Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: May 1980
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00160
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
re UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE

S VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


May 12, 1980

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


R.F. Kasmire
Visiting Professor


James Montelaro
Professor


Mark Sherman
Assistant Professor


R.K. Showalter
Professo'-


J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM. James 1. Stephens, Extension Vegetable Specialist

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 80-5

IN THIS ISSUE

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


Mark Sherman Joins Vegetable Crops Faculty
Slide-tape Sets on Vegetable Gardening
Vegetable Gardening Guide, Circular 104N


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Sandy Soils New Potentials With Full-bed Plastic Mulch Culture

III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


Sawdust in the Garden
Freezing Garden Surpluses
Know Your Minor Vegetables Capers


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
possible please give credit to the authors.


Whenever


dnd
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciencu s an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authored to provide mresn h,
educational Information and other rvicu only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to rae, color, sx, or national origin.
.COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Mark Sherman Joins Vegetable Crops Faculty

Mark Sherman has joined the Vegetable Crops faculty as Extension Specialist.
Mark will have state-wide responsibility for extenison programs in harvesting and
handling of vegetables. He will be working with agents to develop educational
programs, and with growers and shippers on postharvest problems.

Mark is a native of Illinois and received the B.S. and M.S. at Southern Illinois
University. He recently completed the Ph.D. in Vegetable Crops at Cornell University.
We are pleased to have Mark in the Department, and welcome he and his wife to Florida.

(Maynard)

B. Slide-tape Sets on Vegetable Gardening

By now all Florida counties should have received parts, I, II, and III of the
slide-tape series, "You Can Grow Vegetables". Each set has 80 slides and a cassette
tape with audible beeps on one side and inaudible beeps for automated playback on
the other. In addition to the copies you have received courtesy of the Rohm and
Haas Company, five copies of these sets are available for loan from the IFAS film
library. Concluding parts IV and V are almost complete and should be available
by late summer or fall.

If you are pleased with these sets and find them useful in your program, I know
our sponsor, Mr. Ed Boeckel, Rohm and Haas Co., would appreciate hearing from you.
His address is:

Mr. Edward Boeckel
Mgr SE Dist
Agricultural Chemicals Division
Rohm and Haas Co.
345 Whooping Loop Rd.
Altamonte Springs, FL 32701

(Stephens)

C. Vegetable Gardening Guide, Circular 104N

The "Vegetable Gardening Guide", Circular 104N, February 1980, has been
reprinted and is available again through the publications distribution center, IFAS.
The guide has a new look but is merely a reprint of the January 1979 Circular 104N.

(Stephens)





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Sandy Soils New Potentials with Full-bed Plastic Mulch Culture

Most of the salad crops produced in Florida over the past years have been grown
on the muck soils. These soils are fertile, retentive of moisture and nutrients
and generally lend themselves well to the production of these crops. The problem,
however, is that the supply of muck soil is limited and what is available is costly.
For that reason muckland vegetable growers are considering sandy soils for future
expansion. The switch is now considered to be a viable option simply because of
demonstrated success in the production of the salad crops under full-bed plastic
mulch culture. Problems in maintaining a uniform moisture and nutrient supply can
be eliminated for all practical purposes with full-bed plastic mulch.


This was shown clearly
attending the Immokalee ARC
of crisphead lettuce on two
without mulch. The results


in a report presented by Dr. Paul Everett to growers
Field Day recently. Dr. Everett, tested two varieties
planting dates at three fertilizer levels with and
are tabulated below:


Table 1. Effect of fertilizer rate and plastic mulch on the production of
two cultivars of head lettuce (January, 1980).


Fertilizer Mulch Cultivar
N-P205-K20 (+ or -) Shawnee Ithaca


Ib/A cwt/A heads/A Ib/head cwt/A heads/A Ib/head

100-40-145 + 567 26,086 2.2 582 25,361 2.3
375 26,086 1.4 360 26,086 1.4

150-40-175 + 610 25,361 2.4 598 24,636 2.4
370 26,086 1.4 414 26,086 1.6

200-40-268 + 555 24,636 2.2 630 24,636 2.6
372 26,086 1.4 427 26,086 1.6


Includes all marketable heads.




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Table 2.


Effect of fertilizer rates and plastic mulch on the production of
two cultivars of head lettuce (February, 1980).


Fertilizer Mulch Cultivar
N-P205K20 (+ or -) Shawnee Ithaca


Ib/A cwt/A heads/A Ib/head cwt/A heads/A Ib/head

100-40-145 + 526 23,187 2.3 518 20,289 2.6
167 7,971 2.1 197 8,695 2.3

150-40-175 + 574 23,187 2.5 552 21,738 2.5
208 10,144 2.1 232 10,144 2.3

200-40-268 + 528 21,738 2.4 581 21,738 2.7
193 8,695 2.2 262 11,594 2.3


includes heads weighing
Includes heads weighing


1.7 lb or over.


Dr. Everett summarized his work as follows:

"Table I shows the yield in hundred-weights/A, number of heads/A and the
average weight/head for all lettuce harvested regardless of head-weight. Neither
fertilizer rate nor cultivar had any significant effect on hundred-weights/A,
number heads/A or on average weight/head. Plastic mulch was very significant
in increasing the hundred-weights/A and the average weight/head but not the number
of heads/A. However, many of the heads from no-plastic plots were quite small.
This is shown in Table 2 where only the heads weighing 1.7 lb or more are considered.
Again, neither fertilizer rate nor cultivar had any significant effect, but the
use of plastic mulch resulted in a 2-3 fold increase in the yield of these larger
sized heads."

The differences in yield between mulched and unmulched treatments are truly
outstanding. Vegetable growers should note carefully that fertilizer rates were
not excessively high. In fact, the low rate produced a creditable yield and head
size.
'- *
We feel that full-bed plastic mulch culture on sandy soils is worthy of
consideration for other muck-grown crops besides crisphead lettuce. This list
includes all types of lettuce, endive, broccoli, cauliflower, and celery.


(Montelaro)






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


III. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Sawdust in the Garden

The use of sawdust as a soil amendment or as a garden mulch is an old-time
practice in Florida gardens. Yet there are many gardeners who are either unfamiliar
with its benefits or concerned with possible detrimental effects. Since there
is a considerable supply of sawdust in the state its use for gardens is discussed
here.

Most Florida garden soils are sandy and low in organic matter. Additions of
organic wastes generally improve the physical condition of these soils, whether
the wastes be animal manures, compost, plant materials, or other. Of all the
available organic materials, animal manures are still the favorite, closely followed
by compost. Wood products such as sawdust are used on 5% of all U.S. lands amended
with organic wastes.

Studies made in Florida (Locascio, Nettles, and Neller) and elsewhere have
shown that old rotted sawdust can be beneficial to vegetables in gardens if
utilized properly. However, reductions in yield often occur the first year after
sawdust application unless adequate nitrogen is also added.

In the Florida tests at Gainesville, eight-year-old pine sawdust was applied to
sandy soil at the rates of 0, 15, 25, 35, and 55 tons per acre. Included with the
sawdust were varying rates of nitrogen (from ammonium nitrate). Test crops were
sweet corn and potatoes. Additionally, the test crops were fertilized and limed
in the usual way and amounts.

The results of the tests showed that the sawdust did not greatly affect yields,
although there was a trend toward a slight reduction in yield in the first year.
This reduction was probably due to a lack of sufficient nitrogen to rot the sawdust.
Later, there was a definite increase in yields of sweet corn where the 55 tons of
sawdust were added as compared with no sawdust.

What was important from the test was that the humified soil organic matter
content could be increased through the use of sawdust without hurting yields soon
after application. Soil samples taken two cropping seasons after application showed
that where no sawdust was applied, the percent organic matter in the soil was 1.85%.
Where 55 tons per acre were added, the soil organic matter level was increased to
2.51%. Such an increase is of great benefit to plants in terms of water and
nutrient supply from irrigation, rainfall, liming, and fertilization.

In summary, pine sawdust, preferably that which is well rotted, can be beneficial
to Florida gardens if it is applied with sufficient amounts of nitrogen fertilizer.
Furthermore, sawdust which has been used as a mulch later may be turned into the soil.
Such continuous applications of sawdust after mulching each year improves the condition
of sandy soils by increasing the organic matter content so important to good crop
production. For best results, gardeners should apply and chop into the top six
inches of soil rotted sawdust at the rate of 1 to 2 1/2 pounds per square foot of
soil. Each application of sawdust should be accompanied by about one pound of
nitrogen per 100 square feet. The nitrogen fertilizer might be ammonium nitrate
at 3 pounds per square feet, or 10-10-10 at 10 pounds per 108 square feet.


(Stephens)




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Freezing Garden Surpluses

May is the major "pay-off" month for most Florida vegetable gardens. Looking
at the Florida Extension Planting Guide, one can see that the average duration
period between seeding and harvesting ranges from 50 to 90 days for spring planted
vegetables. Since March is the major planting month, this brings May into focus
as the main month for harvesting. Harvest generally continues well into June,
then drops off sharply by late June.

Even in small gardens, surpluses of fresh vegetables are commonly encountered.
Homeowners with freezer space can reap extra benefits from the surpluses of their
own and neighbors' gardens. Learning to freeze vegetables is easy and helps to
feed the family during the off-season.

While freezing is an energy-dependent method of food preservation, it still is
very economically feasible. Costs of owning and operating a home freezer vary
with the rate of turnover of foods, costs of electricity and packaging materials,
and the original price of the freezer.


Table 1. Approximate Yield
HGTO).


of Frozen Vegetables from Fresh as Picked (USDA Bul.


Vegetable


Fresh Amount


Fs uFrn7n Amnintc


Bean, Lima (pods)


Bean, snap


Beet greens


Beet roots


1 bu. (32 Ibs.) pods
2 to 2 1/2 lbs. pods

1 bu. (30 Ibs.)
2/3 to 1 Ib.

15 Ibs.
1 to 1 1/2 lb.

1 bu. (52 lbs.)
1 1/4 to 1 1/2 lb.


12 to 16 pts. shelled
1 pt.

30 to 45 pts.
1 pt.


10-15 pts.
1 pt.


35 to 42 pts.
1 pt.


Broccoli 1 crate (25 Ibs.)
1 lb.
Carrot roots 1 bu. (50 Ibs.)
1 1/4 to 1 1/2 Ibs.
Cauliflower 2 med. heads
1 1/3 lb.


24 pts.
1 pt.


32 to 40 pts.
1 pt.


3 pts.
1 pt.


Chard


Collard


Corn, sweet (in husks)


Ka le


1 bu. (12 lbs.)
1 to 1 1/2 lbs.

1 bu. (12 Ibs.)
1 to 1 1/2 lb.

1 bu. (35 lbs.)
2 to 2 1/2 lbs.

1 bu. (18 Ibs.)
1 to 1 1/2 lb.


8 to 12 pts.
1 pt.

8 to 12 pts.
1 pt.

14 to 17 pts.
1 pt.

12 to 18 pts.
1 pt.


Frozen Amounts






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Vegetable Fresh Amount Frozen Amounts
Peas, English (pods) 1 bu. (30 lbs.) 12 to 15 pts.
2 to 2 1/2 lbs. 1 pt.

Peppers 43 Ibs. (3 peppers) 1 pt.

Pumpkin 3 lb. 2 pt.

Spinach 1 bu. (18 Ibs.) 12 to 18 pts.
1 to 1 1/2 Ibs. 1 pt.

Squash, summer 1 bu. (40 Ibs.) 32 to 40 pts.
1 to 1 1/4 lb. 1 pt.

Squash, winter 3 Ibs. 2 pts.

Sweet potatoes 2/3 lb. 1 pt.


The table will help you figure the amount of frozen food you can get from a
given amount of a fresh vegetable. The number of pints of frozen vegetables you
get depends on the quality, condition, maturity, and variety and on the way the
vegetable is trimmed and cut.
(Stephens)


C. Know Your Minor Vegetables Capers

Capers are unopened flower buds produced on the caper-bush (Capparis spinosa
L.). The shrubby perennial plant grows 3 to 5 feet high, with numerous branches,
bearing a pair of hooked spines at the base of each leaf-stalk. Leaves are
alternate, round to ovate, thick, and glistening. Flowers are about two inches in
diameter, white with numerous violet stamens, very pleasing in effect. Seeds are
large, kidney shaped, and gray-brown in color. There is also a variety without
spines, from which the crop is gathered more easily and without danger of injury
to the hands.

The capers are picked daily, for the youngest flower-buds, about the size of
peas, are the highest quality. Capers are valued in proportion to the smallness of
their size. They are pickled in vinegar, sometimes salted vinegar. Both the capers
and the young berries are used in sauces and pickling, primarily by Europeans.

Caper-bush is native to the Mediterranean region where it is still grown
commercially. Little if any is grown in the U.S., even in home gardens. Capers
going to Britain and other European countries generally are grown in Spain and
Africa. Southern Russia was a major exporter at one time. In Northern Africa
the most commonly used caper is the Timbuctoo caper (Capparis sodala). A popular
South African caper is Capparis corymbifera.

Culture of Capers Little is known about the culture of Capers in the U.S.
and Florida. The literature indicates that the caper-bush can only be cultivated




THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

profitably in the climate of the olive tree, where it is almost always planted in
dry stony places, on embankments, and other positions difficult to utilize in other
ways. In England, it has been grown with difficulty and had to be protected from
cold.

Caper-bush can be propagated from seed, but finding a seed source is very
difficult. A search of the U.S. herb and vegetable seed catalogs has revealed no
mention of capers. Anyone in Florida who finds a start might have luck growing it
in a large pot using crumbled brick or other coarse material.

(Stephens)


Caper-bush


Statement: "This public document was promulgated at a cost of $16o.15 or 28 t
per copy, for the purpose of communicating current technical and educational material
to extension, research and industry personnel.




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