Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: August 1980
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00163
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


... VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER
i Q~iiB~BH~tI-fi


August 18, 1980

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor


Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor


R.K. Showalter
Professor


W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


TO:


COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND
HORTICULTURE) AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN
FLORIDA


FROM: J.M. Stephens, Extension Vegetable Specialist

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 80-8

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. "Vegetarian" Mailing List Update
B. New Publication
C. Vegetable Crops Faculty
D. Dial Market News
E. South Florida Tomato Growers Institute Program

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Drip Irrigation

III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Is Cooling Worth the Energy?
B. Carrot Quality and Consumption Trends

IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Sewage Sludge: Benefits and Hazards for Gardeners
B. Know Your Minor Vegetables Mushroom


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Wherever possible please give credit to the authors.




The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING








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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. "VEGETARIAN" MAILING LIST UPDATE

Postal regulations require that we update the newsletter mailing
list annually. If you wish to continue receiving the "Vegetarian",
please complete the enclosed card and return by September 30.

(Stephens)


B. NEW PUBLICATION

A research report titled, Lettuce Evaluation, has been prepared
by J.M. White, Sanford AREC. Copies are available from Sanford AREC
or the Vegetable Crops Department as Research Report CF 80-8.

(Maynard)


C. VEGETABLE CROPS FACULTY

Dr. Thomas E. Humphreys joined the Vegetable Crops Department on
July 1 after many years on the faculty of the Botany Department in
IFAS. Tom will have a full time research appointment working on
mechanisms involved in sugar transport in vegetables. We're pleased
to welcome Tom to the Vegetable Crops group.

(Maynard)


D. DIAL MARKET NEWS

Market news is just a" dial away and available 24 hours a day for
many buyers and sellers of farm products. Below are numbers of auto-
matic telephone answering devices for market news information.

FLORIDA

Belle Glade (305) 996-0235 Vegetables (Oct.-June)

Fort Myers (813) 332-2114 Citrus & Vegetables (Oct.-June)


Citrus & Vegetables (Oct.-June)


Fort Pierce


(305) 465-5239












Immokalee

Miami

Seffner

Winter Park

Plant City

Pompano Beach

Palatka

Trenton

Quincy


-3-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

(813) 657-2793 Vegetables & Watermelons

(305) 666-7106 Fruits & Vegetables (all

(813) 621-4241 Fruits & Vegetables (all

(305) 628-0319 Citrus & Vegetables (all

(813) 754-2826 Vegetables & Watermelons

(305) 946-4343 Vegetables (Oct.-May)

(904) 328-6668 Cabbage & Potatoes (Jan.

(904) 463-2427 Watermelons (May-June)

(904) 875-2414 Vegetables & Watermelons

(Agricultural Outlook, June 1980)


(Oct.-June)

year)

year)

year)

(Jan.-June)



-June)



(May-July)


E. SOUTH FLORIDA TOMATO GROWERS INSTITUTE PROGRAM


NINETEENTH ANNUAL SOUTH FLORIDA TOMATO GROWERS INSTITUTE

September 71, 1980

Palm Beach County Agriculture Center
531 North Military Trail
West Palm Beach, Florida

Program Coordinator Raleigh S. Griffis
Extension Agent Palm Beach county


REGISTRATION

INTRODUCTIONS & REMARKS
Clayton E. Hutcheson, Extension Director, Palm Beach County

IFAS TOMATO RESEARCH
Dr. D.N. Maynard, Chairman, IFAS Vegetable Crops Department

PANEL DISCUSSION OF TOMATO IPM
Dr. K.L. Pohronezny AREC Homestead
Dr. D.S. Schuster AREC Bradenton
Growers


9:15

9:30


9:40


9:55








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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

11:00 EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM, CULTIVAR AND SEASON ON TOMATO
BLOTCHING, RIPENING AND GRAYWALL
Mr. Dave Picha, Graduate Student, IFAS-Gainesville

11:20 VARIETY RELEASES
Dr. W.E. Waters, Director-ARC Bradenton

11:35 FLOW THROUGH ETHYLENE GASSING SYSTEM FOR TOMATOES
Dr. D.D. Gull, IFAS-Gainesville

11:50 LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITY Washington Tallahassee
Mr. Wayne Hawkins, Manager of Florida Tomato Committee

12:05 BOX LUNCH
Courtesy of Mr. Dwight Smith of W.R. Grace & Company

1:30 INTERACTION OF VARIETIES, PLANTING DATES AND NUTRITION
Dr. P.H. Everett ARC Immoklee

1:50 NUTRIENT AND WATER INGREDIENTS FOR MAXIMUM PRODUCTION
EFFICIENCY
Dr. C.M. Geraldson, AREC Bradenton

2:10 CULTURAL PRACTICES FOR MACHINE HARVEST ON MULCHED BEDS
Dr. H.H. Bryan, AREC Homestead

2:45 REDUCTION OF TOMATO BACTERIAL SPOT BY HYPOCHLORITE TREATMENT
Dr. R.T. McMillan, Jr., AREC Homestead

3:00 BIOASSAY PLANTS FOR NEMATODE DETECTION
Dr. R.T. McSorley AREC Homestead

3:15 QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSION
Mr. Raleigh S. Griffis, Extension Agent, Palm Beach County








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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. DRIP IRRIGATION

There has been renewed interest in several areas of the state in
the use of drip irrigation on vegetables. In switching from the
present irrigation system in the field to drip, there are several
factors that must be addressed. Questions arise on the installation
and use of drip; the following may help answer some of these
questions.

A drip system includes a main line from the pump, filters,
fertilizer and chlorine injectors, submains or laterals, drip line,
and necessary fittings.

The initial cost will run approximately $500.00 to $550.00 per
acre. The filters, injectors, main and lateral lines and the fittings
normally are used over a five year period with special maintenance.
The drip lines are not reused. The drip lines themselves cost from 2
to 3 cents a running foot. The total cost per acre will depend on the
crop grown, between row spacings and replacement needs.

Water Pressure

Water pressure in the main lines varies from 14 to 40 psi and in
the drip lines from 4 to 14 psi depending on which drip system is
used. Keeping a constant pressure in the drip lines is important and
is the function of the submains or lateral lines. Because of this
pressure regulation, drip irrigation can be used on relatively uneven
fields. Each manufacturer has specifications on the engineering of
their system.

Water Quality

The water source used in drip irrigation systems varies. If the
water is drawn from wells, and is free of high mineral content such as
iron, a simple screen filter can be used. If the water is drawn from
surface reservoirs such as ponds and ditches, one or two sand filters
must be employed to remove fine silt or organic matter that can plug
the drip lines. All systems must have a method of injecting chlorine
into the system to keep algae and slime bacteria from clogging the
lines. (The use of chlorine will be explained in a coming article).

One of the distinct advantages of drip irrigation is that water
with a higher salt content can be used.








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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Fertilizer

The fertilizer can be applied with drip irrigation. All the
initial phosphate and minor elements should be added in the bed along
with a starter amount of N and K. If the irrigation water has a high
pH, most phosphate sources should not be injected. Aluminum and other
impurities in the phosphate will precipitate and clog the line.
Nitrogen and potash then can be injected through the system to give a
high degree of control of the plant growth.

The placement of the dry fertilizer has not yet been worked out
for all areas. Incorporation of these nutrients into the bed has
been shown to be better than banding in some cases. If fertilizer
bands are used, placement must be within the wetting pattern.

Soil Types

The use of drip irrigation has been shown to increase yields of
vegetables grown in the rock soils of Dade county. In these soils the
water distributes to form a good root wetting pattern in the beds. In
some sand areas, however, the wetting pattern is not as wide.

Initial research at several locations indicates that intermittent
watering gives a better soil moisture pattern, and equal to higher
yields have been obtained with drip irrigation as compared to other
irrigation methods.

To properly use drip irrigation, it must be considered an
integral part of the crop management system. It cannot be turned on
and forgotten.

For anyone considering trying drip for the first time, it is
suggested that it be installed on a small trial basis only.
(Stall)


III. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. IS COOLING WORTH THE ENERGY?

Temperature control is the most important tool at the disposal of
produce handlers. From the quality maintenance perspective, the bene-
fits of cooling are unquestionable. These benefits include reductions
in respiration rates, water loss, ripening rates, and decay problems.
Thorough cooling of a product to its lowest safe temperature (see
table 1) immediately after harvest, and subsequent handling in






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

marketing channels at this temperature results in the maximum
shelf-life. Maintenance of the proper product temperature1 from
producer to the consumer requires the conscientious effort of many
different individuals. This effort involves the consumption of
energy, the cost of which is still increasing. From the handler
perspective, one might ask, "Is it worth the energy?"

The answer to this question is yes. California estimates place
the amount of energy consumed in cooling at less than 1% of the total
energy used producing and marketing a fresh vegetable. Data for
Florida vegetables presented in Table 2 was calculated by Jerry
Gaffney, Agricultural Engineer, with the U.S.D.A., Gainesville. On
the average cooling, energy amounts to only one half of one percent of
the total consumption. Proper temperature management may be viewed as
cheap insurance protecting the total energy investment. Decisions
concerning product temperatures are among the most critical management
decisions facing produce handlers. From both the energy and quality
standpoint, proper cooling is worth the energy.


(Sherman)


IThe subject of product temperature management was reviewed by
Kasmire in the February, 1980, Vegetarian Newsletter.









-8-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 1. Recommended storage temperatures for fresh vegetables. Adapted from J.M. Lutz
and R.E. Hardenburg. "The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables and Florist and
Nursery Stocks", USDA Agriculture Handbook #66.


Commodity Safe storage Commodity Safe storage Commodity Safe storage
temperature temper: ture temperature
(F) (OF) (OF)


Artichoke, globe
Artichoke, Jerusalem
Asparagus
Bean, Lima
Bean, snap
Beets, bunched
Broccoli
Brussels sprouts
Cabbage
Cabbage, Chinese
Carrots, topped
Cauliflower
Celeriac
Celery
Collards
Corn, sweet
Cucumber
Eggplant
Endive & Escarole


32
31-32
32-36
32-40
40-45
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
45-50
45-50
32


Garlic
Ginger
Horseradish
Kale
Kohlrabi
Leek
Lettuce
Melons -
Muskmelons (3/4 slip)
Muskmelon (full slip)
Casaba
Crenshaw
Honey Dew
Persian
Watermelon
Mushroom
Okra
Onion
Parsley


32
55
30-32
32
32
32
32

36-40
32-35
45-50
45-50
45-50
45-50
40-50
32
45-50
32
32


Parsnip
Peas
Peppers, sweet
Potatoes1
Pumpkins
Radish
Rhubarb
Rutabaga
Salsify
Spinach
Squash, summer
Squash, winter
Sweet potato
Tomato, mature green
Tomato, firm-ripe
Turnip
Turnip greens
Watercress


1Winter and spring-harvested potatoes are usually not stored. However, potatoes for fresh
market can be stored at 50F for 2 to 3 months without curing. Storage temperatures near 70F
are required for chipstock potatoes.


32
32
45-50

50-55
32-55
32
32
32
32
32-50
50-55
55-60
50-70
45-50
32
32
32-35








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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

Table 2. Energy consumption for production and marketing of Florida
vegetables. Adapted by J. Gaffney from Fluck, R.C. 1975.
Energy Consumption of the Florida Vegetable Industry. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 88: 128-133.


Source BTU/lb % TOTAL

Production 2722 29

Harvesting and Packing 1445 16

Transportation 1233 13

Wholesaling 1366 15

Retailing 2558 27

TOTAL 9324 100

Cooling (from harvesting 45 0.5
& packing through retailing)

(Sherman)

B. CARROT QUALITY AND CONSUMPTION TRENDS

Carrots are nutritious and lead all major vegetables in vitamin
A. Indians liked carrots so well they would steal them from the early
settlers gardens when they stole nothing else. However, popularity
and per capital consumption have declined from 11.7 lbs. in 1945 to 7.3
Ibs. in 1958, and down to 5.7 lbs. in 1978. Florida produced few
carrots unit recent years. Our production has increased to about 10%
of the U.S. supply in winter and spring with 1,177,000 cwt being pro-
duced last year. 74% of these Florida carrots were shipped for fresh
use and 26% for processing. 17% of the fresh market carrots were the
mini-type.

Carrot harvesting, handling and packaging are highly mechanized.
Tops are cut off in the field and the roots are transported to a pack-
inghouse for washing, sizing, grading and packaging in plastic bags of
1 or 2 lb. capacity. Recently adopted automatic packing equipment
provides more uniformly weighed carrots at less labor cost.

Carrots are generally harvested before reaching full maturity
because they are more tender, have a brighter orange color and the
flavor is more mild. Carrots of good quality should be sweet, firm,
fresh, smooth, well-colored and well-shaped with no forking. The







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

deeper the orange color, the more vitamin A in the carrot. Undesira-
ble characteristics include poor top trimming, regrowth of tops,
growth cracks, sunburn and green color at the stem end. Carrots that
are limp, flabby, soft, shriveled, tough, bitter or decayed are highly
undesirable.

When handled properly, carrots can be stored at 320F and 95% RH
for several weeks or months depending upon maturity and local condi-
tions. Mature carrots store longer than those harvested immature.
Carrots can lose moisture rapidly if the tops are not cut off and the
roots protected with suitable packaging. Bitter flavors develop from
ethylene given off by other nearby commodities.

Carrots are harvested in the U.S. in all months. They are easy
to prepare by merely washing, scraping, peeling, cutting into sticks
or shredding, they are low in calories with only 42 calories per 100
grams, and yet consumption has declined 22% in the last 20 years.
Recent surveys of food preferences in away-from-home dining show
carrots with a low rank among vegetables. Bitter, disagreeable
flavors have been blamed for their decreasing popularity.

Carrots breeders are emphasizing better flavor in their develop-
ment of new hybrid varieties, but selection based only on higher
soluble solids is not sufficient for eating quality improvement. A
recent study involving varieties grown in Florida, Texas and
California showed that carrot flavor was influenced by genetic and
environmental factors. Flavor differences within roots indicated
selection for reduced core size would improve eating quality. New
higher quality varieties are urgently needed.

Carrot consumption may also be increased by adding carrot sticks
to school lunch menus. In a recent U.S.D.A. test, 140 tons of Florida
carrots were distributed in 2,000 schools and the response was very
good with requests for more.


'Simon, P.W., C.E. Peterson, and R.C. Lindsay. 1980. Genetic and
Environmental Influences on Carrot Flavor. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
105 (3) 416-420.
(Showalter)






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. SEWAGE SLUDGE: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS FOR GARDENERS

As energy costs increase and availability of raw materials
decrease, efforts to conserve energy and recycle waste materials have
gained momentum. Horticulture, including vegetable gardening, is in a
unique position to utilize waste materials such as sewage sludge which
might otherwise become environmental problems. The vast quantities of
sludge generated by our people represent a valuable source of organic
fertilizer for growing plants.

However, it is well known that sludges contain heavy metals and
other potentially toxic materials that would contaminate soils and
food crops. With awareness of energy shortages and pollution abate-
ment coming at a time of heightening concern for the quality of food
that we eat, it is no surprise that a great deal of horticultural
research is being aimed at the recycling of human and other wastes for
crops production.

A recent report by the U.S.D.A. summarized of the annual produc-
tion of various kinds of organic wastes in the U.S. About 75% of the
730 million dry tons of waste is generated equally by crop residues
and animal manures. A general breakdown of municipal garbage is: 8%
plastics, 13% glass, 5% stone, 50% metals and papers, 22% other
organic. Sewage sludge comprises only about 5% of the total organic
waste available from all sources and only about 1/4 of this is
currently being utilized.

The benefits of using organic wastes on land for crop production
have long been known. The most notable of these benefits are: (a)
improved water movement into the soil; (b) increased soil capacity to
hold more water; (c) improved soil aeration; (d) increased rooting
depth; (e) less water run-off and erosion problems; (f) supply needed
plant nutrients both major and micronutrients, in a slow release
form.

Nutrient Composition of Sewage Sludge (Page, Univ. Cal., Riverside)

Nutrient % Min. Max. Ave.
N 1.0 10.0 3.0
P 1.0 6.0 1.5
K 0.05 1.0 0.3%

From the above table it is obvious that the supply of nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium in sewage sludge is rather low. For example,
the N-P-K ratio of undigested sludge composted at the U.S.D.A.
research center at Beltsville, Maryland was 1.6% N, 1.0% P and 0.2%






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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

K. Only 20% of the plant nutrients are mineralized (released) in the
first year of application, and of this, half of the nitrogen is lost
to the air through ammonization. Most sewage sludges would not be a
good source for potassium and large amounts would have to be applied
to meet crop growing needs.

The dollar values for the major nutrients have been calculated on
the basis of content and current prices of the inorganic fertilizers.
(Page: ASHS: Fort Collins, Colorado, 1980) valued nitrogen in sludge
at $4.60 per ton; phosphorus at $15.20 per ton; and potassium at $.58
per ton.

The trace and ..icronutrient effects of sludge can be described as
(a) plant deficiency corrective, (b) phytotoxic and (c) diet toxic.
Among the necessary micronutrients available from most sludges are
sulfur, boron, calcium, copper, magnesium, managanese, iron, molybde-
num and zinc. The elements posing potential hazard to plants due to
excess amounts (phytotoxic substances) are copper, boron, chronium,
nickel and zinc. The element cadmium (Cd) poses far the greatest
danger to humans through consumption of plants grown with sludge
fertilizer.

The amount of Cd in sewage sludge varies greatly with the source
of the sludge, being highest from industrial cities. It may vary from
5 to 500 ppm, with the average being 15 ppm. The Food and Drug
Administration daily allowances set a limit of 70 micrograms per day
(adult intake). Studies have shown that Cd does increase in plants
grown on sludge amended soils, so there does exist a potential danger
from Cd.

One area where sludge amended soil media might be used safely is
for growing vegetable transplants. Studies have shown that although
Cd levels increased in transplants grown on sludge-amended media,
there were no increases in the edible portions of tomato, cabbage and
muskmelon plants at harvesting.

Due to the possible hazards associated with sludge, the EPA is in
the process of drawing up guidelines for the use of sludge. The exact
nature of the general recommendations for the use of sludge on food
crops are not known at this time. Until such time that adequate
guidelines are drawn up, it is advisable that gardeners should re-
strict the use of sewage sludge to non-food chain plants such as
ornamentals and lawns. Much progress is being shown with the handling
and processing of sewage sludge prior to its usage. Composting of
sludge is one of the latest developments and will be discussed in a
later article.


(Stephens)






-13-


THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

B. KNOW YOUR MINOR VEGETABLES MUSHROOM

The mushroom (Agaricus campestris and Agaricus bisporus) is
classified as a fungus which grows upon decaying organic matter.
Mushrooms are incapable of producing their own food. They cannot use
the energy of sunlight as green plants do. Their "food" consists of
carbohydrates and proteins produced during the fermentation and decom-
position of organic material.

Like many vegetable crops, strains of A. campestris and A.
bisporus vary in growth habit, color, yielding ability and other
characteristics. The most common variation is color, and three groups
- the whites, creams and browns are recognized. Actually, the
cultivated mushroom is a horticultural adaption of the common field
mushroom which is found in pastures and grassy places.

The edible part of the mushroom is the "toadstool" fruiting body
or reproductive part of the plant. The main body of the fungus is the
mass of fine thread like white growth that can be seen throughout the
composted material on which the mushroom is feeding. This mass of
absorbing vegetative parts is called myceliumm".

The edible reproductive part consists of a stem and cap. "Gills"
are found on the underside of the cap. These are arranged somewhat
like spokes in a wheel and on them are borne the multitude of spores
which start new plants. When the mushroom first appears above ground,
it looks like a button, so small ones are harvested and called
"buttons".

A spore is an asexual "seed" which contains no endosperm. In
order to produce a new plant body, a spore must land on some kind of
organic material that is in the right stage of decomposition to pro-
vide food for the germinating spore.

Climatic Response

Mushrooms grow best in a moist, cool, well ventilated place.
Temperatures need to be controlled within a range from 500 to 700F.
Humidity must be maintained above 70% R.H., or mushrooms tend to dry
out and split.

Culture

Compared with the culture of other vegetables, the production of
mushrooms is fairly complicated.

Mushrooms are best grown indoors in trays or beds filled with an
organic planting medium (compost). Horse manure has long been used,
but other materials are suitable. Some materials which have been used







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THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

alone or in combination with horse manure are alfalba hay, corncobs,
cornstalks, straw, sawdust, dried brewer's grains and poultry manure.
Here are the usual steps taken to grow mushrooms.

Step 1. Composting. Trays are filled with fresh compost, which
is allowed to ferment at 1400F for four to six days (or until odor of
ammonia disappears. Trays are then moved to a well-ventilated,75-80OF
room for "spawning" (planting spores). This temperature should be 750
to 800F.

Step 2. Spawning. Spawn is the propagating material for mush-
rooms. It contain. s spores and spawning materials such as manure,
tobacco stems, or rain. Spawn most often purchased from speciality
spawn makers. Span is planted either by the broadcast method or by
planting in small pieces 1 1/2 inches deep at 10 inch intervals. With
temperatures held at 700F, the cottony growth of mushroom spawn is
allowed to grow through the upper 3 inches of the bed of compost.

Step 3. Casing. After two or three weeks of growth, a one inch
layer of "casing" soil is spread over the surface of the bed. Gener-
ally, a not-too-sandy loam is preferred. The casing soil helps hold
in gasses.

Step 4. Growing. After casing, trays should be kept at 500F to
620F and kept sprinkled until the first tiny mushrooms appear in about
three to four weeks. After that, watering is done only as needed.

Step 5. Harvesting. Picking may commence at the first signs of
buttons, and last for 6 or 7 weeks or longer. Each mature mushroom is
between 1 and 2 inches in diameter. Harvesting may be done daily or
every few days, depending on the occurence of the mushrooms.

Small home units may be started by purchasing ready-to-grow kits
from major vegetable seed companies Larger quantities of spawn are
available from some of these seed companies and from companies which
specialize in producing spawn.

For more information on mushrooms, copies of "Producing Mushrooms
in Florida", VC 73-1, by G.J. Stout and D.E. Buffington, are available
from the Vegetable Crops Department.
(Stephens)



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