70.80
Labor (23 hrs. @ $3.10) 71.30
Total (inc. labor) 142.10
Net value (w/o labor) 313.52
Net value (inc. labor) 242.22
Net returns per hour of labor 13.63/hr



Jacksonville Twenty-two different vegetables were harvested
from the 638 square foot garden plot during a 13-week period
from April 23, 1980 to July 22, 1980. All of the vegetables
grown would have cost $416.10 if purchased at retail.
Production costs are outlined in Table 2. Net profit without
a charge for labor was $332.91. Even including a charge for
all labor inputs, the garden still returned a net profit of

Table 2. Costs and returns for 638 sq. ft. garden,
Jacksonville, 1980.

Returns (retail value) $416.10

Equipment (5 yr. depreciation) $ 12.25
Seeds 6.34
Plants 9.60
Fertilizer 16.89
Sulfur 3.00
Pesticides 15.11
Water 20.00
Total cost (w/o labor) 83.19
Labor (68 hrs. @$3.10) 210.80
Total cost (inc. labor) 293.99
Net value (w/o labor) 332.91
Net value (inc. labor) 122.11
Net return per hour of labor 4.89/hr


As with similar economic feasibility studies of other
gardens both North Florida gardens demonstrated a definite
economic advantage for growing one's own vegetables. Accord-
ing to the Gallup Poll, the garden at Jacksonville (638 sq.
ft.) was about the same size as the national average (620
sq. ft. in 1978 and 595 sq. ft. in 1979). With such varia-
bility in the kinds and amounts of vegetables grown in the
different locations, it is most remarkable that returns were
so similar. The dollar yields from the gardens in the Gallup
survey and the two gardens studied here were $386, $384, and
$416, for Gallup, Tallahassee, and Jacksonville, respec-
tively. A demonstration garden in Ohio by Utzinger also pro-
duced $384 worth of vegetables when expanded from its 150
sq. ft. size to the exact size of the Jacksonville garden.
As reported by Stall, the value for a 600 sq. ft. garden in
South Florida was $496, slightly higher due to a longer har-
vest period than the other gardens.



The Tallahassee garden demonstrated the loss of space
efficiency that occurs when rows are wide and equally spaced.
Retail value of vegetables grown on 1400 sq. ft. was no more
than for those grown on 638 sq. ft. at Jacksonville, with
less than half the returns per square foot.


B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Willow-leaf Lima

The willow-leaf lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus forma
salicis Van Esel.) is a form of butter bean (Phaseolus
lunatus L.) which keeps surfacing from time to time in home
gardens around the state of Florida. In most all respects it
is like the normal lima bean, except that it has narrow
lanceolate leaflets the shape of a willow or peach leaf

The lima bean, like many other cultivated plants, in-
cludes a considerable number of variations in plant charac-
teristics. These differences have led to the sub-division of
the specific name lunatus into 5 formae, and a great many
horticultural varieties and cultivars. Most lima beans are
Phaseolus limensis Macfady.

Lima beans are of American origin, and evidence indi-
cates that they have been grown in or near the tropics since
prehistoric times. Guatemala, Central America, is considered
to be the original home of the lima bean, although its naming
came from Lima, Peru where it was first thought to have
originated. American settlers were growing baby limas about

Strains of lima beans found in tropical America where it
is indigenous always had the broader, ovate leaf pattern, and
the indeterminate (vine) form of growth. The alternative
characters-lanceolate leaflets and determinate (bush) growth
habit-are derived characteristics and are restricted to
cultivated types. Thus, it appears that the willow-leaf
shape (lanceolate) was derived from a rare mutation. Culti-
vated varieties of this leaf shape are very few, although
this leaf shape had been transferred to most all types.

In conclusion, when one of these willow-leaf limas is
found, it is exhibiting a well-known but seldom encountered
genetic characteristic. The smooth, white or otherwise
colored seeds are edible and the plants should be grown in
the garden similarly to the more familiar types of lima



C. Master Gardener Program

September 1979 marked the beginning of a Master Gardener
program for Florida. The volunteer-oriented program is
designed to enable county extension horticulture agents to
reach more homeowners needing gardening information. During
the summer of 1979, volunteers for the program were recruited
in three pilot counties, Brevard, Dade and Manatee. Each
volunteer agreed to provide a specified number of hours
service to the local extension office in return for the 48
hours of training received.

Training was given by Extension Specialists from six
IFAS departments. All areas of homeowner horticulture were
covered including basic soils; liming and fertilization;
fruit, vegetable, and ornamental plant culture; plant
propagation; pest diagnosis and control, and household pest
control. Following the training, a comprehensive examination
was given. Seventy-six participants successfully completed
all phases of training including the exam and became
Florida's first Master Gardeners.

Service to the local extension programs has been
returned in a variety of ways. Master Gardeners work many
hours each week in County Extension offices handling
telephone, written, and personal requests for gardening
information. They have also learned to run simple soil tests
for pH and soluble salt levels. Plant diagnostic clinics are
being conducted in many communities, thus saving the
homeowner a trip to the county extension office. To date,
over 2000 hours of service have been rendered.

Based on the positive feedback received from the pilot
effort, the program was expanded to Volusia, Hillsborough,
and Polk counties where training is now in progress. There
is strong potential for this program in Florida's large urban
areas. As the interest in all phases of horticulture
continues to grow and the demand for information increases,
the future looks bright for the Master Gardener program in

Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost
of $ 175.35 or 32 4 per copy for the purpose of communicating
current technical and educational materials to extension,
research and industry personnel.

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