Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: October 1980
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00165
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
AS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


... VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
U J IIII I I J


October 15, 1980

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor


Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor


R.K. Showalter
Professor


W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


TO:


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND
HORTICULTURE) AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN
FLORIDA


FROM: J.M. Stephens, Extension Vegetable Scial

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 80-10

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. New Publications

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Permethrin Given Section 18 Clearance

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Evaluation of Preemergence Herbicides for Potatoes
Grown on Sandy Soil

IV. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Report on Mechanical Damage and Losses to Crisphead
Lettuce During Marketing
B. Nutritional Studies Underway
C. Truck Rate Report

V. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. 1979 National Gardening Survey
B. Know Your Minor Vegetables More on Jojoba



The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING












THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. New Publications

1. Research Report CF-81-1, Spring Slicer Cucumber Variety
Evaluation by Dr. J.M. White is available from the Sanford
Agricultural Research and Education Center, P. 0. Box 909, Sanford, FL
32-771.
(Maynard)

2. The fact sheet VC-14,"Weed Control for Full-Bed Mulched
Vegetables" has been revised and is now ready for distribution. New
and state labels for strawberry, tomato, pepper and eggplant have been
added. A supply can be ordered from IFAS editorial or single copies
from this department.
(Stall)

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Permethrin given Section 18 Clearance

The insecticide permethrin (Ambush, Pouace) has been granted
aSection 18 (emergency use) exemption for use on tomatoes, lettuce,
and celery until June 30, 1981.

The exemption is only for the control of the vegetable leafminer.

Specific Guidelines for use by crop include:
Tomatoes 1. Application rates of 0.056 to 0.1 pounds active
ingredient (A.I.) per acre application.
2. A maximum of ten applications, at five to seven
day intervals.
3. No Preharvest Interval (PHI).
4. Application by ground equipment only with a
minimum spray volume of 20 gallons of water per acre.
5. Total acreage treated not to exceed 40,000 acres.
6. Gadsden county and the Dade, Ft. Pierce-Pompano,
Southwest and Palmetto-Ruskin areas only.
Celery 1. Application rates of 0.05 to 0.2 LB AI per acre
per application.
2. A maximum of 21 applications, at five to 14-day
intervals.
3. No PHI.
4. Application by ground equipment only, with a spray
volume of 40-50 gallons of water per acre.
5. Total acreage treated not to exceed 11,000 acres.
6. Orange, Seminole, Palm Beach and Sarasota counties
only.










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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Lettuce 1. Application rates of 0.1 to 0.2 LB. AI per acre
per application.
2. A maximum of ten applications, at five-day
intervals.
3. One-day PHI.
4. Application by ground or air, with a minimum spray
volume of three gallons of water per acre.
5. Total acreage treated not to exceed 12,000 acre.
6. Collier, Hendry, Highlands, Hillsborough, Orange,
Palm Beach, Sarasota and Seminole counties only.

This material is extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates.
Special restrictions are imposed on distance of application to water.
Before application, the applicator should be aware of and follow all
restrictions imparted on the label.

(Stall)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Evaluation of Preemergence Herbicides for Potatoes grown on Sandy
Soil

Weed control is a major problem in Florida potato production.
Uncontrolled weeds reduce potato quality and yields, increase harvest
costs and reduce the efficacy of insecticides and fungicides.

J. R. Shumaker, ARC Hastings and S.J. Locascio, Vegetable Crops
Department, Gainesville, have run herbicide trials at Hastings and
Gainesville on the effectiveness of preemergence herbicides to
potatoes on sand (1,2). The tables presented are condensed from their
papers to show only labeled herbicides and weed control ratings.

Weather conditions vary from year to year, interacting with the
performance of herbicides, weed pressures and weed species prevalent.

At Hastings from 1970-72, (Table 1) metribuzin was the most
effective preemergence herbicide. At the high rate (1.5/lb ai/A) the
yield was reduced, indicating poor plant tolerance at that rate.
Linuron plus alachlor gave acceptable control over both broadleaf and
grass species. Alachlor and EPTC gave good control of grasses, but
were less effective in controlling broadleaf weeds. Dinoseb gave good
control for 3-4 weeks but was less effective on germinating weeds
thereafter.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 1. Weed control in potatoes at harvest, Hastings

Rate Weed control ratings
Herbicide lb ai/A 1970 1971 1972 Mean
chlorobromuron 1.0 3.5cdx 4.8b 5.0d 4.4
dinoseb 3.0 2.0de 4.Ob 1.5b 2.5
EPTCY 4.0 8.0a 5.3b 6.3cd 6.5
linuron 1.0 3.3cde 7.8a 5.3d 5.5
linuron + alachlor 1.0 + 2.0 -- 8.5a 7.0abc 7.8
alachlor 2.0 7.3ab 8.3a 6.5bcd 7.4
alachlor 3.0 -- 8.8a 6.5bcd 7.7
metribuzin 1.5 -- 10.Oa 8.0ab 9.0
metribuzin 0.75 -- 9.8a 8.5a 9.2
control (untreated) -- 1.0e 1.0c 1.Oc 1.0
ZRatings: 1=no control; 7=acceptable control; 10-excellent control
YSoil incorporated by bedding
XColumn means not having a letter in common are significantly
different at the 5% level.

In 1978, the predominant weeds in the plots were grass species.
At Hastings, metribuzin again gave a very good control to broadleaf
weeds but a poor grass control (Table 2). The two treatments of
alachlor + metribuzin varied from good to fair in their effectiveness
to control grasses. All herbicides gave adequate, broadleaf weed
control. Dinoseb, Diphenamid and DCPA gave fair grass control.

Table 2. Effect of Weed Control treatment on potatoes, Hastings,
Florida 1978

Treatment Weed controlY
Grass Broadleaf
Alachlor + Metrobuzin 2.24 + 0.42 pre 6.9a-c" 7.8a-c
Alachlor 2.8 pre 6.6a-c 7.8a-c
DEPA 11.76 pre 6.0b-d 6.6b-c
Diphenamid 6.72 pre 5.5b-e 6.0c
Dinoseb 6.72 d pre 5.5b-e 6.6b-c
Alachlor + Metribuzin 2.69 + 0.50 pre 5.5b-e 6.6b-c
Metribuzin 0.84 pre 4.8b-e 7.5a-c
Metribuzin 0.56 pre 4.0c-f 8.2a-c
Non-hoed Check O.Og 0.Od
ZHerbicides were applied preemergence to crop (pre) delayed
preemergence (d pre)
YRatings of 10=complete control, 0=no control
XColumn means not having a letter in common are significantly
different at %5 level

The herbicides were evaluated as to early and late
effectiveness for control of three grass species at Gainesville in
1978 (Table 3). In the early ratings, most herbicides, with the
exception of metribuzin gave good grass control on crabgrass and
goosegrass with fair control on maidencane.
Diphenamid did reduce the yield slightly at Gainesville
indicating a poor crop tolerance for the local conditions in
1978.






-5-



THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER



Table 3.1 Effect of herbicide treatment on weed control in potatoes. Gainesville, FL, 1978


Treatment






Hoed check

Alachlor

Alachlor + Metribuz[n

Alachlor + Metrthuzin

DCPA

Dinoseb

Di phennin I d

Met ri buz n

Metribuz [n


Grass ControlY

April 20 June 1

Crab Goose Maidencane Crab Goose Maidencane


2.80

2.24+0.42

2.69+0.50

11.76

6.72

6.72

0.84

0.56


pi

pre

pre

pre

d pre

pre

pre

pre


Non-hoed check


10.0ax

9.8ab

9.3a-c

9.3a-c

8.8a-d

8.8a-d

7.5c-g

4.8ij

3.3j

0.0k


10.Oa

9.0a-c

9.3ab

9.0 a-c

8.5a-d

8.5a-d

6.5ef

4.3hi

3.81

0.01


10.0a

7.0a-c

8.5ab

6.3bc

6.5a-c

6.3bc

4.3c

4.0c

4. 5c

0.Od


10.0a

9.3a-d

9.3a-d

9.8ab

9.3a-d

9.3a-d

9.3a-d

7.8a-d

7.5b-d

O.Of


10.Oa

9. 0a-c

8.8a-c

8.3a-d

8.0a-d

8. Oa-d

9.0a-c

6.Ode

7.8a-d

0.0R


10.Oa

7. a-f

3.8ef

6.5a-f

6.8a-f

7.8a-e

5.0c-f

8.0a-d

3.0fg

O.Og


ZlHerbicides were applied preemergence to crop (pre), delayed preemergence (d pre)

YRating of 10=complete control, 0=no control

XColimn inmens noL having a letter in common are significantly different at 5% level


--~-`-------












THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

At both locations, alachlor provided adequate weed control.
Dinoseb, diphenamid, metribuzin and DCPA were effective at
Gainesville, but less effective when tested under the drier conditions
of Hastings in 1978.

In deciding on which preemergent herbicide should be used in a
specific field, the above data reinforces the fact that the prevalent
weed species should be known, and basic field conditions should be
considered.

For more information on weed species control, refer to VC-17 -
"Control of Florida Weed Species."
1. Shumaker, J.R. 1974, Chemical Weed control in North Florida
Potatoes. Proc. Fla. State Hort Soc. 86:130-134.
2. Shumaker, J.R. and Locascio, S.J. 1979, Herbicide Evaluation for
Florida Potatoes. Proc. South Weed Sci Soc. 32:153-158.
(Stall)





























Note: The use of trade names in this newsletter is solely for the
purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or
warranty of the products named and does not signify that they are
recommended to the exclusion of others of similar composition.








THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


IV. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Report on Mechanical Damage and Losses to Crisphead Lettuce
During Marketing

Florida lettuce packers and shippers will be interested to hear that
physical damage to lettuce and postharvest losses can be reduced by
modifying methods of packing and closing cartons and by reducing
manual handling of the packed lettuce cartons. The results of a
project funded by California Iceberg Lettuce Research Program were
recently published by R. T. Hinsch and R. E. Rij, Agricultural
Marketing Specialists with the Market Quality and Transportation
Research Laboratory, SEA, USDA, Fresno, California. The study was
done to determine the extent of mechanical damage to lettuce during
packing, carton closing, highway truck loading, and long distance
transport. More than 17,000 heads of lettuce, handled by several
different packing, closing, and loading crews were evaluated during
the course of the study. The number of heads having broken ribs and
crushing and bruising damage were counted. Crushing and bruising of
the lettuce was reported as follows:

a) slight torn or broken leaves with scuffed and bruised
cap leaf and head leaves. Heads not needing to be trimmed
at retail, but damage would be noticeable to consumers.

b) moderate crushed or bruised head leaves of economic
importance. Heads must be trimmed before offering them for
retail sale. Heads damaged to this degree would have
affected purchase by most consumers.

c) serious crushed or bruised head of such magnitude that
damage would be unacceptable to consumers. Heads may be
salvaged by shredding or offering to consumers at a
price.

After packing into boxes on the ground, lettuce was found to have 37,
9, and 1% slight, moderate, or serious damage, respectively. Handling
comparisons of particular interest to Florida shippers are summarized
in Table 1. Forcing lettuce cartons closed with a closing frame and
stapling gun doubled the amount of economically important damage
(moderate and serious) when compared to closing cartons by hand prior
to stapling. No mention was made in the report of whether the hand
closing required more time than mechanical closing. Lettuce hand
loaded onto highway trucks had substantially higher levels of crushing
and bruising damage than lettuce mechanically loaded (Table 1).

On the basis of these data, careful closing of cartons and mechanical
loading onto trucks has the potential for reducing moderate and severe
crushing and bruising damage by 20%. This study was done with Western
Iceberg lettuce, but succulent Florida lettuce would also benefit from
careful closing of cartons and steps reducing the manual handling of
packed lettuce cartons. Receivers and consumers of Florida lettuce
would benefit from the careful handling and satisfied customers help
build the goodwill necessary to expand Florida marketing
opportunities.










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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

A free copy of the report may be obtained by writing to the
Market Quality and Transportation Research Laboratory, P. 0. Box
8143, Fresno, CA 93747.

Table 1. Comparison of damage resulting from lettuce packing and
procedures. Adapted from R.T. Hinsch and R. E. Rij. 1980.
"Mechanical Damage and Losses to Crisphead Lettuce During
Marketing."


Severity of damagez Broken
Slight Moderate Serious ribs
Handling procedure (%) (%) (%) (%)
Cartons closed by hand 5.3aY 3.7a 0.7a 8.8a
vs
Cartons forced closed
with closing frame
and staple gun 3.2a 7.1b 1.3b 6.6a

Lettuce hand loaded onto
highway trucks 9.0a 18.3a 5.2a 9.4a
vs
Lettuce mechanically loaded
onto trucks 4.8a 5.3b 1.5a 2.6a

See text for description of damage.
Y Means followed by unlike letters within a comparison are
significantly different at the 5% level by Duncan's Multiple
Range Test.
(Sherman)

B. Nuritional Studies Underway

Following the lead of the Potato Board, the Produce
Marketing Association (PMA) is assisting the USDA and FDA in the
development of nutritional information to be used in the
marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables. According to the PMA
Report, Volume 12, No. 18, samples of iceberg lettuce, carrots,
radishes, and broccoli were purchased in supermarkets in twelve
cities across the nation and flown to Raltech Laboratories, St.
Louis, for nutritional analyses. This was the first of the
possibly three samples needed to develop definitive nutritional
data on these fresh commodities. Each sampling is designed to
reflect different growing seasons, sources of supply, and
marketing areas. The project is being financed by PMA members
such as the California Iceberg Lettuce Commission, for iceberg
lettuce; the Mann Packing Company, for broccoli; and various PMA
members for carrots and radishes. PMA is also analyzing the ways
its members can use nutritional data in a marketing program to
increase sales of fresh fruits and vegetables.






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

This project reflects the increased consumer awareness of the
nutritional value of food. As an organization, PMA is aiding its
members in turning this consumer awareness into a marketing advan-
tage. Florida producers interested in participating in PMA's Nutri-
tional Marketing Program should contact Steve Ahlberg at Produce
Marketing Association, 700 Barksdale Road Suite 6, Newark, DE 19711,
(302/738-7100).
(Sherman)

C. Truck Rate Report
The Fruit and Vegetable Truck Rate Report is available by mail
from the Federal-State Market News Service, Washington, DC 20250.
This report summarizes the national truck supply situation and
publishes truck rates per load to selected major markets. The list is
compiled from transportation rates collected each Tuesday from fruit
and vegetable shippers and truck brokers. Rates quoted represent
rates paid per load by shippers, including truck brokers fees. Rates
are based on shipments in truck load volume (most usual load is 40
ft. trailer) to a single destination and extra charges for multidrop
shipments are not included. The latest truck rates to selected cities
for Tuesday of each week will be available by phone at the following
Federal-State Fruit and Vegetable Market News Offices in Florida on
Wednesday at 1:00 pm: Miami 305/661-3493, North Palm Beach
305/844-8969, Winter Park 305/628-8686.
(Sherman)

V. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 1979 National Gardening Survey

The latest National Gardening Survey conducted by the Gallup
Organization for Gardens For All, Inc. provides us with a unique,
in-depth "up close and personal" look at gardening and gardeners
across the U.S. Professional educators and all others who deal with
gardeners should become familiar with this clientele the American
gardener.

The Survey is a comprehensive 181 page document which contains
interesting, revealing tid-bits of information from beginning to end.
The following are brief glimpses at some of the more pertinent
characteristics of what is by far the most popular, productive
spare-time pursuit of the American public, according to the Gallup
Poll.

1979
Number of Vegetable Gardens
Fact. 1 No. U.S. No. with
households vegetable gardens %
78,000,000 33,000,000 44

Comment 1. Vegetable gardening ranks above such favorite
past-times as general exercising, workshop, fishing, bicycling,
jogging, bowling, photography, hiking, hunting and tennis in
numbers of households participating.








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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Who gardens
Fact 2.


Men Women White Non-White
48% 52% 92% 9%


Location of garden
Fact 3.
At home
91%


Community
garden
2%


Friends
property
5%


Organic Gardeners
Fact 4.
Who
All gardeners
Young gardeners
Older gardeners
College age
Easterners
Southerners


Use Organic methods
All the time Whenever possible Hardly at all
22% 29% 48%


17%
17%
28%
35%
12%


27%
29%
34%
25%
27%


56%
54%
38%
41%
61%


Community Gardeners
Fact 5. Just under 2 million people gardened on about one
million community plots. This represents only about 2% of the
gardeners. However, about 7 million said they are interested in
having a community garden. Community gardening is particularly
appealing to gardeners in metropolitan areas.


Vegetable Versus Other Types of Gardening
Fact 6. Householders and their type of gardening.
Lawn Indoor Vegetables Flowers Fruits Shrubs
56% 45% 44% 38% 22% 34%


Other
7X


Comment: In total, 77% of households in the U.S. participated in
some form of gardening in 1979, making it the most popular,
productive spare-time pursuit of the American public.


Size of Vegetable Garden
Fact 7.
<550 sq. ft. 550-2,399 sq. ft.
47% 22%


>2,399 sq. ft.
26%


Comment: The medium (typical) size garden was just under 600
square feet (20ft. x 30ft.) for 42% of the gardeners.

Value of the Garden
Fact 8.
Medium cost Dollar yield Avg. savings Total U.S. value
$19 $386 $367 $13 billion

Comment: Labor charge not included. The average return of
direct dollar investment averaged over 2,000%.









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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Vegetables Grown
Fact 9. Percentage of gardeners growing in 1979
1. Tomatoes (93%) 6. Lettuce (54%)
2. Onions (64%) 7. Radishes (47%)
3. Greenbeans (61%) 8. Carrots (42%)
4. Cucumbers (58%) 9. English Pea (40%)
5. Peppers (57%) 10. Sweet Corn (39%)

Information Sources
Fact 10. Where gardeners got information on gardening (1979 NGS)
Number of households
Source Percent* (in millions)
By Myself 35 11
Seed packets 32 11
Friends/Neighbors 25 8
Relatives 24 8
Newspapers 18 6
Magazines 18 6
Books 16 5
Seed Catalogs 14 5
Garden Supply Dealer 11 4
Garden Store Pamphlets 10 3
Television 8 3
County Agent 6 2
Radio 4 1
*Figures add to more than 100% and 33 million due to multiple
responses.

Comment: Total influence of Extension is not represented here
due to "whole saling" information as is done by Extension and to
other indirect contributions.
(Stephens)

B. Know Your Minor Vegetables More on Jojoba

Since the December 1978 article on jojoba in the Vegetarian, more
information on this interesting crop appeared in HortScience, Vol 15
(2), April 1980. The cover carried a picture of jojoba and
inside-cover article was entitled, "Jojoba: A New Horticultural Crop
For Arid Regions". Authors were: LeMoyne Hogan, Shi Won Lee, D.A.
Palzkill, and W.R. Feldman, Department of Plant Sciences, University
of Arizona. The article is presented here:

"Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) until recently
was a relatively unknown Sonoran Desert shrub. Realization that
the unique liquid wax in the seed could be grown with relatively
small amounts of irrigation water has stimulated much interest
among researchers in arid regions throughout the world. Major
research programs on the domestication of jojoba are being
conducted in the Department of Plant Sciences of the University
of Arizona and the Department of Botany and Plant Sciences of the









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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

University of California-Riverside. Research programs are also
underway at the Ben-Gurion University at Beer-Sheva, Israel, by
state and countries with arid and semi-arid regions. An
International Committee on Jojoba was formed in November 1972 and
3 international conferences on jojoba have been held to date.
The 4th International Jojoba Conference is scheduled for November
5-7, 1980, in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.

About 2400 hectares of jojoba have been planted in southwestern
Arizona and southern California since 1972. Many plantings of
various sizes have also been made in Central and South America,
the Middle East, Africa, and Australia by both commercial growers
and research institutions.

Jojoba is a dioecious, evergreen woody shrub that varies in both
height and width at maturity from approximately 1 to 5 m. There
are usually several main stems which are brittle and easily
broken. Jojoba appears to be very long-lived and some plants in
natural stands may be 150 to 200 years old. The natural range of
jojoba is restricted to isolated favorable locations in southern
Arizona, coastal and inland southern California, Sonora, and Baja
California, Mexico. It occurs from sea level on the Mexican
coast and southern California to at least 1500 m in Arizona,
usually on well-drained, well-aerated soil on mountain slopes,
although plants growing in the warmer extension of its range in
Baja are often found on relatively level land. Jojoba produces a
very deep root system with several main roots produced in
favorable soils; few surface feeding roots develop under natural
conditions.

In pistillate plants single axillary flowers usually develop at
alternate nodes on newly matured growth, however, flowers may
also develop singly at every node, and on occasion, double or
multiple flowers may occur at alternate nodes or every node. In
staminate plants, clusters of flowers usually form at alternate
nodes.

In natural stands in Arizona, most flower buds form in late
summer or early fall after the previous crop of seed matures.
Most flower buds remain quiescent until warm days in February and
March when anthesis occurs. At anthesis pistillate flowers are
grey-green, urn-shaped, and quite inconspicous. Each ovary
contains 3 ovules. The clusters of staminate flowers at anthesis
are very conspicuous due to large quantities of pollen produced.

Jojoba appears to be wind pollinated. Bees are attracted to
staminate but not pistillate flower. Pollination usually occurs
about March, and fruit develop and mature July and August. Each
ovary initially contains 3 ovules but only a single seed usually
develops in most clones.





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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

a hard, white crystalline wax with a melting point of 70C and is
suitable for both high-quality candles and polishes. When
sulphurized it is very stable, remains liquid, and maintains its
viscosity over a wide temperature range. It can be used as a
lubricant for machinery operating at high temperatures and
pressures. Cosmetics and lubricants containing jojoba wax are
already being marketed. To supply the existing demand, seed have
been harvested from wild stands during the past 2 years with
about 114 metric tons of dry seed harvested in 1978.

Jojoba is very susceptible to cold damage. Natural stands in
Arizona and at its northern range in California are located on
mountain slopes interspersed with rocks. These slopes have good
air drainage and are several degrees warmer than adjacent
low-lying valleys. Plantings in valleys near natural stands
often fail because the cold air moves down and concentrating in
the valleys results in killing freezes. Adult plants can survive
temperature as low as -9.5C; however, flower buds are damaged at
-40 to-50. We believe commercial plantations should not be
planted in areas where temperatures go lower than -4.

Jojoba plants have good soil aeration and drainage and do poorly
in heavy clay soils. Although jojoba is resistant to drought and
salinity, and natural populations are found in areas receiving as
little as 12 cm of annual precipitation, the highest yielding
specimens are found in areas receiving from 38 to 50 cm
annually. Supplemental irrigation will be required in most
areas.

The genus Simmondsia has only one species with no known
closely-related plants. However, natural stands provide an
extensive, readily-avalable source of highly variable germplasm
for plant improvement. Extensive germplasm collections have been
made both in the United States and Mexico.

Jojoba can be planted by direct seeding at a spacing of 20-25 cm
in the row and 4 m between rows. The best plants will be later
selected to leave a spacing about 1.5 m between plants in the row
with 1 staminate for each 5 pistillate plants. Jojoba can be
propagated by cuttings using conventional mist propagation
facilities. No known tested cultivars are presently available.
Jojoba can be successfully irrigated by furrow, flood, or various
drip irrigation systems. Pruning will be required to facilitate
mechanical harvesting. Little is known concerning the plant's
nutritional requirements. There have been few disease and insect
problems on cultivated plants.

Although several limitations may affect the development of this
plant as a new crop, none seem insurmountable."
(Stephens)



Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $178.14
or 304 per copy for the purpose of communicating current technical &
educational materials to extension, research and industry personnel.




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