Title: Vegetarian
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00162
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: July 1980
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00162
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


This item has the following downloads:

Vegetarian%201980%20Issue%2080-7 ( PDF )

Full Text



July 16, 1980

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard

R.F. Kasmire
Visiting Professor

R.K. Showalter

James Montelaro

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor

Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor



FROM: J.M. Stephens, Extension Vegetable Specialist



A. New Faculty Members
B. New Southern Region, NJHA Director
C. Tomato Grower's Institute

A. 24(c) State Herbicide Labels for Vegetables

A. Developing County Extension Marketing Programs Packaging

A. Closing Out The Spring Garden
B. Early Growth Stages of Cabbage
C. Know Your Minor Vegetables Horseradish tree

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Wherever possible please give credit to the authors.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide rnarch,
educational Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.


L II-- I L II_ I




A. New Faculty Members

William M. Stall joined the Vegetable Crops faculty at Gainesville
on June 20 as Associate Professor and Extension Specialist. He has
been a County Agent in Dade County with primary responsibilities in
vegetable production since 1974 and is well known to the industry.
Bill's program area will be commercial vegetable production.

Bill received his BS from Ohio State University and MS and Ph.D.
in Vegetable Crops from the University of Florida. We're pleased to
have Bill with us in Gainesville.

Peter J. Stoffella joined the Vegetable Crops faculty at Ft.
Pierce on June 16 as Assistant Professor. Peter received the BS at
Delaware Valley College, MS at Kansas State University, and Ph.D. at
Cornell University. He will be initiating a research program on the
culture and management of vegetables. Welcome to Florida, Pete.


B. New Southern Region, NJHA Director

Susan Gray has assumed the function of Director, Southern Region,
National Junior Horticultural Association. She replaces Ray
Livingston of Georgia who held this vital position for years.
This is an additional task to Susan's already busy program.


C. Tomato Grower's Institute

The nineteenth annual Tomato Grower's Institute will be held on
Thursday, September 11 beginning at 9:15 a.m. at the Palm Beach County
Agricultural Center, 531 North Military Trail, West Palm Beach.
Raleigh S. Griffis is program coordinator. The full program will be
in next month's "Vegetarian".





A. 24(c) State Herbicide Labels for Vegetables

Dr. Richard Lipsey has recently sent out from the Pesticide
Coordinator's office a list of the 24(c) labels granted in Florida.
These are now on computer tapes and will be published quarterly.

A 24(c) label is not a national label. It grants specific uses
within this state. The approval for use is only for the product
listed and for that formulation.

In other words, the same chemical manufactured by another company
may not be legally used under the 24(c) guidelines. Also, a product
labeled under a wettable powder formulation may not be legally used in
the granular or emulsifiable concentrate form if not so formally

24(c) labels also may be additional methods of application such as
the aerial application rates. Be sure to consult the new labels for
specific restrictions and information before they are used.

Herbicides Granted 24(c) Labels for Vegetables in Florida

Green Beans






Vegedex 4EC

Lorox 50 WP

Vegedex 4EC

5 qt/A Max

1-2 lb AI/A

4-6 qts/A per

Sutan + 6.7E
Sutan + 6.7E PER
Atrazine 80W or 4L

Paraquat Cl


0.75-1 qt/spray/
acre in 40-70
gals spray mix

1-2 pts/A Pre-
emergence or 1 pt/
A Post-emergence

Labeled for Aerial

By air (after
transplant) muck
soils only

Center pivot

Directed spray



Tomato & Amiben 10%G 3 lb/A with 10-40 Pre-emergence
Pepper gals of water

Devrinol 50W 2-4 Ibs/A
Devrinol 2E 0.5 to 1 gal/A


A. Developing County Extension Marketing Programs Packaging

Packaging of fresh market horticultural products is complex.
Poor packaging causes extensive marketing losses at and beyond points
of production. However, county horticultural agents can help their
clients by increasing their knowledge of packaging problems, programs,
and developments. They can also help local growers and shippers to
evaluate packaging operations and shipping containers by conducting
demonstration tests. Be sure to include a control treatment, general-
ly the current practice or package being used. Interested? Contact
Dr. Mark Sherman if you want help on this.

The Packaging Compromise, The Cost of Protection
(Reprinted from California Cooperative Extension Perishables Handling
No. 43, June 1979).

Packaging of fresh market horticulture commodities is presently
very complex, involves much compromise, and increases the cost of mar-
keting far more than is necessary. Packaging could readily be greatly
simplified if only certain problem areas could be resolved. Solutions
must include unifying the packaging interest of the very heterogeneous
fresh produce producing, distributing, and marketing industry;
bridging vested interest, conflicts, and competition among both users,
and suppliers of packaging materials; resolving certain problems
related to transportation, costs, and waste in packaging materials;
effecting greater cooperative efforts between government and industry
in focusing on major problems; and reducing and simplifying the laws,
regulations, and wording used in such that affect both suppliers and
users of packaging materials. Resolving these problems can benefit
products packaged, the industry that produces and markets fresh
horticultural commodities, the industry that provides packaging and
related supplies and services, and benefit society in general with
both short and long range benefits.

The tremendous number of individual sizes, shapes, designs, and
construction of fresh produce containers used in the world today is
probably the most important problem currently confronting both sup-
pliers and users of packaging material in the fresh produce industry.



The various ways in which the several functions of a package are
viewed by the fresh product shipping, distribution, and marketing
industry, and by the packaging industry and its allies, are major
causes of packaging problems, and the many compromises effected in
protecting fresh produce. Consider them as solvable problems and they
become manageable.

The very heterogenous composition of the fresh product producing,
distribution, and marketing industry, is probably the most important
factor responsible for the very large numbers of produce containers
used in the world today. For example, in the United States alone,
over 400 different sizes, shapes, etc. of produce packages are used.
The magnitude of this heterogeneity can be visualized if we consider
the size and geographical distribution of the industry, the various
sizes, organizations structures and setups of individual entities in-
volved, the numbers of commodities, maturities, and ripeness classes
shipped, the makeups and distribution of the markets shipped to, the
composition of the consuming public in each market. Lastly, we cannot
neglect the factor of adherence to tradition, both as it applies to
individual segments within the industry and consuming publics, and to
the industry in total. This very broad composition of our industry
presents major, but not insurmountable, obstacles in standardizing
shipping containers in democratic societies.

Vested interests which occur in many forms, are a major problem
both within the fresh produce industry, and in those industries sup-
plying packaging materials and related services. For example, within
the packaging industry, there are vested interests among various divi-
sions, or functions, within companies that determine materials con-
tent, materials and package testing procedures and standards, and the
cost to each industry segment involved. Between the packaging and
fresh produce industry, there is a major area of common interest in
the large amount of capital invested in presently used packaging
facilities, and equipment, and the large capital investments needed
to change to an improved or better container and container handling
system. Within the produce shipping, distribution, and marketing
industry vested interests occur as tradition, produce identification
and fear of losing identity in the market place, investments in pack-
age inventories and packaging equipment, freight rate advantages, and
fear of labor reactions to potential improved handling methods or pro-
cedures. There are, however, numerous examples of progress throughout
the industry to resolve these vested interests.

Materials waste in the manufacture of packaging materials is a
major problem. Although manufacturers want to minimize the waste,
compliance with customers' specifications for packages guarantees a
certain amount of waste. The unproductive time required to change
equipment to produce specific designs of containers for various ship-
pers is a form of expensive, though indirect, waste. Most of us



probably consider only packaging wastes as the amount viewed as used
containers at destination markets. The magnitude of, exact causes,
and solutions to the destination packaging materials waste problem are
viewed differently by different agencies and groups, both within and
between government and the packaging industry. In many countries,
including the United States, recovered paper waste and related prod-
ucts are used in the manufacture of fibreboard containers and other
paper products.

What may appear to the general public as a simple problem of
recylcing packaging wastes is far from that. In Milwaukee, Wisconsin
a major container manufacturer operates the nation's largest and most
complete garbage recycling center. Their results indicate that source
reduction concepts postpone solid wastes problems but do not solve
them, that municipal recycling centers are technically and economical-
ly feasible, extensive opportunities exist for improving this technol-
ogy, and the economies of recovering fuel through recycling centers
will improve as the cost of alternate fuels increase.

Greater cooperative industry-government efforts focused on major
packaging problems could help reduce present packaging compromises.
Some important problems needing such cooperative effort include:

1. Raw product availability and use for packaging materials-----
they can't be considered as an indefinite supply.

2. Energy used in producing, using, transporting, and recycling
or disposing of packaging materials and packages compared to
the value received from their (packages) use.

3. Pollution problems in disposing of packaging materials waste.

4. Physical, economic, and biological studies needed to develop a
minimum number of modular shipping containers for fresh market
horticultural products. Though considerable effort is already
devoted in this area, much more is needed.

5. Development of more useful and acceptable tests and testing
procedures to evaluate produce packaging materials. There is
considerable conflict and suspicion (of each others intents)
by both industry and government. This is understandable, but
it should not be an unsolvable problem.


There are many benefits available from solving these packaging
problems. These include benefits to commodities packaged (better pro-
tection); benefits to the fresh produce shipping, distribution, and
marketing industry (lower costs, better handling, improved performance



standards, and improved product quality presented to consumers); bene-
fits to the packaging materials supplying and servicing industries
(greater efficiencies and reduced per unit costs); and benefits to the
general public (better quality products, reductions in cost of
packaging materials and waste disposal, improved waste disposal
systems, conservation of energy and natural resources, and reduced
pollution) .

New developments and trends continue to be developed in the pack-
aging materials and handling industry. These include new packaging
materials; closing materials and equipment; faster and more efficient
packaging equipment (some of which is mobile); new testing concepts,
ideas, and procedures, including use of computer programing to evalu-
ate container needs and performance; and the use of better designed
and conducted industry experimentation and testing.

Pallet Exchange Programs, such as the GPC (Grocery Pallet Council)
which involve private, suscribed membership and pallet ownership and
redistribution are being developed in many countries. These appar-
ently are having some membership and financial difficulties, but hope-
fully they will be overcome in the near future.

Both government and industry are developing new views towards
packaging laws and regulations to make them more effective. Govern-
ment is listening more to industry's views and needs. Industry is
listening more to government and to the general public through its
reaction to such things as chemical additives, packaging waste, and
excessive costs. The shipping industry is convinced for the need to
palletize, or unitize. There is also an increasing awareness of need
for reducing the number of sizes and shapes of produce shipping con-
tainers used to a minimum number of standardized, modular containers.
Gradually, we are accepting a standard size pallet or slip sheet of 40
inches times 48 inches (100 centimeters X 120 centimeter). In the
United States, we are striving for two standard lengths and widths of
containers, with three variable depths. In the Organization of
Economic Coooperation and Development (OECD) four container sizes
(that is length and width only) are recommended for international
trade of fresh fruits and vegetables. These four container sizes pro-
vide for 100% utilization on a 100 centimeter X 120 centimeter pal-
let. The layer concept of ordering commodities, is now being suggest-
ed, and to some extent used, in mixed loads from shippers to
receivers, and from distribution centers at terminal markets to chain
store warehouses to retail outlets. In affecting these developments,
we need to discard old traditional concepts of the numbers of product
units of weights that are packed in shipping containers. For example,
a head of lettuce probably doesn't care if it is packed with 19 or 23
other heads in a carton; tomatoes probably don't care if they are
packed 60 or 67 or 83 in a carton. We could go on ad infinitum with
such examples. Retail produce persons and consumers don't care about



the number of product units per container when the products are subse-
quently displayed at retail, especially if they are presented in bulk
displays. We can help retailers by developing the needed information
on the numbers and/or weights of product units in each modular
container size. This would help expedite the acceptance of such
modular containers by all segments of the fresh produce shipping, dis-
tribution and marketing industry. Some progress has already been made
along this line in Florida and more is planned, both in Florida and
other states. This total development offers realistic opportunities
to produce shipping, distribution, and marketing industries and their
allies in all countries to significantly contribute to better, more
efficient packaging at minimal cost, and with beneficial compromise.

Presently, industry is carrying most of the burden for this
development in the United States, whereas in many other countries
government is primarily responsible. In either case, the packaging
compromise involved can be beneficial to us all, and at reduced cost
for protection of fresh market horticultural commodities.



A. Closing Out The Spring Garden

The end of July brings to a close most spring vegetable gardens in
Florida. Of course, there will be some crops still hanging on and
these should be kept going as long as desired. However, many gardens
have become over-grown weed patches interspersed with bare stalks of
old bean, squash, pepper and tomato plants.

Closing down the spring vegetable garden is somewhat like packing
up to go home after a nice long vacation. It is certainly not as much
fun as getting started, but it has to be done.

1. Pull and destroy old, picked-over vegetable plants. They may
be cut into the soil and allowed to rot, but it is best to remove and
burn diseased plants.

2. Hoe, pull-up, and destroy the seasonal build-up of grasses and
weeds. Clean up around the edges of the garden also (along fences and

3. Remove, clean, and store reusable garden labels.

4. Remove, clean and store tomato stakes, cages, and other sup-
porting devices for future use.



5. Clean, dry, rollup, and store reusable plastic mulch. Salvage
other mulching materials wherever practicable.

6. Knock down old beds with a spade, plow, or rototiller; com-
pletely level the garden site.

7. Broadcast seeds of a cover crop over the entire plot and
lightly rake or otherwise work into the upper one to two inches of
soil surface. Among the best choices for summer cover crops in
Florida are southern peas and hairy indigo.

8. Gather up all tools and equipment; clean, oil, repair, and
store for the next season. Pay special attention to equipment with
moving parts such as sprayers, dusters, planters and power tools.

9. Return borrowed tools to neighbors (include a few of your
favorite canned vegetables).

10. Properly store unused portions of chemical pesticides and fer-
tilizers. Store only in original containers. Make sure labels are
legible and in good shape to be read later. Store in a clean, dry
place out of the reach of children. Follow all safety precautions.

11. Remove, drain and clean all irrigation equipment such as
hoses, sprinklers and trickle kits. Store for future use.

12. Unused portions of seeds may be saved by storing in refrigera-
tor or other cool, dry place. However, fresh new seeds often pay off,
especially when compared with improperly stored older seeds.

13. Gather all gardening literature and file for next season.

14. Take a few minutes to jot down observations of both good and
bad practices encountered reminders of things to do next time and
others to avoid (outstanding varieties, etc.).

15. Get the soil tested during the off-season if plant nutritional
imbalances were encountered or suspected.

16. Continue care and maintenance of the compost pile.

While these are not all of the things to be done at the end of a
garden season, they will help make the continuation of your gardening
experience more pleasant from one season to the next. There is not
much time to spare between the spring garden wind-down and the start
of the fall garden. So start thinking of plans for the next garden,
even as the last tool is stored away.




B. Early Growth Stages of Cabbage

Recent studies (Strandberg: FSHS Proc. 92:1979) have established
four distinct growth stages that cabbage goes through from seeding to
harvest. These stages were observed with the 'Rio Verde' variety
planted at Sanford, Florida. Seeds were sown October 16 in a seedbed;
from these seedlings, transplants were set out 42 days later on
November 27.

The four stages of growth detected and reported were:

Stage 1. Seeding beginning with emergence to the 5-6 leaf
stage. In this stage the cabbage plant is established. Leaves that
are produced during this stage do not reach a large size and are
usually dropped as the plant begins to form a head. In seedbeds,
severe competition and crowding from other plants slows growth near
the end of this stage.

Stage 2. Transplant beginning at the 5-6 leaf stage and lasting
through 6-8 leaf stage. Plants grow in size and new leaves begin to
form a horizontal rosette type of growth. If transplanted, the plant
may slow down in growth and development for 5-7 days during ideal con-
ditions longer if improperly transplanted or cared for.

Stage 3. Cupping Plants have formed the basic frame that will
support growth of the head. Leaves begin to enlarge and the first
upright leaves that will form the protective head wrapper leaves are
produced. Total plant size and mass increases rapidly. In this
cupping stage, the leaves that will appear on the harvested product
are developing so should be watched carefully for any needed protec-
tive action.

Stage 4. Heading the upright wrapper leaves enlarge and the
head begins to develop from the inside out. The leaves that will
become the outer head leaves curve over to cover the head. Like the
wrapper leaves, these will need to be protected. No more leaves are
evident because new ones are being produced from tissue inside the
head and will continue to be produced until the head is harvested.
This is a period of great enlargement of the cabbage plant.

An understanding of the developmental stages of growth of the
cabbage is helpful in determining both care and culture of this




C. Know Your Minor Vegetables Horseradish tree

While the horseradish tree (either Moringa oleifera or Moringa
pterygosperma) is not a true vegetable by definition, its parts are
used as a vegetable, justifying its inclusion here. The name derives
from the roots, which taste like horseradish and which are so used as
a substitute. It is also known as ben tree and coatli.

The flowers, shoots, and foliage are edible as "greens". Cattle
are particularly fond of them. Young pods are cooked in curries.
Seeds, which taste like peanuts when fried, are eaten, but they con-
tain an alkaloid, which limits their use. The unripe pods, known as
"susumber" or "drum sticks", are cut up and boiled like beans. They
are available from delicatessens in tins, but the outsides are ex-
tremely hard and woody and impossible to eat; one has to pick them up
and eat the mucilaginous inside and pips which are lightly hot and
delicious. Upon pressing, the seeds yield an oil called Ben oil
which is used by watchmakers, and by perfumers who extract fragrancies
from plants. This non-drying oil of ben is also used for oiling
machinery, as salad oil, and in soaps. The corky bark yields a gum
used in India to print calico.

The deciduous, dry-land tree is sometimes mistaken for a legume.
It has drooping branches with alternate, fern-like leaves, 9 to 24
inches long, divided two or three times, having many oval leaflets,
each less than an inch long. The one-inch wide white fragrant flowers
are borne in loose clusters in the leaf axils. The calyx is five-
parted; there are 5 petals, with the lower ones bent back; 10 stamens,
5 with anthers and 5 without. The pods are narrow, three to six
angled up to 18 inches long, containing a row of triangular dark brown
winged seeds. The flowers and bean pods are borne continuously on
this 25 foot tall tree.

The horseradish tree comes from eastern India, but is widely grown
as an ornamental in many tropical countries. In Mexico, it is known
as coatli. It is sometimes planted in southern Florida, (from Tampa
to Cocoa and south) where it is easily propagated from cuttings.


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $ 177.11 or 30 -
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical & educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs